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Title: Modelling traumatic brain injury in pedestrian involved in backover collisions

Authors: Atsutaka Tamura; King H. Yang

Addresses: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori, Tottori 680-8552, Japan ' Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA

Abstract: Backover collisions causing Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) are underreported, and its severity may have been overlooked and underestimated. We conducted a series of pedestrian impact simulations involving backover collisions with a reversing vehicle, at a low speed of 10 km/h, to determine the risk of sustaining severe TBIs. Our modelling studies revealed a significant risk despite the 'moderate' impact configuration applied. By systematically performing injury analyses based on selected mechanical parameters, we found that TBI risk involved in primary head strike with a striking vehicle was almost negligible because of the low-speed collision, but significant injuries result from ground impact. Our study also demonstrated that pedestrians are potentially at a greater risk for TBI when struck by a Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) than a conventional sedan, because the impact energy would be effectively transmitted from the SUV via its flat rear surface with a steep angle.

Keywords: TBI; traumatic brain injury; pedestrian; backover collision; reversing vehicle; ground impact.

DOI: 10.1504/IJVS.2020.109271

International Journal of Vehicle Safety, 2020 Vol.11 No.3, pp.229 - 246

Received: 01 Jul 2019
Accepted: 15 Apr 2020

Published online: 28 Aug 2020 *

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