Title: A generic model for creativity and innovation: overview for early phases of engineering design

Authors: Anja-Karina Pahl, Linda Newnes, Chris McMahon

Addresses: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre, The University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. ' Department of Mechanical Engineering, Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre, The University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. ' Department of Mechanical Engineering, Innovative Manufacturing Research Centre, The University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK

Abstract: This paper explores how |creativity| and |innovation| are most usefully modelled for the modern design context invariably consisting of conflicting technical, economical, organisational and social demands. Section 2 summarises the experiences and observations of engineers and the most comprehensive theories of creativity and innovation proposed by psychologists and educators, which set the stage for a generic model. Section 3 evaluates and synthesises the scope and use of over 100 commercially available tools to enhance creativity and innovation. We place this in the context of the |processes of creating| outlined in the psychological literature as well as those generally accepted to lead to internationally competitive outcomes in engineering, business, sociology and literature, among others. The series of tables defines a preliminary Taxonomy of Tools to enable potential users to clarify how and where additional information or help should be solicited, to streamline any stage of engineering design. Section 4 elucidates a |process of creating| as a generic model, which illustrates how contradictory input data become novel outcomes in processes that co-evolve the bodies of knowledge on both sides of a problem–solution equation. The model, in contrast to previous theories, is not vague – apparent contradictions between design demands can be resolved in precise steps, as long as the starting point of all actors/stakeholders is made coincident.

Keywords: co-evolution; creativity; engineering design; generic model; innovation; design process; design research.

DOI: 10.1504/JDR.2007.015561

Journal of Design Research, 2007 Vol.6 No.1/2, pp.5 - 44

Available online: 29 Oct 2007 *

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