Title: Application of the water cascade analysis technique for water minimisation in a paper mill plant

Authors: Zainuddin Abdul Manan, Yin Ling Tan, Dominic Chwan Yee Foo, Swee Yin Tea

Addresses: Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. ' School of Engineering and Science, Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak Campus Malaysia, CDT 250, 98009, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia. ' School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham (Malaysia Campus), Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. ' Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Abstract: The Water Cascade Analysis (WCA) technique was used to identify opportunities for reduction in freshwater usage as well as wastewater generation and to assist in the retrofit of an existing paper mill water distribution network. This procedure involves three key steps; i.e., a global analysis of the present water distribution and consumption, setting the baseline minimum water targets using WCA technique and retrofit of water network to achieve the minimum water targets. Notwithstanding the extensive water recycling currently employed in the paper mill, this study identified a potential scope of reducing 13.3% freshwater and 13.3% wastewater. Water reduction represents a total potential annual savings of RM 595,232, taking into account the raw water and wastewater treatment costs, pumping and chemical costs.

Keywords: water minimisation; freshwater targets; wastewater targets; pinch analysis; water cascade analysis; water cascade target; WCT; retrofit; paper mills; water distribution network; environmental pollution; pollution prevention.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2007.012798

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2007 Vol.29 No.1/2/3, pp.90 - 103

Published online: 15 Mar 2007 *

Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article