Title: The water profile and the policies that need to be developed for the promotion of wastewater reuse in the Mediterranean countries: the case of Cyprus, Jordan and Lebanon

Authors: D. Fatta, S. Anayiotou, I. Arslan-Alaton, G.M. Ayoub, M. Mohammad Rusan, K.M. Hameed, M. Loizidou

Addresses: Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos, Nicosia 1678, Cyprus. ' Epsilon Consulting Ltd., P.O. Box 26792, 1647 Nicosia, Cyprus. ' Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey. ' Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut, Lebanon. ' Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Jordan University of Science and Technology. ' Department of Plant Production, Jordan University of Science and Technology. ' School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Abstract: The continued population growth, the contamination of both surface water and groundwater, the uneven distribution of water resources and periodic droughts have forced the water agencies to search for new sources of water supply. Use of highly treated wastewater effluents, now discharged to the environment from municipal wastewater treatment plants, is receiving more attention as a reliable water resource. In many countries, water reuse is already an important element in water resources planning and implementation. Nevertheless, the sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse is a continuous challenge. In the following paper, an overview is made for some of the Mediterranean countries in regards to water resources, wastewater treatment and reuse, the aim being to determine the problems associated with them and to reveal ways to promote wastewater reuse for irrigation purposes.

Keywords: Mediterranean countries; water resources; wastewater treatment; wastewater reuse; irrigation; water plans; water policies; Cyprus; Jordan; Lebanon;water scarcity; municipal wastewaters.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2006.010873

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2006 Vol.28 No.1/2, pp.45 - 56

Published online: 11 Sep 2006 *

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