Open Access Article

Title: Bilateral multi-issue negotiation of execution contexts by proactive document agents

Authors: Jerzy Kaczorek; Bogdan Wiszniewski

Addresses: The University of Computer Science and Skills, Lodz, Poland ' Department of Intelligent Interactive Systems, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland

Abstract: A proactive document can react to its actual environment by autonomously selecting and performing actions integrated into its body and interact with its user. When migrating over a network of execution devices it may encounter diverse execution contexts, each one set up according to temporal characteristics of a receiving device and preferences of its owner. A concept to augment proactive documents with negotiation capability is proposed - to make them responsive to such dynamically changing contexts, and implemented in a system, where they can migrate as attachments to e-mail messages, owing to a dedicated e-mail client capable of handling them. Negotiation is based on a simple game-theoretic mechanism to minimise computation load on execution devices. Four negotiation algorithms are proposed and two of them evaluated in more detail in a series of experiments, when respectively, negotiating parties do not or do have knowledge on past encounters and negotiated contracts.

Keywords: proactive documents; dynamic execution contexts; mobile agents; ad hoc collaborative processes.

DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2019.103132

International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing, 2019 Vol.32 No.3, pp.180 - 196

Received: 27 Nov 2017
Accepted: 15 Jun 2018

Published online: 21 Oct 2019 *