Title: Ease of doing entrepreneurship: resilience during disruption and recovery in the recession 2009-2010 and the pandemic 2020-2021

Authors: Ye Liu; Ayman Ismail; Ana Fernández-Laviada

Addresses: Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China ' American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt ' Santander Financial Institute (SANFI), Universidad de Cantabria-Fundación UCEIF, Santander, Cantabria, Spain

Abstract: Entrepreneurial endeavouring has been disrupted and recovered, albeit differently across societies. Resilience has been found to be promoted by institutions, especially the economy. The question is, during disruption and recovery, are institutions providing resilience for sustaining ease of starting a business? We analyse national-level effects on changing ease of starting in 202 national-level disruptions and recoveries during the recession, disruption around 2009 and recovery around 2010 and during the pandemic, disruption around 2020 and recovery around 2021. Furthermore, we analyse individual-level effects on 101,616 entrepreneurs' assessments in the four years. Change in ease of starting was more benign during the pandemic than during the recession, and more benign during recovery than during disruption. Among institutions, economic growth and the informal institution of entrepreneurialism were both bases for resilience promoting change in ease of starting. The findings contribute to contextualising enterprising as shaped by societal conditions sustaining resilience during disruption and recovery.

Keywords: ease of starting; entrepreneurship; resilience; crisis; disruption; recovery; great recession; pandemic; COVID-19; cross-national; comparative.

DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2024.137351

European Journal of International Management, 2024 Vol.22 No.4, pp.592 - 615

Accepted: 08 Jun 2023
Published online: 13 Mar 2024 *

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