Authors: Arjun Sanjay Paul; N.L. Panwar
Addresses: Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan, 313001, India ' Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan, 313001, India
Abstract: India generates approximately 500 million tons of agricultural crop residues per year. This crop residue (waste) can be converted into fuel by using thermo-chemical and bio-chemical conversion routes. Thermo-chemical conversion routes mainly include gasification, pyrolysis, and liquefaction. In recent years, the pyrolysis technology for the production of bio-oil is gaining attention globally, due to its simple and efficient conversion techniques. This paper provides the updated review of bio-oil production mainly from agricultural crop residues and focuses on the different bio-oil production techniques such as fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction; the reactor used for bio-oil production, properties, and application of bio-oil. The bio-oil produced from agricultural residues has a heating value of between 17-21 MJ/kg, exactly half of the diesel fuel. The properties of bio-oil showed the potential ability to be used as fuel in many applications such as boiler, furnaces, and diesel engines.
Keywords: bio-oil; crop residues; fluidised bed reactor; fast pyrolysis; hydrothermal liquefaction; HTL.
International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 2021 Vol.20 No.3/4, pp.301 - 315
Received: 21 Dec 2019
Accepted: 14 Oct 2020
Published online: 23 Jul 2021 *