Title: Integration of time information and temporal conformance graphics in map displays for navigation with space-time obligation

Authors: Chang-Geun Oh; Jennie J. Gallimore; Pamela Tsang

Addresses: Kent State University, Aeronautics Academic Center 125C, 4020 Kent Road, Stow, OH 44224, USA ' Bowling Green State University, 204 Technology Building, Bowling Green, OH 43403-0001, USA ' Wright State University, Fawcett Hall 312C, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy, Dayton, OH 45435-0001, USA

Abstract: Design strategies on the display for navigation with multiple time obligations are developed and tested using a public bus application. The map display has a current time indicator and scheduled/estimated arrival time data at multiple bus stops. Two different time formats were applied to the time data at the bus stops: exact time at each stop and duration until them. Graphics symbols indicating earliness or lateness to ordinary scheduled time were also developed and tested. Under the four manipulated map types, experimenters asked participants eight different types of questions about space and/or time status. The experimenters then evaluated the response time and accuracy of produced answers. The response times were shorter or similar when the time formats corresponded questions. The workload rating and participants' feedback showed an advantage of duration format and the temporal conformance graphics.

Keywords: navigation; space-time obligation; map display; temporal conformance; situation awareness; proximity compatibility; exact time vs. duration; text vs. graphics.

DOI: 10.1504/IJHFE.2021.116069

International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 2021 Vol.8 No.2, pp.105 - 141

Received: 12 Feb 2020
Accepted: 27 Nov 2020

Published online: 07 Jul 2021 *

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