Open Access Article

Title: Organisational resources as facilitators and inhibitors of green performance: non-linearities, interactions and international differences

Authors: Gayani M. Ranasinghe; Yuosre F. Badir; Björn Frank

Addresses: Department of Industrial Management, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Kuliyapitiya 60200, Sri Lanka ' School of Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand ' Faculty of Commerce, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishi-Waseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Abstract: While firms face pressure to improve their green (i.e., environmental) performance, little is known about how adapting their resources can help them to more successfully implement green practices and improve their green performance. Drawing on the resource-based view, this study develops novel hypotheses about the effects of a firm's non-financial and financial resources on its green performance. These hypotheses are tested with hierarchical linear modelling of international, multi-source objective data. Regarding non-financial resources, this study finds a U-shaped effect of female board-of-directors representation on green performance, which is moderated by the directors' education level. Moreover, the directors' education level positively influences green performance in Asian countries, but not in Western countries. Regarding financial resources, financial slack and R&D intensity exert non-linear effects on green performance. These original findings help firms to maximise their green performance by resource adjustments, and help public policy makers spread knowledge to develop their economy sustainably.

Keywords: green performance; female board representation; board education; financial slack; R&D intensity; international differences.

DOI: 10.1504/EJIM.2021.10038238

European Journal of International Management, 2022 Vol.18 No.1, pp.154 - 184

Received: 29 Oct 2020
Accepted: 12 Apr 2021

Published online: 04 Jul 2022 *