Title: Gender and exposure differences in entrepreneurial attitudes of Indian university students

Authors: Dennis Barber III; Suhail M. Ghouse; Shanan G. Gibson; Michael L. Harris

Addresses: Miller School of Entrepreneurship, College of Business, East Carolina University, 1100 Bate Building, Greenville, NC 27858-4353, USA ' Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, College of Commerce and Business Administration, Dhofar University, A'Sadah, Salalah-211, Oman ' Department of Management, Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011, USA ' College of Business, East Carolina University, 1200A Bate Building, Greenville, NC 27858-4353, USA

Abstract: The process of entrepreneurship has undergone rapid changes in India. This includes a large IT segment driving the process and structural industry changes. The inclusion of women as entrepreneurs has generally been slow in India for several reasons. This study provides individual level data on the entrepreneurial attitudes of students in India and how gender and entrepreneurial exposure are related to these attitudes. Exposure was measured through previous work exposure, familial exposure or previous small business ownership. Entrepreneurial attitudes of 127 young adults at a university in India were measured with the entrepreneurial attitudes orientation (EAO) survey instrument which is comprised of four subscales. The Indian males scored higher on all four subscales and the overall EAO score than their female counterparts. Of the three types of exposure only directly working with a small business in the past was associated with statistically significantly higher entrepreneurial attitudes.

Keywords: entrepreneurial attitudes; gender; entrepreneurship; exposure; India.

DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2021.119728

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2021 Vol.44 No.4, pp.435 - 451

Received: 22 Jan 2019
Accepted: 14 Mar 2019

Published online: 17 Dec 2021 *

Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article