International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management (124 papers in press)
Investigating the Effect of Relational Capital on Supply Chain Risk and Performance
by Zahra Amin Afshar, Safar Fazli
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to identify the impact of relational-capital (Trust, Commitment, Reliability and Information Exchange) on supply chain risk and firm performance in a manufacturing environment. Drawing on social-capital theory, this research investigates whether the supply chain risk is reduced by the generation of relational capital between buyers and suppliers. This research performed based on structural equation modeling (SEM), in 134 manufacturing firms in Qazvin province industrial parks. Collected data were analyzed by Partial Least Square (PLS) method in order to evaluate the relationship between variables and their impact on each other. Empirical results confirm that there is no positive impact among trust, commitment and supply chain risk, but reliability and information exchange can impact positively and reduce the risk in supply chain, in manufacturing companies. Also, the results indicate that risk has positive impact on companies performance.
Keywords: Relational Capital; Supply Chain Risk; Trust and Commitment; performance.
Performance improvement of machining parameters in electrical discharge machining process of tool steel 2714
by Sameh Habib
Abstract: Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an extremely prominent machining process among newly developed non-traditional machining techniques for difficult-to-cut materials. Though a lot of research has been done to improve the process performance, optimal selection of process parameters for the best performance measures still remains a challenge. In this work, the performance of electrical discharge machining process when cutting hot work tool steel 2714 with copper electrodes has been investigated. Orthogonal array of L27 (3*4) based on the Taguchi experimental design is utilized to plan the experiments. Raw data is assessed by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to find optimal conditions for response parameters. The main machining parameters such as pulse-on time, pulse-off time, discharge current and average machining voltage are chosen to determine the EDM response parameters such as material removal rate, surface roughness and gap size. Response tables and graphs are used to find the optimal parameter levels in the EDM process.
Keywords: Electrical discharge machining (EDM), Taguchi approach, material removal rate, surface roughness and gap size.
Production and preventive maintenance rates control in a failure-prone manufacturing system using discrete event simulation and simulated annealing algorithm
by Sayyed Mohammad Reza Davoodi, Shahab Amelian
Abstract: Production control in a failure-prone manufacturing system (FPMS) was studied in the current survey. FPMS are applied to systems for which random breakdown is assumed and corrective maintenance and preventive maintenance are considered for them. The purpose in such systems is to determine optimal production rate given to demand, breakdown of machineries and the time period to repair them. Buffer is used in such systems to prevent shortage. One of the most important parameters is to determine the inventory level of the buffer, because if the inventory level is low, the system is faced with shortage in time of breakdown; otherwise, holding cost will be increased. Another effective parameter is determining the time for preventive maintenance which is important to discover breakdowns before their occurrence and thus minimize the cost of corrective maintenance. In most of studies in which FPMS have been investigated, the time for maintenance of machines and the time between breakdowns are regarded in deterministic form or with exponential distribution. The purpose of this paper was to determine the optimal production rate and time of preventive maintenance for a single-machine FPMS to minimize sum of costs of holding, shortage, corrective and preventive maintenance. The repair time and time between breakdowns have general distribution. Since the inventory level and time of preventive maintenance should be optimized simultaneously in order to obtain an optimum point, discrete event simulation and simulated annealing were used. Besides, optimum value of the buffer inventory level and time of preventive maintenance were calculated. The effective parameters in simulated annealing were determined by means of Taguchi method. The results revealed efficiency of this solution method than when it is not possible to solve the analysis due to complexity of general probability density functions.
Keywords: Failure-prone manufacturing system; Production control; Simulated annealing; Discrete Event Simulation; Design of experiment; Taguchi method.
Process research of seal ring groove based on magnetic abrasive finishing
by An-yuan JIAO, Hong-jun QUAN, Zong-ze LI, Yan CHEN
Abstract: Ring groove is widely used in sealing fields, the surface quality directly impacts on the sealing effect. But the size of ring groove is generally small, traditional polishing processes are difficult to improve surface quality. Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is an advanced finishing process in which the cutting force is primarily controlled by the magnetic field. In the present work, an experimental investigation has been carried out to study the 45Cr seal ring groove with three types magnetic circuit. Based on the simulation and measured results, the layout of the magnet poles was determined, the design and manufacture of experimental device were finished. The bottom and two sides of external ring groove on the seals of a hydraulic system were synchronized finished with the experimental device. The material removal, surface roughness and surface micro-topography of the ring groove were detected after finishing. Experimental results indicated that the surface texture, burrs of the bottom and two sides were removed; the surface roughness of the three surfaces were significantly improved, and the consistency was better, their values can be reduced to Ra0.6 μm. It is suggested that MAF process can achieve on synchronize finishing the bottom and two sides of the ring groove.
Keywords: magnetic abrasive finishing; MAF; seal ring groove; synchronize finishing; surface roughness; surface quality
Lean Co Creation Model Analysis for Manufacturing Industries
by Ashish Shrivastava, Aviral Kothari, Jitendra Achara, Mohit Kumar, Ramdhan Sodani
Abstract: The objective of this paper was to provide a clear relation between lean and Co-creation by using concepts of lean & to demonstrate how lean concepts can be used with co-creation in industries. By secondary data relations between the categories (lean, Co-creation, and industry) was made where a conceptual model of Lean Co-creation was provided. The concept was further supplemented by interviews.rnFrom the conducted interviews design aspects was highly crucial for industry, supplier and customers. Technical, Social and Economic impact of activities within industry is being questioned which enables us to use parts of conceptual model as a technical and analytical framework of mapping activities. The conclusions for this research are that parts of the conceptual model can be used as a framework. It is however of further investigation of its practical application since co-creation with lean in industry are highly useful at organizational level.rn
Keywords: Lean Manufacturing,Co-creation,Lean Co-creation
Finite Element Analysis of the Deformation Behaviour of Pure Aluminum in Repetitive Corrugation-Straightening and Constrained Groove Pressing
by Farhad Rahimi, Bagher Mohammad Sadeghi, Masoud Ahmadi
Abstract: Repetitive Corrugation-Straightening (RCS) and Constrained Groove Pressing (CGP) are two promising severe plastic deformation techniques for sheet metallic materials. There are differences in amount of imposed plastic strain, hence, it is important to compare the deformation mode in these two techniques. In the present paper, the effect of RCS and CGP on the deformation behaviour of pure aluminium is studied. The effective parameters are analysed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for one pass of deformation. The computer simulations are carried using DEFORM-3D and to verify the FEA results, a comparison with previous literatures is made. It is observed that filling ratio of the die is higher for CGP. Additionally, the deformed work-piece endured more plastic strain in CGP and the effective strain is more homogenously distributed in this technique.
Keywords: severe plastic deformation; CGP; RCS; FEA
Keywords: severe plastic deformation; CGP; RCS; FEA
Integration of ANP and DEA Methods for Evaluating Efficiency of Maintenance Strategies
by Ehsan Pourjavad, Hadi Shirouyehzad, Arash Shahin
Abstract: Selecting a suitable maintenance strategy has become an important challenge for facility/maintenance managers in most companies, and it keeps coming up because of complex equipment and variety of maintenance plans. The main purpose of this paper is to propose a prompt method to evaluate the efficiency of maintenance strategies and determine the optimum one. To further investigate this issue, an integration of Analytic Network Process (ANP), and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods are employed. At first, the weight of each criterion is calculated by ANP method and the ratio of weights of criteria is employed as a restriction. Then the weight of each criterion for maintenance strategies will be determined by paired comparison of maintenance strategies related to criteria. These weights are taken into account as inputs and outputs of DEA model. Finally, the efficiency of maintenance strategies will be calculated by DEA. In this research, the efficiency of five maintenance strategies is examined according to four criteria; Cost, Reliability, Maintainability, Availability for one class of equipment at Chadormalu Mining-Industrial Company. It results in that TPM and CBM strategies have been confirmed to be the optimum strategies for maintaining this equipment.
