International Journal of Space-Based and Situated Computing (12 papers in press)
Design and Implementation of Hiding Method for File Manipulation of Essential Services by System Call Proxy using Virtual Machine Monitor
by Masaya Sato, Hideo Taniguchi, Toshihiro Yamauchi
Abstract: Security or system management software is essential for keeping systems
secure. If these essential services are stopped or disabled by attackers, damages to the
system increase. Therefore, protecting essential services is crucial for preventing and
mitigating attacks. To deter attacks on essential services, hiding information related to
essential services is helpful. This paper describes design and implementation of a method
to make files invisible to all services except their corresponding essential services and
provides access methods to those files in a virtual machine (VM) environment. The
proposed method consists of interposition and proxy execution of the system call function.
In the proposed method, the virtual machine monitor (VMM) monitors system calls
invoked in a protection target VM. If an essential process invokes system calls related to
file manipulation, the VMM interposes the system call and collects information from the
protection target VM. If the file is an essential file, the VMM requests proxy execution
to the proxy VM on another VM. After proxy-execution of the system call, the proxy
process returns the result to the VMM. Finally, the VMM returns the result and skips the
execution of the original system call on the protection target VM. Thus, access to essential files by the essential service is skipped on the protection target VM, but the essential service can access the file content. With this mechanism, it is difficult for attackers to monitor access to essential files. In this paper, we describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of the proposed method.
Keywords: Virtual Machine Monitor; File Manipulation; System Call Proxy; Essential Services.
Scalable Distributed Collaborative Editing for 3D Models using Conflict-Free Data Structure
by Kengo Imae, Naohiro Hayashibara
Abstract: Consistent maintenance in collaborative editing is one of the most important problems in distributed systems. rnSo many papers have proposed various approaches to this issue, but most of them are for documents, and there are a few for 3D models. rnWe propose a data structure, called ChainVoxel, and operations on it for scalable distributed collaborative editing systems for 3D models. It is based on the conflict-free replicated data type (CRDT). ChainVoxel is implemented by a chained hash table for collision resolution while editing by multiple users. It guarantees the eventual consistency for updating a shared 3D model without mutual exclusion. rnWe analyzed our prototype regarding the size of ChainVoxel and the number of operations. rnWe also conducted simulations to compare our prototype with a consensus based implementation. Our prototype shows the scalability regarding the number of messages and steps for executing operations.rn
Keywords: Collaborative editing; 3D models; Conflict-free data structure; Scalability; Performance comparison;.
An analysis method for eye motion and eye blink detection from color images around ocular region
by Shogo Matsuno, Naoaki Itakura, Tota Mizuno
Abstract: This paper examines an analysis and measurement method that to aim to involve incorporating eye motion and eye blink as functions of an eye-based human-computer interface. Proposed method has been achieved by analyzing the visible-light images captured without using special equipment, in order to make the eye-controlled input interface independent of gaze-position measurement. Specifically, we propose two algorithms, one for detecting eye motion using optical flow and the other for classifying voluntary eye blinks using changes of eye aperture areas. In addition, we tried evaluating experiment both detection algorithms simultaneously assuming application to input interface. The two algorithms were examined for applicability in an eye-based input interface. As a result of experiments, real-time detection of each eye motion and eye blink could be performed with an accuracy of about 80% on average.
Keywords: eye tracking; eye motion detection; eye blink; user interface; gesture input.
Mobile Relay Assisted Dynamic Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks
by Nishi Gupta, Satbir Jain
Abstract: One of the most used networks is the Wireless Sensor Network. Such networks sense the environment and collect data when an event occurs. This data is transmitted to the base station, called the sink for analysis and decision regarding any action required. Sensor nodes sense events and forward data to the sink. This transmission is an energy consuming task and sensor networks are generally energy constraint. Hierarchical approach of using cluster heads has proven to be a good method to deal with this energy crisis and results in better performance of the network in terms of connectivity and communication. Routing algorithm chooses an optimal route from the sensor nodes to the sink for actual data delivery. This paper introduces a mobile relay node in the clustering scheme to enhance the performance of the network by maintaining the clusters and reducing the re-clustering overhead.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Clustering; Overhead; Relay; Connectivity; Lifetime; Energy Efficiency.
