Title: A comparative approach to national innovative capacity in the long-run: Spain between Europe and Latin America

Authors: José M. Ortiz-Villajos

Addresses: Department of Applied and Structural Economics and History, Faculty of Economics, Complutense University of Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain

Abstract: This article explores the evolution of the Spanish innovative capacity from the 19th century to the present day compared to some countries in Western Europe and Latin America. To this end, three indicators have been used: patents granted in the USA, domestic patent applications in each country, and scientific publications. The first appears to be, within its limitations, the best measure of national innovative capacity, although the other two provide valuable complementary information. The study reveals that Spain has significantly improved its innovative capacity over time, although it still lags far behind the most innovative countries. On the other hand, Argentina and Mexico were ahead of Spain in the first half of the twentieth century, but today Spain has an innovative capacity several times greater than that of the two Latin American countries. In fact, Argentina and Mexico seem to have reversed their innovative capacity over time.

Keywords: innovative capacity; patents; scientific publications; Spain; Europe; Latin America.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTLID.2020.108639

International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 2020 Vol.12 No.1, pp.71 - 91

Received: 24 Feb 2020
Accepted: 11 Apr 2020

Published online: 15 Jul 2020 *

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