Keywords: Analytic Network Process, Data Envelopment Analysis, Maintenance Strategy, Mining Industry, Efficiency
Sequence Dependent Setup Time of Jobs in Flow Shop Scheduling Problems using Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony Algorithms
by SANJEEV KUMAR R, Padmanaban K.P, Rajkumar M
Abstract: In this paper, setup time is considered in permutation flow shop scheduling for n jobs on m machines. Setup time is an important factor for considering the performance measure in real life manufacturing scheduling. It is sequence dependent on both machines. The objective is to minimize the weighted sum of total completion time and makespan in Sequence Dependent Setup Time flow shop scheduling. It is a NP hard problem and it is not easy for heuristic method to produce optimal solution for large size problem. In this work, heuristic/dispatching rules based algorithms such as Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony Algorithms are used to solve the flow shop scheduling with setup time. Algorithms are tested with taillard benchmark problems for flow shop scheduling. Computational results show that Nawaz Enscore Ham Heuristic based Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm produced more number of feasible solutions and minimum value of Average Relative Error Percentage when compared to other priority rule based Algorithms. Statistical test is conducted and reported that the significance difference within the solutions is high with increase in number of machines.
Keywords: Flow Shop Scheduling; SDST; Total Completion Time; Makespan; ABC Algorithm.
Modeling of flexible manufacturing systems
by Sergey Egorov, Alexey Kapitanov, Vladimir Mitrofanov, Leonid Shvartsburg, Natalia Ivаnоvа, Sergey Ryabov
Abstract: This paper describes an original approach to one of the key problems in modern mechanical engineering modeling of modern manufacturing systems with regard to the choice of relevant model type. It is shown that in terms of systemology, all the existing models are divided into the imitating (replicating) and optimizing ones, while manufacturing system design belongs to semi-structured issues. Therefore, at the macro-designing stage one should use optimizing models, rather than the imitating ones. The study provides a broad definition of the technological process as a set of actions aimed at product manufacturing, designing the sequence of relevant steps. It defines production flexibility and adaptation of the manufacturing system to changing conditions. These solutions can be used in automation in manufacturing, computer aided design (CAD) and modeling (CAM), computer aided engineering analysis, flexible manufacturing systems, flexible automation and production engineering.
Keywords: manufacturing system; designing; macro-design; optimizing models; systems analysis; decision making; flexible technology; automation; market; order.
ANALYZING SEASONAL VARIATION AND FORECASTING THE OUTPUT OF BEVERAGE INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN USING DEMETRA+
by Liaquat Ali, Iffat Chaudhry
Abstract: The study analyzes the seasonal variation and forecasts the output of the beverage industry in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan, using seven years (month-wise) data from July 2007 to April 2014. Tramo Seats version of Demetra+ software has been used on log-transformed data with the distinct feature of automatic model identification to capture seasonal differences in output of the beverage industry in KPK. Results suggest wider fluctuations in the original series as compared to seasonal adjusted series which was mainly due to seasonal component in the time series instead of the irregular component; thus, confirming the principle of canonical decomposition of the data set in question. Results of non-parametric tests revealed a strong and stable seasonality pattern in the output of the beverage industry. Further, a significant difference between original and seasonal adjusted series has also been observed in the output. The results have implications for policy planners both at micro as well as macro level.
Keywords: Beverage Industry; Forecasting; Seasonality; Demetra+; Tramo Seats; Pakistan
The Effect on the Growth and Evolution Model of Logistics Symbiosphere
by Guanglan Zhou, Li Si, Yutao Mo, Jun Hu
Abstract: With the fast development of Industrial Internet, big data, cloud computing technology, these applications continue to improve the environment of e-commerce which has become a new corporate business activity. In this e-logistics environment, many businesses and companies must form an ecosystem to seek survival and development, which has interdependent, collaborative and innovative relationships. This article will adopt the symbiosis theory to build symbiotic circle model. By solving the planning model, it draws the conclusion that the logistics service providers must follow the differential route in development in line with prominent features. Through an accurate positioning of market requirements, it could achieve the standard profit maximization.
Keywords: e-Commerce Ecosystem; fourth party logistics service providers; symbiosis theory; symbiosis model.
A modified Monte Carlo method to study the performance of the roughness models
by Younes ECHCHARQY, Mohammed ESSAHLI, Hassan Gziri
Abstract: Several empirical and mathematical models have been proposed to predict the surface roughness, but they are more or less effective in determining an approximate value to the real one, especially when we worked in a specific constraint that can cause errors in results. Hence, it is necessary to use an efficient method to determinate the more performance model, and to minimize the error range. In this work, we will propose a method modified of Monte Carlo algorithm (MMC) with an output Boolean signal and a performance ratio (PR) to study the performance of surface roughness models under specified constraints. It is a powerful and simple strategy based on Monte Carlo algorithm, witch determine the possibility of finding the desired roughness values in a specified range, choosing the most efficient model to minimize inadequate results to our predicting values.
Keywords: Methodology; Model Performance; Modified Monte Carlo; Performance Algorithm; Roughness; Super-finishing
Intellectual Property Protection and Technology Management in Outsourcing Projects
by Rajorshi Sen Gupta
Abstract: Aim of the study
Client firms engaged in outsourcing projects face risk of intellectual property (IP) misappropriation and shirking by their vendors. This paper seeks to mitigate these risks associated with outsourcing by providing practically implementable solutions.
A principal (client)-agent (vendor) model is developed to design optimal contract to mitigate these risks associated with outsourcing. The game theoretic model is solved using backward induction and comparative static results are derived.
Client firm must use a variable payment scheme linked to project outcome that would incentivize vendors to exert optimal effort in outsourced projects. Moreover, when the firm is operating in a weakly protected regime, the optimal contract must implement a carrot and stick strategy comprising of limited IP sharing in conjunction with adequate incentive payments. Client should invest in technological solution if it is cheaply available; otherwise, it should use the carrot and stick strategy.
Outsourcing can lead to increased transaction costs due to risks IP misappropriation and shirking. It is suggested that complementary strategies like product differentiation and modularization of tasks can deter the IP misappropriation problem.
Keywords: Outsourcing projects, intellectual property protection, shirking, principal –agent model
An experimental investigation and modelling for travelling wire electrochemical machining of Monel 400 alloys
by Kalaimathi M, Venkatachalam G, Sivakumar M
Abstract: Monel 400 alloys find its applications in aerospace and marine industries. It is tough to cut these alloys using conventional machine tools as the hardness is high and also these alloys work-harden during cutting. Travelling wire electrochemical machining (TWECM), a non-traditional machining technique, can cut these alloys efficiently and improves material removal rate (MRR) and surface quality. In this investigation, an attempt was made to investigate the TWECM characteristics of Monel 400 alloys and model the equation for MRR with the three process parameters i.e. voltage (V), electrolyte concentration (EC) and travelling wire speed (TS). TWECM is preferred to wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) as it does not generate heat affected zone. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for design and analysis of experiments. The contour plots were generated to understand the effect of machining parameters on MRR. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were implemented to predict the process parameters. The results were validated with obtained experimental results. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test shows that the voltage (V) and wire speed (TS) are the major influencing factors for MRR. The modelling and predictive abilities of ANN were compared with the regression model using correlation coefficient and mean absolute standard deviation (MAD). The predicted values of MRR with regression equation and ANN are in close agreement with the experimental results. The ANN was found to be superior fitting to the regression model.
Keywords: Travelling wire electrochemical machining (TWECM); Material removal rate (MRR); Response surface methodology (RSM); Artificial neural networks (ANN).