Study on Effective Practical Training with Multiple Large-scale Display Systems in Elementary and Secondary Education
by Yasuo Ebara, Hiroshi Hazama
Abstract: To promote ICT (Information Communication Technology) utilization in the practical training of industry subjects in elementary and secondary education, we consider that it is important to discuss the effective utilization method of large-scale display systems. In this paper, we studied on effective practical training by utilizing multiple large-scale display systems in conjunction with the interface for screen operation that was developed as part of this study. In this approach, we constructed multiple large-scale display environments using the interface for screen operation in combination with the SAGE2 (Scalable Amplied Group Environment). Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of this display environment, we tried the simulated practical training with a teacher using this display environment. As the results, we showed that, by combining the interface for screen operation and multiple display systems, this environment has excellent potential to facilitate effective practical training.
Keywords: Elementary and Secondary Education; Wearable Interface; Large-scale display; Practical Training.
Enhancements of Minimax Access-Point Setup Optimization Approach for IEEE 802.11 WLAN
by Soe Lwin Kyaw, Nobuo Funabiki, Ismael Munene Kwenga
Abstract: As a flexible and cost-efficient Internet access network, the IEEE 802.11 wireless local-area network (WLAN) has been broadly deployed around the world. Previously, to improve the IEEE 802.11n WLAN performance, we proposed the four-step minimax access-point (AP) setup optimization approach: 1) link throughputs between the AP and hosts in the network field are measured manually, 2) the throughput estimation model is tuned using the measurement results, 3) the bottleneck host suffering the least throughput is estimated using this model, and 4) the AP setup is optimized to maximize the throughput of the bottleneck host. Unfortunately, this approach has drawbacks: 1) a lot of manual throughput measurements are necessary to tune the model, 2) the shift of the AP location is not considered, and 3) IEEE 802.11ac devices at 5 GHz are not evaluated, although they can offer faster transmissions. In this paper, we present the three enhancements: 1) the number of measurement points is reduced while keeping the model accuracy, 2) the coordinate of the AP setup is newly adopted as the optimization parameter, and 3) the AP device with IEEE 802.11ac at 5GHz is considered with slight modifications. The effectiveness is confirmed by extensive experiments in three network fields.
Keywords: Wireless local area network; access point setup; throughput estimationrnmodel; parameter optimization; MIMO.
On the target channel sequence selection for multiple handoffs in cognitive radio-based wireless regional area networks
by Nitin Gupta, Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Isaac Woungang, Joel J.P.C. Rodrigues
Abstract: In cognitive radio networks, handoff occurs when an unlicensed spectrum user has to switch to a new target channel from its current operating channel which a secondary user was using opportunistically. This situation raises whenever either the licensed primary user appears again or the channel's condition get worst. Substantial sensing time can be saved if a secondary user can make a proactive decision about selecting the future vacant target channel to resume the unfinished transmission before starting its transmission. This paper proposes a novel target channel sequence selection scheme for cognitive radio networks, which minimises the estimated service time of a secondary user by reducing the multiple handoffs. A non-iterative algorithm is implemented, which does not require the use of an exhaustive search technique as usual to determine the target channel sequence. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms both the random scheme and a considered benchmark scheme in terms of service time, cumulative handoff delay and throughput achieved by the secondary user.
Keywords: IEEE 802.22 WRAN; cognitive radio; multiple handoffs; total service time; handoff delay; discrete Markov chain; artificial neural network; ANN.
Location-based applications, services and technologies in aid of flight planning and GPS-based navigation for visual flight rules in developing countries: with a case study
by Ermir Rogova, Arianit Maraj, Blerat Ukaj
Abstract: General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to corporate business jet flights. The majority of the world's air traffic falls into this category which covers a large range of activities, both commercial and non-commercial. As such, general aviation plays an important role in the economic development. This paper treats the importance of VFR flight planning while using a navigational database, navigation points, restricted zones, obstacles, positioning, air speed and routes based on global positioning system (GPS). It provides an overview of a spatial database for flight planning and registration of navigational coordinates. The paper continues with an analysis of the planning process and the impact of an e-system for flight planning and navigation safety during VFR flights in Kosovo airspace. The practical implementation of this paper will result in the development of a bespoke software application for planning electronic flights.
