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Title: Applying WRF-CMAQ models for assessment of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in Bulgaria for the years 2016 and 2017

Authors: Dimiter Syrakov; Maria Prodanova; Emilia Georgieva; Elena Hristova

Addresses: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 66, Tsarigradskoshose Blvd, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria ' National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 66, Tsarigradskoshose Blvd, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria ' National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 66, Tsarigradskoshose Blvd, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria ' National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 66, Tsarigradskoshose Blvd, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria

Abstract: Wet, dry and total depositions of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) in Bulgaria are simulated on an annual and seasonal basis for the years 2016 and 2017 using WRF-CMAQ (9 km grid resolution). The mean annual values for wet depositions are about 1,300 kg.km–2, the dry depositions are slightly lower for S and significantly lower for N (180 kg.km–2). The highest modelled wet depositions are in the western and south-western parts of the country, the highest dry depositions – in the northern and eastern parts. The comparison for the wet depositions at three sites with precipitation chemistry data indicates overestimation. A precipitation bias adjustment applied to the modelled depositions results in decrease of the normalised mean bias by a factor of 3. Comparison to modelled deposition data from literature for this region of the country is also provided.

Keywords: WRF-CMAQ; precipitation chemistry; Bulgaria; comparison; bias adjustment; nitrogen; sulphur; deposition; environmental pollution.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2019.104523

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2019 Vol.66 No.1/2/3, pp.162 - 186

Received: 15 May 2018
Accepted: 09 Jan 2019

Published online: 16 Jan 2020 *

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