Measuring constructs useful for studying Industrial Automation: Assessment in terms of performance
by Vikas Acharya, Somesh Sharma, Sunand Gupta
Abstract: Increasing global competition, effective process integration, along with the focus on core activities has led to notion that organizations are manufacturing high quality products with controlled process interventions, in minimum time and less price. This novel perspective has created the challenge of designing, managing and implementing inter-related manufacturing process oriented relationships developed and fostered through innovative planning. Although research interests in industrial automation (IA) are growing, limited research has been directed towards a systematic development. This study identifies and consolidates various IA initiatives and factors to develop key IA constructs conducive to advancing the field. To this end, we analyzed over 250 articles and amalgamated the large, fragmented body of work dispersed across many disciplines. The results of this study, through successive stages of measurement, analysis and refinement, is a set of reliable, valid, and unidimensional measurements that can be subsequently used in different contexts to refine or extend conceptualization and measurements to test various theoretical models, surfacing the way in theory building in IA.
Keywords: Industrial Automation, Process-Technology Relationship, Constructs, Instrument, Psychometric Properties
Stress relaxation behavior of hot deformed austenite in high strength microalloyed pipeline steel
by Bahman Mirzakhani, Mostafa Mansourinejad
Abstract: The objective of the present study is to investigate the static restoration of CMn(VNbTi) pipeline steel utilizing comparative study of the stress relaxation and microalloying precipitates behavior. The hot compression tests in temperature range of 850
Keywords: Microalloyed steel; Stress relaxation; Recrystallization; Precipitation
Multi-response optimization of electrochemical machining process parameters by harmony search-desirability function (HS-DF) optimizer
by KALAIMATHI M, VENKATACHALAM G, SIVAKUMAR M, AYYAPPAN S
Abstract: Selection of the optimum electrochemical machining (ECM) process parameters is extremely crucial as this machining process involves huge capital investment and operating cost. In this work, the harmony search (HS) algorithm is integrated with desirability function (DF) in such a way that new HS-DF optimizer is proposed to optimize the ECM process parameters. The influence of three predominant ECM process parameters i.e. inter-electrode gap (IEG), voltage (V) and electrolyte concentration (EC) on the performance measures of material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) was considered. The optimized values of EC =115 g/l, V=13 V, and IEG=0.11 mm resulted in MRR of 0.726 g/min and Ra of 1.53 μm for electrochemical machining of Monel 400 alloys. The optimized results are compared with those drawn from the past research and found better. The HS-DF optimizer proves its applicability and suitability for optimizing process parameters of ECM process, which reduces considerable computational, experimental cost and time.
Keywords: Electrochemical machining (ECM), Multi-response optimization, Harmony Search (HS) algorithm, Desirability function (DF)
Circular Material Resource Consumption for Sustainability of Manufacturing Growth: A System Dynamics Analysis
by Ravindra Ojha, Prem Vrat
Abstract: The paper highlights the volatility in material prices and other environmental impacts due to sharp depletion of material resources. The depletion is an outcome of the linear model of resource consumption based on take-make-dispose approach to managing material resources. The circular model of resources consumption based on take-make-use-collect-reprocess-reuse approach has been proposed as an alternate paradigm which has been of interest to economists and policy planners in recent times. The paper develops a System Dynamics (SD) model to understand and analyse long-term policy implications of the circular model on manufacturing growth. Using the generic SD model developed; twelve scenarios have been simulated which provide very useful insights to facilitate sustainable policy decisions for manufacturing growth. A case study for recycling of Zinc is provided which examines the issues involved in the context of Zinc as an important metal- necessary to sustain manufacturing growth.
Keywords: Green-reserve; Circular material-consumption; Manufacturing growth; End-of-Life of product; System Dynamics and Causal Loop Diagram.
Multi Response Optimization of Machining Parameters in Wire - EDM Process using Grey Relational Analysis
by P.C. Padhi, D.K. Tripathy
Abstract: Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is extensively used in machining of materials when precision is of prime importance. It is a specialized process for cutting complex contours or fragile geometries that would be difficult to be produced using conventional cutting methods. In the present work, the WEDM machining of EN-31 alloy steel has been studied with multiple performance characteristics such as cutting rate (CR), surface roughness (Ra) and dimensional deviation (DD) using Gray-Taguchi method. The process parameters considered for optimization are pulse on time (Ton), pulse off time (Toff), wire feed (WF), wire tension (WT), spark gap set voltage (SV) and servo feed (SF). For experimentation Taguchis L27 orthogonal array (OA) has been used. The application of Grey relational analysis is adopted to convert multi-objective criterion into an equivalent single objective function; overall grey relational grade (GRG), which has been maximized by using Taguchi technique. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for GRG is utilized to determine the most significant process parameters. Optimal setting has been verified through confirmatory test; found good agreement with predicted value. The experimental results confirm that the proposed method effectively improves the machining performance of wire EDM process.
Keywords: Wire Electrical Discharge Machining; Cutting rate; Surface Roughness; Dimensional deviation; Orthogonal Array; Grey Relational Analysis.
Laser Modification of HVOF Thermal Sprayed Nano-structured WC-12Co mixed with Inconel-625 Coatings for Petrochemical Industries
by Sivarajan Shanmugasundaram, Padmanabhan Raghupathy, Adwait Joshi, Karthikeyan C.P, Joseph Stokes
Abstract: Laser surface modification of coatings has proved to be an effective method to enhance the mechanical properties of the material due to its good interfacial and metallurgical bonding. Three different types of coating powders namely Inconel 625, nano- sized tungsten carbide WC-12Co and micro sized tungsten carbide WC-12Co were coated on AISI 4140 carbon steel substrate. The coating powders were sprayed by a 1050 DJH automated High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) gun thermal spray. The coating powders deposited on the substrate were treated by 1.5 kW CO2 laser. The objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of coating powder type, laser power and laser scanning speed on the micro hardness and microstructure of the coated samples. Hardness measurements performed on both nano and micro sized WC-12Co coatings show consistently higher values for nano coatings. The higher percentage of nano WC-12Co particles in the starting powder seems to be the reason for higher hardness in these coatings. Amongst the produced coatings the results concluded that nano sized WC-12Co Inconel 625 coatings are found to have best microstructure due to its low porosity and increased density.
Keywords: Laser; Coating; HVOF; Hardness.
A review on droplet deposition manufacturing - A rapid prototyping technique
by Rajashekhar V S, Pravin T, Thiruppathi K
Abstract: Droplet deposition is a liquid phase rapid prototyping technique which is used to create 3D components. This paper provides an overview of the droplet deposition process. In particular, the paper deals with the process parameters, experimental setup, and the role of computers. It is inferred that in recent years computer play a vital role in simulating and controlling the droplet deposition process. The review shows that a heating furnace is mostly used to produce molten droplets which need to be controlled using a nozzle. Alternatives such as using laser as a source to melt wires to produce droplets can be adopted to reduce the complexity of controlling the molten droplets formed. The future challenge lies in shooting the molten droplets at an angle by using robots to create complex parts instead of moving the substrate at all times as done at the present.
Keywords: Droplet deposition; Rapid prototyping; Laser based metal melting.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON MINIMISATION OF BORING BAR VIBRATION AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF THE WORKPIECE USING VISCOELASTIC PARTICLE DAMPING
by S. John Peter Soosairaj, K.P. Padmanaban, R. Srinivasan, S. Syath Abuthakeer
Abstract: Vibration is an important inherent issue in the boring process as the boring bar is slender and long. The vibration causes reduced tool life and poor machined surface. The vibration of the boring bar has to be damped to improve the tool life and surface finish of the work piece. The objective of this work is to introduce a method of applying viscoelastic polymer particle damping in the boring bar to reduce vibration thereby improving surface finish.
The experiments are conducted in a CNC turning center with solid boring bar and a hollow boring bar filled with three different polymer particles such as PP, PA66 and PMMA. The effect of polymer particle damping with various cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed and depth of cut has been investigated on vibration level and surface surface roughness using Taguchis experimental design. The results indicated that the cutting speed is the most influencing factor on vibration and surface roughness. The polymer particle damping has a significant effect in suppressing the vibration and improving the surface finish and PMMA polymer outperforms the other two.