Keywords: visual flight rules; VFR; navigation; global positioning unit; GPS; general aviation; location-based applications.
Special Issue on: Advanced Technologies for Next-Generation Communications and Networked Applications
Introduction to content centric network architectures replacing traditional location centric network
by Tetsuya Shigeyasu
Abstract: Nowadays, internet has became most important infrastructure used by the population over the 38.8 billion. The internet is the inseparable from our daily life. The internet based on such location centric communication, however, may induces high risk of network congestion and network service down due to network traffic dominated by contents delivery and multimedia applications. Then, the concept of content centric network (CCN) or information centric network (ICN) has been attracting the attention to resolve the problems under the location based network architecture. This paper explains the overview of the overview of network architectures based on CCN concept in order to help researchers developing well suited next-generation CCN-based network architectures.
Keywords: content centric network; CCN; host centric network; in-network caching; caching algorithm.
Design and evaluation of a utility tool for recorded class B AIS data in an unstable maritime environment
by Misako Urakami, Hisaya Motogi, Tomohiro Sunada, Kenshiro Okamura, Takayuki Watanabe, Nobukazu Wakabayashi
Abstract: We focus on the automatic identification system (AIS), which is a probe data system. Some researchers propose using this system not only to support ship handling, such as through collision avoidance, but also in other ways, such as for navigation time analysis, accident tracing, or navigation management by administrators on land. Therefore, we focus on the importance of obtaining more marine ship position information, including that for a small ship using class B AIS, to enrich the intelligent transport system service for marine traffic. First, we develop a processing tool to create an operation management book from the recorded AIS data. We then study the implementation of these utility tools and evaluate their effectiveness.
Keywords: processing tool; utility tool; intelligent transport system; marine ITS; probe data; automatic identification system; class A AIS; class B AIS; maritime environment; navigation management; GPS.
Ray-tracing analysis of the radio propagation on the line-of-sight maritime wireless environments
by Masaaki Yamanaka, Daiki Hashimoto, Yasuhiro Sato, Kohei Shimada, Yoshinori Matsuura
Abstract: Due to heavy maritime traffic, wireless systems play an important role to maintain the traffic safety. In this paper, we try to analyse the radio propagation of wireless systems in maritime environments. Although, there are many wireless systems should be covered, we picked up a radar system focusing a line-of-sight radio propagation in this paper. In general, radar antennas are set in the highest location to get a line-of-sight view for a wide area. However, there are cases when high islands hamper the line-of-sight. In this case, the system is not able to see the area through the radio waves, which will cause serious problems for navigation safety. We will try to assess the area using a ray-tracing method. The procedure of using the geospatial information authority of Japan (GSI)'s topographical data is given, to assess the area where the radio waves are unable to reach, through simulation.
Keywords: maritime traffic safety; radio wave propagation analysis; radar system; ray-tracing method.
Multi-overlay information management for IoT-oriented P2P network applications
by Kazunori Ueda, Makoto Iwata, Ken-Ichi Baba, Shinji Shimojo
Abstract: In the IoT environment, network applications such as various content/resource sharing, remote sensing, and so on play an important role to realise flexible and efficient communication on the network. If requested content/resource is retrieved from a huge number of various IoT devices, the amount of content/resource management information increases tremendously and most of IoT devices might not have enough computing/networking resource to maintain such management information. Thus, it is indispensable to introduce scalable management scheme and powerful delegate server for the IoT environment. This paper proposes a peer-to-peer information management scheme using multi-overlay network. The peer-to-peer networking is one of the promising ways to achieve scalability of the network applications and the multi-overlay network plays a role to provide a logical network structure adaptive to requested content/resource distribution. The evaluation results of a prototype with content-based and distance-based overlay networks revealed that we can implement IoT-oriented network applications while keeping practical search efficiency as well as saving network resource.
Keywords: internet of things; IoT; P2P; overlay network; multi-overlay; clustering.