Title: Potential for wastewater reclamation and reuse in Lebanon

Authors: G.M. Ayoub, D. Chammas

Addresses: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. ' Petrofac Int. Ltd., King Faisal Road, Sharjah 23467, UAE

Abstract: Eleven major wastewater treatment plants are planned for construction along the sea coast of Lebanon to handle the flow from the major urban centres. The plants are expected to generate approximately 640,000 m3 of treated sewage daily, and the effluent is planned to be disposed into the sea. In the light of the water deficiency that the country would be facing in the coming years, the reuse of the treated water for irrigation, industrial usages, recreational purposes, and in combating problems resulting from seawater intrusion along the Lebanese coast warranted further analysis. The work encompassed a detailed planning and management study on water reuse in the country, and optimal solutions were recommended based on technical, economic, environmental, and social feasibility studies. The study showed that of the optimised alternatives reuse could prove to be more economical, and procure more environmental benefits than the sea disposal practice.

Keywords: wastewater reuse; wastewater reclamation; feasibility studies; Lebanon; water scarcity; urban wastewater.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2006.010871

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2006 Vol.28 No.1/2, pp.16 - 32

Published online: 11 Sep 2006 *

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