Keywords: Boring; Viscoelastic Particle Damping; Taguchi method.
Mechanical Characterization of Al and Al-4%Cu alloy prepared by horizontal centrifugal casting process
by Smrutirekha Sen, Sudheer Reddy, P.G. Mukunda
Abstract: Centrifugal casting as a process results in improved productivity, efficiency, reliability and yield. The mechanical properties of centrifugally cast metals and alloys are influenced by various factors like rotational speed, pouring temperature, viscosity and aspect ratio of the mould. In the present investigation, horizontal centrifugal casting method has been chosen to produce casts of Aluminum(Al) and Aluminum- Copper alloy (Al-4%Cu). These Casts were produced by varying parameters like rotational speed, aspect ratio and mould wall thicknesses. Wear behavior and mechanical characterizations of the casts have been determined and the relations between the wear and mechanical behavior, namely hardness and tensile strength have been studied for these two materials. The effects of mould wall thickness and rotational speed on the microstructure of Al and Al-4%Cu alloy had been investigated. The hardness of Al casts was found to be lower than that of Al-4%Cu alloy where as specific wear rate of centrifugally cast Al-4%Cu alloy was lower than those of pure Al casts. The hardness of centrifugally cast Al and Al-4%Cu was found to be improved as compared to conventional castings. The co-efficient of friction and frictional force of specimens was found to be lower for the cast produced under a greater rotational speed of the mould and it was also observed that frictional force gradually increases with load. The presence of copper in aluminum base (4% Cu) has enhanced the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy.
Keywords: Centrifugal Casting ; Hardness; wearing behavior; Al-4%Cu alloy.
Cellular layout formation by using weighted similarity based modified flow matrix with process sequence data
by M. Shunmugasundaram, V. Anbumalar
Abstract: Cellular Layout Formation (CLF) is an important problem in the design of a Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). From the previous studies, most of the researchers have been used Machine Part Incidence Matrix (MPIM) as input in CMS. In this paper, weighted similarity based modified flow matrix is proposed to solve the Cell Formation Problem (CFP) and CLF simultaneously. The objective of our proposed approach is to group dissimilar machines based on the process sequence of different parts. Two well-known benchmark problems are selected from the literature and results are compared based on modified Grouping efficacy with the existing methods. The results clearly indicated that our proposed approach outperforms the previously proposed methods.
Keywords: cellular layout; cellular manufacturing system; machine part incidence matrix; similarity coefficient; modified flow matrix.
Environmental criteria assessment for third-party logistic providers selection: A systematic review
by Kaliyan Mathiyazhagan, Abhishek Bhalotia, Abhishek Saini, Dhruv Bhati
Abstract: Environmental issue is becoming an important research area around the world, as increasing consumer demand is further driving activities of industries towards maintenance of sustainability. In this paper, selection of third party logistic provider (TLP) through environmental criteria has been reviewed in addition to traditional criteria. Selection of TLP is a prime practice for industries to ensure the sustainable improvements. Also TLP has gained an attention of researchers globally to sustain the environment. This attention can be justified by the large number of publications in various journals that have been published between 2000-2015. Thus, a broad literature review of the latest and the cutting edge papers is required to produce the working of a traditional selection criteria of TLP in the past and enlighten the future direction for the researchers. This papers aim is to review the recently published papers in TLP and its selection criteria keeping the sustainable and green criteria in mind in addition to traditional criteria. Total of 134 papers are analysed and categorised to give a holistic view of the past research. At last research gaps are identified for giving future direction to the researchers and academicians.
Keywords: Third party logistics provider; Environmental criteria; Sustainable; Green; Methodology; Review.
Improving Performance in Unbalanced, Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines
by Tom McNamara, Sabry Shaaban, Sarah Hudson, Erika Marsillac
Abstract: Research in unbalanced production lines has re-emerged in prominence due to its increasing applications and value in developing economies, remanufacturing and reverse logistics. The performance of unbalanced, reliable, non-automated, merging assembly lines is assessed here under various simulated configurations to improve performance. This assessment contributes to the literature by suggesting that imbalance does not always lead to deteriorations in performance, and can enhance efficiency in merge lines when compared to a corresponding balanced merging line. The best performance improvements were found for average buffer level. Improved performance was determined to be a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the former generally resulting in a lower throughput and the latter leading to a lower average buffer level than that of a balanced line.
Keywords: Unpaced merging lines; simulation; unequal mean operation times; patterns of means imbalance; throughput; average buffer level.
One size does not even fit one - Supply chain strategies in the decline phase
by Robin Von Haartman, Weihong Wang, Lars Bengtsson, Camilla Niss, Gunnar Herdin
Abstract: Given that aligning supply chain strategies with changing product characteristics across the phases of the product life cycle is increasingly important, this study investigates the changes in supply and demand uncertainty when a product enters the decline phase and how these changes in turn affect the supply chain strategies applied. Based on four case studies, the analysis reveals that the uncertainties increase in three of four cases when the product enters the decline phase, and that the type of uncertainty, as well as the related challenges, depends on the products initial uncertainty of supply and demand. This implies that companies need to redesign their supply chain strategies towards either more lean or more agile supply chains, or combinations thereof, when the products are declining.
Keywords: supply chain strategy; product life cycle; decline phase; lean; agile; demand uncertainty; supply uncertainty; product characteristics.
Regression modeling and simulated annealing optimization of cylindrical grinding process
by Rekha Rajasekaran
Abstract: Cost effective grinding involves judicious selection of operating parameters to maximize metal removal rate at the same time limiting the surface finish and roundness. Since grinding is an intricate machining operation controlled by many aspects, it is difficult to predict the optimal parameters which results in minimum surface roughness (Ra) and roundness error (Re), and maximum metal removal rate (MRR). This work discusses the development of a regression model for the response (MRR, Ra and Re) to predict the optimal cylindrical grinding process parameters. Using these models the optimization is carried out based on Simulated Annealing (SA) optimization technique. Finally, the results of the proposed technique are validated experimentally.
Keywords: Cylindrical grinding. Metal removal rate. Surface roughness. Roundness error. Regression analysis. Simulated annealing.
INVESTIGATION ON TURNING PARAMETERS ON MACHINING TIME AND VIBRATION OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED LAMINATES
by Srinivasan D, Balasundaram R, Rajkumar G
Abstract: This work proposes the investigation of machining time and vibration characteristics of machining differently oriented unidirectional Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). The carbon fibers are oriented at 0, 45, 90 degrees during stacking process of laminate. The turning experiments are carried out in Siemens-CNC Lathe to investigate best operating conditions. There are 9 experiments based on Taguchis L9 orthogonal array are performed. The machining parameters are Spindle Speed, Feed and Depth of cut and the output responses are machining time and amplitude of vibration. The predication models are developed using ANOVA. To find the best value of the regression model, a real time coded Genetic Algorithm (GA) using Turbo C++ and MATLAB tool box GA are used. The result indicated that predicted models are significant and the real time coded GA produced best value.
Keywords: Turning; Genetic Algorithm; CFRP; Orientation; Hand-lay up Process.
Execution of Lost sales due to damageable items accompanied with variable replenishment rate and partial backlogging
by Anand Chauhan, Pankaj Aswal, Vikas Verma
Abstract: Items fancied of glass, ceramics, etc., get malfunction and vandalize throughout the storage due to the gathered stress of over heaped structure. Stock, For the First time, a deterministic inventory model of such a damageable item is develop with variable replenishment with both demand and damage rates are stock-dependent. In this replenishment rate for the First cycle is instantaneous and partly varies with demand. This research will assist in evaluating the optimum inventory levels for the profit maximization principle in an integral form, the models are descriptive with numerically and sensitivity examined to illustrate the models.
Keywords: Lost sale; Polynomial demands; Variable replenishment; Stock-dependent demand; Damageable items.
