Title: A novel geo-opportunistic routing algorithm for adaptive transmission in underwater internet of things

Authors: Turki Ali Alghamdi; Zahoor Ali Khan; Nadeem Javaid

Addresses: Department of Computer Science, College of Computer and Information Systems, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 21955, Saudi Arabia ' Computer Information Science, Higher Colleges of Technology, Fujairah, 4114, UAE ' School of Computer Science, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, 2007, Australia; Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan

Abstract: Localisation of sensors in underwater internet of things (UIoTs) is difficult due to the mobility. This changing makes the routing decisions difficult, which results in unreliable communication. This paper proposes adaptive transmission-based geographic and opportunistic routing (ATGOR) protocol for reliable communication between nodes. ATGOR operates in two parts: election of a small cube to avoid redundant transmissions and selection of reliable nodes which forward data from the selected small cube for optimal transmissions. Furthermore, to guarantee the reliability of the data packets in a harsh acoustic environment, we propose mobility aware ATGOR (MA-ATGOR), which predicts the locations of neighbouring sensor nodes for successful data delivery. In addition, prediction of tthe locations of the sensor nodes helps in avoiding the void holes along with high packet delivery. The performance of the proposed routing protocols is validated based on the PDR, number of void nodes and energy consumption per packet, through simulations.

Keywords: underwater internet of things; UIoTs; adaptive transmission; void hole; geographic and opportunistic routing; mobility prediction.

DOI: 10.1504/IJWGS.2022.123679

International Journal of Web and Grid Services, 2022 Vol.18 No.3, pp.266 - 296

Received: 27 Apr 2021
Accepted: 07 Jul 2021

Published online: 30 Jun 2022 *

Full-text access for editors Full-text access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article