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Title: Mixed migration flows into Europe: discharging state anti-trafficking obligations through the proper identification of trafficking victims

Authors: Tenia Kyriazi; Daphne Demetriou

Addresses: Middlesex University Dubai, Block 16, Knowledge Village, Dubai, UAE ' Middlesex University Dubai, Block 16, Knowledge Village, Dubai, UAE

Abstract: The mixed migration flows continuously moving towards Europe test the social stability and sustainability of European states, thus rendering imperative the adoption and implementation of revised measures and action plans to protect effectively the individuals involved and comprehensively address any criminality relating to this movement. Most of these displaced persons are bearers of rights, triggering state obligations, with some belonging to the category of human trafficking victims, and as such entitled to a special protection regime. Part 1 explores the challenges European states face in fulfilling the core anti-trafficking obligations, within the specific context of the current mixed migration flow, arguing that identification is the cornerstone for the successful discharge of all these obligations, as well as the most challenging task in the current 'migrant crisis' context. Part 2 then endeavours to establish some clearer parameters for the identification of trafficking victims, who qualify as such at the outset, as well as to delineate some indicators of vulnerable individuals, who can potentially become trafficking victims after arrival.

Keywords: human trafficking; mixed migration; anti-trafficking obligations; Mediterranean routes; migrant crisis; victim identification.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSSOC.2020.105008

International Journal of Sustainable Society, 2020 Vol.12 No.1, pp.76 - 92

Received: 03 Oct 2018
Accepted: 29 Mar 2019

Published online: 07 Feb 2020 *

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