Optimal Design of Flux for submerged arc weld Properties based on RSM coupled with GRA and PCA
by Brijpal Singh, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad Noor Siddiquee, Sachin Maheshwari
Abstract: This paper presents an effective approach for the selection of flux for optimized mechanical properties of low carbon steel welds. The weld is mainly characterized by impact strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation and hardness. Since, the mechanical performance is measured by multiple performance characteristics, so, the grey relational analysis is used to determine the optimal combination of flux for mechanical properties. Moreover, principal component analysis has been used to evaluate the weighting values for various performance characteristics so that their relative importance can be properly considered. Fluxes were designed using RSM and were been developed through agglomeration technique. By analyzing the grey relational grade, it is found that both the impact strength and ultimate tensile strength have the same weight age. The results of confirmation test obtained using this approach show that the GRA coupled with PCA can be effectively used for optimization of flux for mechanical performance characteristics.
Keywords: Submerged arc welding; GRA; Response surface method; PCA; Tensile strength; elongation.
Prediction of effects of process parameters and thermo-mechanical simulation of GMAW process for welding of AISI 430 steel
by Avinash Kamble, R. Venkata Rao
Abstract: The present study is focused on welding of AISI 430 steel using AISI 309L wire rod using gas metal arc welding process. The welding voltage, welding speed, wire feed rate and gas flow rate are considered as input process parameters and their ranges are found out for good appearance of weld bead. The experiments are conducted using central composite design matrix and weld bead geometry parameters like bead height, bead width and bead penetration and mechanical properties like tensile strength and hardness are measured. The mathematical models for bead geometry parameters and mechanical properties are developed and the adequacy is checked using analysis of variance. The effects of process parameters on the bead geometry parameters, mechanical properties and microstructure are found out. The thermo-mechanical simulation is carried out using ANSYS simulation software to predict the temperature and stresses distribution in the weldment.
Keywords: Gas metal arc welding; central composite design; mathematical modeling; thermo-mechanical simulation.
A new mathematical Model for Production and Delivery Scheduling Problem with Common Cycle in a Supply Chain with Open-shop System
by Alireza Goli, Mahdi Alinaghian
Abstract: In order to coordinate the supply chain, reordering strategy of needed goods must be synchronized and sequence of production and replenishment cycle time must be optimized in terms of cost. Therefore, this paper studies the economic lot and delivery scheduling problem for multi-stage supply chain. The common cycle time and integer multiplier policies were adopted to accomplish the desired synchronization. In this regard, a new mathematical model has been presented where a manufacturer with open-shop system purchases raw materials from suppliers and sends them to packaging companies after converting them into the final product and then they are sold. Since this is a Non-Deterministic Polynomial-time hard (NP-HARD) problem, simulated annealing algorithms have been developed for it. For this algorithm, two different scenarios have been proposed for solving the study problem and at the end the numerical results have been applied on problems with different dimensions by the algorithm.
Keywords: Economic lot size; production scheduling; open shop system; common cycle; simulated annealing algorithm.
A Review on the Multi-objective Cell Formation Problem in Cellular Manufacturing Systems
by Barnali Chaudhuri, R.K. Jana, Pranab Dan
Abstract: With the advent of cellular manufacturing systems and consequent evolution of configuring methodologies, researchers proposed several multi-objective techniques, besides others, to handle different types of cell formation problems. This paper presents a systematic review on types of cell formation by using multi-objective techniques. It also delineates the type of objectives, production factors and data sets used for testing the efficacy of methodologies, considered by researchers along with the scope and direction of future studies.
Keywords: Cellular Manufacturing System; Cell Formation; Multi-objective Programming; Weighted Aggregate Method; Pareto-Optimality; Soft Computing.
A New Design Methodology and Performance Analysis of a Low Wind Speed Turbine
by Preetham Kumar, Iniyan Selvarasan
Abstract: A new design methodology is initiated to design a wind turbine system that can operate efficiently in low wind speed conditions. The scenario explained elaborately in this research paper have the blades designed in a manner so as to offer an efficient solution for low wind speed zones and for locations where there is no power supply from the grid. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to forecast the performance of blades at low wind velocities along with the visualization of velocity; pressure and velocity streamline distribution around the blade when the blade rotates at the proposed rpm. The aerodynamic performance of the blade coincides to the design requirements and is scrutinized for variable wind conditions. The computational result indicates that the power output is obtained at 3.4 m/s whereas the experimental power output is obtained at 4.4 m/s. The manufacturing process of the blades is also laid out
Keywords: Blade; rnAerodynamic design;rn Low wind speed turbine;rn Performance analysis; CFD.
Intelligent Control Technique for Slip Frequency Control Based Stability Improvement of Induction Motor
by Hemant Sahebrao Kulat, Anupama Pushkar Huddar
Abstract: In the paper, an intelligent control technique is developed for improving the stability of IM. An intelligent technique is the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy inference System (ANFIS) which is proposed to improve the stability and regulate the speed of the IM. Here, the proposed technique is integrated with the PLL control. The PLL is employed to provide the slip frequency control and to provide better performance characteristics of the motor. The proposed method based PLL technique provides an excellent speed, torque and slip frequency control of IM drives. In the proposed controller, the ANFIS is used to evaluate the error signal available from the actual speed and command speed signal. Based on the objective function, the control signals are generated for the IM. The ANFIS based PLL technique for IM is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink platform and their performances are compared with the existing methods such as FLC and ANN techniques.
Keywords: ANFIS; FLC; ANN; slip frequency; speed; torque; IM and PLL.
Active Acquisition System of LBS-based Logistics Freight Source Information
by Xiangnan Zhang, Chuanjian Wang, Xiaojun Yin, Chuan Ning, Qingzhan Zhao, Rongrong Li
Abstract: With the development of positioning and navigation technology, location services related industries increased rapidly, the modern logistics industry is one of the important growth points, however, which increases the transportation cost and will certainly lead to magnitude waste of social resources is that the sources of information have been monopolized by logistics intermediary under the traditional mode. Order to solve the bottleneck of logistics information exchange and meet the demand for getting freight source information in time, this paper proposes a solution of active acquisition system of logistics sources information based on LBS with Android mobile terminal as the platform. The system uses GPS / WIFI positioning technology to achieve the acquisition of the information of users current location and through wireless network, the data are further sent to the spatial-temporal database of service terminal, where the spatial data and attribute data about logistics sources information are integrated and stored. Then these data are analyzed and processed by use of the dynamic programming algorithm based on real-time logistics sources information. And finally the Baidu API is used to realize the visualization of post-processed of logistics sources information so as that the services in active acquisition of peripheral logistic information and optimal receiving route planning might be provided. Through application and practice, this system has shown the characteristics like high instantaneity, highly targeted and convenient, etc, providing effective reference for informatization of logistics information publish and acquisition mode.
Keywords: logistics freight source information; LBS; Android intelligent mobile terminal; optimal receiving route.
Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Wind Tunnel using Passive Devices
by K.S. Suresh Kumar, C. Elanchezhian
Abstract: This article grants the design, computational investigation, and experimental study of passive device configurations that used in the Wind Tunnel to pretend the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) within the test segment. Passive devices like spires, cube roughness basics ad barriers on boundary layer simulation are considered by configuration 1, 2 and 3 correspondingly. Effects of three dissimilar arrangement of passive devices are considered in the configuration 4to6. In configuration 7 the passive devices of spacing 10cm are utilized in simulation model, correspondingly in configuration 8 with changing the spacing of cube roughness rudiments from the 10cm to 20 cm. Pressure elements are made with the help ofpitot static tube and the two limbs the pitot tube linked to the scanner. From the restrained data power law coefficient, velocity, roughness length,turbulence intensity, and friction velocity are calculated and plotted. This study also aids attaining a preliminary accepting of the boundary layer development and decreasing the tunnel operation time and cost at the time of the actual experimentation phase. From the solutions display the maximum turbulence intensity of empty tunnel is 3% and the maximum velocity deviation of empty tunnel is 3.84%.
Keywords: Wind tunnel; passive devices; spires; barriers; configuration and atmospheric boundary layer.
Effective Utilization of Cascade H Bridge Multi Level Inverter Integrate Social Spider Optimization for Reduced Total Harmonics Distortion
by Swamy S.M, Marsaline Beno M
Abstract: The significance intention of the proposed method is to eliminate Total Harmonics Distortion (THD) in solar photovoltaic cells powered cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHMLI). This purpose incorporates Newton-Raphson (NR), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Cuckoo search (CS) and Social Spider Optimization (SSO) based selective harmonic elimination technique for solving a non-linear transcendental equation to obtain optimal switching angle to achieve minimize THD. The foremost goal to reduce THD value beyond IEEE standard allowable limit is to predict optimal switching angle. This prediction is done in offline then it utilizes for online simulation process to achieve minimized THD. Amid, aforementioned techniques incorporate with CHMLI; SSO behaves literally better than all other comparative techniques to attain 3.6% of THD in line voltage from the modulation index of 0.95. This customized product development would enhance quality power flow in this power generation.
Keywords: Newton Raphson (NR); Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO); Artificial Bee Colony (ABC); Genetic Algorithm (GA); Cuckoo search (CS); Social Spider Optimization (SSO) and Total Harmonics Distortion (THD); Product development.
A Hybrid PSO-ABC Algorithm for Optimal Load Shedding and Improving Voltage Stability
by V. Tamilselvan
Abstract: In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed for reducing the amount of load shedding and voltage collapse. The hybrid method is the combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. Both algorithms equally contribute in the paper to determine the optimal load shed values for improving the voltage stability of the power system. Here, PSO is used to determine the weak buses in the system whereas ABC computes the optimal amount of load shed value to be cut for voltage stability purpose. They work on different fitness functions as per the requirements of their purpose. The appropriate buses for load shedding are selected based on the sensitivity of minimum eigen value of load flow Jacobian with respect to the load shed. The proposed method based on PSO and ABC is implemented in MATLAB working platform and its performance is tested with 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus bench mark test systems. From the simulations, the performance of the proposed method is analyzed and compared with various techniques in terms of sensitivity of minimum eigen values, voltage profile and load power. Through comparison performance, it is showed that the proposed method ensures voltage stability with minimum load shedding.
Keywords: Load shedding; eigen value; voltage stability; PSO; ABC; hybrid method.
Thermo Economic Analysis of Wind Turbines with the Aid of Artificial Neural Network
by P. Sakthivel, G.P. Rajamani
Abstract: A wind turbine is a machine that converts the energy of the wind into other, more useful forms like mechanical energy. Water pumping wind turbines are generally referred to as wind turbines. The shrouded wind turbines are characterized by a higher mass flow rate of air passes through the turbine blades as compared to bare wind turbines. Thermo economic analysis of shrouded wind turbines consider different shroud area ratios and speed range of the wind turbine. The significant intension of work is to frame an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with the assist of optimization techniques. The ANN utilized to predict the various thermo economic parameters of the wind power generation based on wind speed and turbine surrounded area. Different optimization techniques such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Harmony Search (HS) algorithm are utilized to arrive the optimal weight of ANN process. All the optimum results demonstrate that the attained error values between the output of the experimental values and the predicted values are close to zero in the designed network. From the results, the minimum error 85.72% is determined by ANN to attain the harmony search (HS) algorithm.
Keywords: Wind turbine; speed; Thermo economic parameters; area ratio; Artificial Neural Network (ANN); Harmony Search (HS).
Assessment of Selection Criteria for a Third Party Logistics provider Using AHP: A case in the Indian Paper Industry
by Kaliyan Mathiyazhagan, Abhishek Bhalotia, Abhishek Saini
Abstract: With increasing environmental issues the global need for sustainable development in supply chain management (SCM) partners has raised its head in the last few decades. Third party logistics provider is an important partner in SCM. Selection of a third party logistics provider (3PL) plays a very important role in deciding the companys future and its growth in the long term. This paper analyses and ranks the sustainable criteria based on expert opinion. In this study, 17 criteria under five categories are considered and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology used to rank the criteria. This study was conducted with 57 industry experts from 13 paper manufacturing enterprises across India. Finally, a Quality management capability criterion acts out an important role in the selection of 3PL from a paper industry perspective.
Keywords: Paper industry; Criteria; Third party logistic provider; Multi-criteria Decision Making; AHP.
Prediction and classification of insulation failures inRotating Machines an Enhanced Approach
by S. Gopinath, Sathiyasekar K.
Abstract: In the paper, a hybrid technique is proposed for analyze and classify the faults of insulation failure of high voltage rotating machines. The hybrid technique is the combination of ANN and GSA. The ANN is utilized for classifying the type of condition occurred in the rotating machine. The GSA is used to train the ANN and improve the performance of ANN. Initially, the normal and unstable conditions of rotating machine conditions are analyzed. For analyzing the condition of the rotating machine the leakage current, capacitance, dissipation factor and partial discharge magnitude parameters are considered. In order to test the proposed method, the 11kV and 6.6kV machines are utilized for testing and predicting the condition of the machine. The proposed method is implemented in Matlab/simulink platform and their performances of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity are compared with the existing methods such as, ANN- GA and ANN.
Keywords: Leakage current; partial discharge; ANN; GSA; accuracy; sensitivity and specificity.
Improvement of the wire compensation configuration model for improving part accuracy in cylindrical wire electrical discharge turning
by Raja Izamshah, Muhammad Akmal Mohd Zakaria, Mohd Shahir Kasim
Abstract: Demand for complex micro-sized shape components has driven the industries on the development of a new machine and fabrication technique. One of the latest techniques is by combining a sparking electrode wire with a rotating workpiece, known as cylindrical wire electrical discharge turning (CWEDT). However, owing to the uncontrolled discharge energy, the existence of dynamic run-out and valid wire positioning compensation estimations in the CWEDT process affects its capability of producing micro-sized components. This paper proposes a new compensation configuration model for the CWEDT process that aims to improve the dimensional accuracy. The developed configuration model emphasises on the way to obtain the desired diameter that can be used as the input value for positioning the electrode wire through a machine system. Sets of experimental runs were performed to confirm its validity. Analytical results shows that the developed model has improved the part accuracy up to 95% and is capable of eliminating overcut error, hence, verifying its validity.
Keywords: cylindrical wire electrical discharge turning; CWEDT; tool compensation; dimensional accuracy; microfabrication.
An Intelligence technique based control model for power system stabilizer
by Sujata Arora, Leena G.
Abstract: In the power system voltage instability is one of the important issues, and it may cause due voltage sage, voltage swell, change in load and generation of harmonics. To compensate all these problems, the transmission power system makes use of an intelligent control model to improve the stability of power system. In this paper a new adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based power system stabilizer (PSS) for the enhancement of voltage stability in power systems is proposed. A hybrid learning algorithm, which combines the least square method and the back propagation algorithm is used to train the ANFIS. The performance of the power system by using fuzzy based PSS is about 60.1% when compared to that of the conventional PSS. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique the performance of the proposed technique is compared with the results obtained by using fuzzy PSS model and its performance was analyzed. Simulation results described in the paper demonstrate that the adaptive neuro-fuzzy based PSS can give 33.43 %of improvement in voltage stability when compared to that of fuzzy based PSS. over a wide range of operating conditions.
Keywords: Adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); Fuzzy controller; Voltage stability; reactive power; power system stabilizer.
Resource Allocation in Cloud Manufacturing using Bat Algorithm
by Brintha N C, Shajulin Benedict, Winowlin Jappes J T
Abstract: Due to the advancements in information and communication technologies, growing volatility and business competitiveness, manufacturing industries have started to change their strategies of pursuing business. As a consequence of this change, cloud based manufacturing systems have emerged and one of the major challenge in such systems is optimal resource allocation to tasks in production line. However, utilizing manufacturing cloud resources for satisfying job requirements needs much more effort. In our work, we present a better assignment of resource to tasks by having a qualitative analysis of match between task and the resources through the use of adaptive search mechanism. We propose a Bat based heuristic approach, to work on improving computation time, makespan and balance in workload. Progressive experimentation was made in casting of engine block and the results show that, usage of bat algorithm supports rapid convergence. Also, Bat algorithm is used to provide optimal resource allocation among tasks. This algorithm improves workflow performance by minimizing makespan. The proposed workflow approach satisfies large scale production requirements in manufacturing environment and can achieve optimal solution by minimizing delays.
Keywords: Cloud; Manufacturing Cloud; Bat; heuristic; quantitative analysis; adaptive search; rapid convergence.
Analytical Travel Time Models for Single and Double Command of Multi-Aisle automated storage and retrieval system
by Xin Lu, Hongyuan Shi, Li Wang, Dawei Li
Abstract: In this work, we concentrate on analysing the travel time of the storage/retrieval machines in the automatic warehouse. Multi aisle automated storage and retrieval systems equivalent to multiple stocking and taking aisles served by only one storage and retrieval machine. We use the system to save the initial investment costs caused by a single channel system. The purpose of this study is to researching the travel time model of the multi-channel automated storage and retrieval system. Acceleration and deceleration of the storage and retrieval machine (SRM) is takes into account in this paper. There are corners connected between the two channels in the warehouse. This article first studied the except travel time of the SRM for single command instruction. Secondly, the except travel time of the SRM for double command instruction is studied. Finally, we give a numerical example to prove the validity of our model. The results of the analytical travel time model are satisfactory. And it could be very useful tools for designing of multi aisle automated storage and retrieval systems in real-world applications.
Keywords: Travel time; Warehouse; Automated storage and retrieval system; Logistics system; single command; double command.
Adaptive GSA for Power Quality Enhancement in STATCOM connected Distribution Systems
by D. Prakash, R. Mahalakshmi, M. Karpagam
Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive technique to mitigate the PQ of the power system. To mitigate the PQ issues, D-STATCOM device is utilized. D-STATCOM is one of the FACTS gadgets makes it productive answers for enhancing the PQ in distribution system. In the adaptive approach, the PSO algorithm is used for optimizing the Gravitational constant and to improve the searching performance of the Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA). Using the proposed technique, the performance of D-STATCOM is enhanced and obtained the optimal results. The proposed adaptive strategy is utilized to extract the reference current for the D-STATCOM and controlling the dc link voltage. In addition, the proposed adaptive technique based D-STATCOM is utilized for reducing the harmonic disturbances. The reactive power compensation and load balancing is accomplished. The proposed technique is executed in MATLAB/Simulink platform and the simulation analysis is contrasted with the GSA, FLC and ANN controller.
Keywords: D-STATCOM; GSA; PSO; injected current; PQ and voltage.
Performability Evaluation of Transport Modes for Cloud-based Inbound Logistics: A Study Based on Coffee Industry
by Anderson Nascimento, Tavares Eduardo, Gabriel Junior, Erica Sousa, Bruno Nogueira
Abstract: The adoption of cloud computing in supply chains has been growing over the years due to the benefits concerning on-demand resource provisioning and cost reduction. In the context of inbound logistics, cloud computing may also provide mechanisms for information sharing that allows better decisions, for instance, for selecting the best transport mode for a given set of goods and suppliers. However, cloud computing is still new to organizations in supply chain and evaluations should be carried out to assess the tangible gains in this paradigm. This paper presents an approach based on stochastic Petri nets (SPN) for performability assessment of transport modes in cloud-based inbound logistics taking into account sustainability issues and the coffee industry as case study.
Keywords: Supply Chains; Inbound Logistic; Performance Evaluation; Stochastic Petri Nets; Sustainability; Transport Modes; Cloud Computing.
Application of SVM and ELM methods for Power Transformer fault classification
by Latha Pitchiah, Venkatasami Athikkan
Abstract: Power Transformer is one of the important equipment in a power system. It is very essential to keep the equipment in good health. Dissolved gas analysis is one of the tool used for fault classification in power transformer. Among many methods, IEC Ratio method is one of the conventional method for fault classification. Due to its limitation in fault classification, soft computing tools such as support vector machine method and extreme learning machine method are commonly used. In this paper, these two methods are compared using data from IEC TC10 database. Fault classifications based on enthalpy as input features outperforms over the conventional classifications based on gas concentrations as input features
Keywords: Transformer fault classification,rnSupport Vector Machine,rnExtreme Learning Machine; rnIEC TC 10 database.
Automatic Abrasive Blasting System for Large Diameter Pipe Bends
by Longwang Yue, Kong Fah Tee
Abstract: Abrasive blasting is an important surface treatment process. Aiming at overcoming the shortage of the manual abrasive blasting process for large diameter pipe bends, T-pipes and gas collecting tubes, this paper presents the study of automatic abrasive blasting for large diameter pipe bends. According to the requirement of blasting process of large diameter pipe bend, the 5-DOF orthogonal coordinate abrasive blasting mechanism is constructed. Due to the massive dust and serious wear, the seal and protective measures of the mechanism are fully considered. In order to maintain a reliable operation of abrasive blasting system in severe environment, an automatic control system based on PLC is designed. In order to keep a specific angle between the sand-blasting gun and the workpiece surface, which can improve the working efficiency, the surface tracking control model was constructed based on the infrared distance measuring sensors. In order to improve the measurement accuracy of the sensors, the second order linear fitting method based on the least square method was used to calibrate the infrared range sensors. The experimental results indicate that the proposed automatic abrasive blasting system has significance on improving sand blasting quality, working efficiency and environment as well as reducing labor costs.
Keywords: Large Diameter Pipe; Pipe Bend; Automatic Abrasive Blasting; Attitude Adjustment Method; Surface Tracking; Least Squares Method.
An Effective Control topology for Multilevel Inverter with a Z-Source Network
by P. Satheeshkumar, Natarajan S.P., Alamelu Nachiappan, Shanthi B.
Abstract: This document is used to explain about an efficient controlling method of multi level inverter with a z-source network. The proposed method is an efficient control design for the optimization difficulty which contains maximizing or minimizing of a real operation by methodically deciding input values from within a permissible group and calculating the value of the operation. The reduction of error between the real load voltage and its reference value is optimizing the gain parameters in the projected control methodology. It contains better capability to reply quick alterations in different operating situations. The projected method is used to decrease the inrush current, harmonics, increase effectiveness and it develops the exchange effectiveness for broad range of loading situation. It also improves the guideline of the output voltage and capacitor voltage stress. The projected technique is executed in MATLAB/Simulink platform and the efficiency is compared with the predictable methods.
Keywords: GSA algorithm; THD minimization;Switching angle;Multilevel NPC Z-Source inverter.
Study of micro channel fabrications by micromilling
by Xiang Cheng, Guangming Zheng, Xianhai Yang, Rufeng Xu, Yebing Tian
Abstract: In order to bridge the gap between high quality micro channel fabrications and micromilling processes, experimental studies have been conducted. First, single-factor experimental study has been conducted to identify the reasonable ranges of key process parameters considering the size effect in microcutting. Second, Taguchi method has been applied to conduct orthogonal experiments for the optimization of micromilling process parameters. It shows that the importance order in sequence on the surface roughness is the axial depth of cut ap, the feed fz, and the radial depth of cut ae. Then, the regression equation has been introduced to predict the surface roughness according to the key process parameters. Third, three up/down micromilling modes together with two kinds of cutter entry positions have been experimentally studied. It shows the microfuidic channel is better to be micromilled by the commensurate sized micro end mills and the open-end microchannel design is preferred.
Keywords: Micromilling; Optimization; Strategy; Surface roughness; Micro channel; Taguchi method; Orthogonal experiments.
Fuzzy weighted geometric mean approach based FMEA to prioritize lean failure modes in manufacturing industries
by Bhuvanesh Kumar M, Parameshwaran R
Abstract: In the current scenario, manufacturing industries strive hard to increase their efficiency to be competitive. But Indian small and medium manufacturing enterprises still lack in the knowledge of lean manufacturing systems. Unknowingly, the time and energy spent on non-value adding activities are high. This paper presents a methodology called lean failure mode and effects analysis (LFMEA) using fuzzy weighted geometric mean for prioritizing lean failure modes. Fuzzy lean priority number (FLPN) is calculated for the prioritization of lean failure modes using factors like occurrence (O), severity (S) and detection (D) of failure modes. Fuzzy linear programming models and alpha-cut techniques are used for ranking failure modes. For defuzzification of FLPNs, alpha-level set based centroid defuzzification method is used. Based on the FLPN values, lean tools are selected for eliminating/reducing the lean failures. The proposed methodology is illustrated with two case studies from manufacturing sector. The future state implemented with selected lean tools has shown encouraging results. Lead time, cycle time and non value added time are reduced by 11.3%, 14% and 6.1% respectively for a casting industry and 47.3%, 31.3% and 67.2% respectively for an auto components manufacturing industry. The unnecessary movements, man power and inventory are reduced to greater levels. The lean implementation through this methodology confirms positive effects on productivity improvement process.
Keywords: lean manufacturing; value stream mapping; failure mode and effects analysis; lean failure mode; fuzzy logic; fuzzy weighted geometric mean; centroid defuzzification; fuzzy lean priority numbers; foundry industry; casting industry;.
An equivalent conversion method for dual-armed multi-cluster tool scheduling problems with multi-wafer types
by Zhu WANG, Bing-Hai Zhou, Zhiqiang LU, Damien TRENTESAUX, Abdelghani BEKRAR
Abstract: Due to the trend towards 450mm diameter wafers and customization, an increase in wafer diversity and transient operation are anticipated for multi-cluster tools in wafer fabrication. While most previous studies focus on steady state scheduling problem of cluster tools, research on multi-cluster tools scheduling problems with transient operations is still at early stage. This article addresses the dual-armed multi-cluster tools scheduling problem with transient operations and multiple wafer types. The problem is subject to residency constraints, and makespan is adopted as the performance metrics. A non-linear mathematical model of the problem is established. To solve this problem, a time constraint sets-based heuristic algorithm, called the TB algorithm, is proposed in this article. Based on SWAP strategy, this article proposed the conception of virtual buffer modules, thus the TB algorithm converts the dual-armed multi-cluster tool scheduling problem into single-armed multi-cluster tools scheduling problem equivalently. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient.
Keywords: scheduling; algorithm; residency constraints; multi-wafer types; semiconductor manufacturing.
Machining in high pressure coolant Environment- A strategy to improve machining performance: A review
by Hanmant Shete, Madhav Sohani
Abstract: Machining is most commonly preferred production processes. Machining with high pressure coolant, cryogenic coolant, atomized coolant spray are the latest techniques investigated by the researchers to improve the productivity. Researchers have performed the work on various aspects of machining using high pressure coolant. Researchers have investigated effect of coolant related parameters, machining parameters, tool related parameters on surface finish, dimensional accuracy, tool wear, tool life, forces, chip morphology, tool and work piece temperature, wear mechanism during machining of different materials. Researchers have performed the research with regard to coolant type, coolant pressure, flow rate, coolant concentration, coolant jet direction and came up with interesting and beneficial findings. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on high pressure coolant strategy in machining of material with respect to various aspects. The paper present important findings in this area and pinpoints the issues which should be investigated in future.
Keywords: Machining; High Pressure Coolant (HPC); Coolant pressure; Tool wear; Ultra High Pressure Coolant (UHPC); Built up Edge (BUE).
An Integrative Decision Making Model for Sustainable Supply Chains in Indian Industries
by Rajesh R.
Abstract: Increasing considerations for resource utilization and its ecological impacts are typical in Indian manufacturing industries. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) is an effective way for the enterprises to improve their ecological management capacities along with the parallel gain of competitive advantages. An integrative decision making model for SSCM in Indian context is formulated in this research, which considers strategies, interfaces and regulations along with the attributes contributing to each. A flow model was initially constructed and was converted into a network model. The factorial weights were calculated using paired comparison in Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). For the selection of a particular SSCM strategy into implementation, the comparisons of alternatives were done using Analytic Network Process (ANP). The model could be further modified by taking into considerations of the practical aspects of sustainability. Also, the sub attributes of sustainability can be envisioned for the effective evaluation of sustainable supply chains in future. An assessment of two alternative schemes in practice throws insights into many managerial implications of the research. From the study, standardization of nature friendly (NF) technologies, and green segment size, emerges as important for the case supply chain. It is possible for managers to effectively compare various schemes for their sustainability capabilities and this aid in apposite decision- making.
Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable supply chains; Decision making; AHP; ANP.
Promoting adaptive agility through modularity: a Chinese case
by Ling Ding, Jin-xi Wu, Taohua Ouyang
Abstract: Organizational agility is currently a popular topic in a dynamic and uncertain environment as to the academic and practitioner communities. This paper, taking Hisens from Chinas manufacturing as a case, aims to reveal the building process and triggers of adaptive agility through R&D and production of Chinese flat-panel TVs from the perspective of modularity. This paper opens the black box between modularity and adaptive agility. It suggests that the adaptive systems of R&D and production are built through modularity. They can bring adaptive agilities including diversified varieties, advanced features, fast time-to-market, high quality, and low cost (price) in the business ecosystem. Enterprise achieves the balance of degree and overall optimal performance price ratio.
Keywords: Modularity; Organizational agility; Case study; Adaptive system; Chinese manufacture.
Sintering temperature effects on the properties of stainless steel 316L compact fabricated by metal injection moulding
by Nur Syawanie Manam, Wan Sharuzi Wan Harun, Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Afian Omar, Muhammad Hussain Ismail
Abstract: The water atomised stainless steel (SS) 316L powder with composite binder PEG, PMMA and SA were prepared with powder loading 61 vol. %. The MIM compacts were sintered at 1100, 1200, and 1300
Keywords: SS 316L; MIM; sintering temperature; argon atmosphere; sintered density; mechanical properties; optical microstructure.
Effects of tool rotation and powder abrasive on EDM performance of H13 tool steel
by AJAY GUPTA, Anil Kumar, Naveen Beri, Anil Ghubade
Abstract: The present work reports an experimental study on the performance of rotary electro-discharge machining (REDM) on H13 tool steel using rotary copper electrode in the presence of abrasives. Machining performance was evaluated in terms of machining rate and surface roughness. Experiments were conducted with peak current, speed of electrode rotation, concentration of abrasive and pulse on time as process variables. Taguchi methodology was adopted for experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate the influence of input parameters on material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR). This work introduces a new method abrasive mixed REDM of improving machining performance viz. rotation of tool in presence of abrasives. Results indicated that giving rotation to EDM tool results in considerable improvement in MRR and SR. This method successfully removed the debris from the machining area which was one of the major challenges in the existing process and major cause of rough surface due to inactive pulses. It was confirmed experimentally that material removal rate increased by 25.53% and surface roughness decreased by 21.22%.
Keywords: Rotary electric discharge machining; Analysis of variance; Abrasives EDM; Material removal rate; Surface roughness; H13 tool steel.
A dynamic planning model based on graph theory for product platform and module
by Yong-ming Wu, Liang Hou, S.H. Huang, Rongshen Lai
Abstract: Platform and module planning results using traditional methods are usually not consistent with the actual situation in product family design. Research was conducted involving modularization theory and implementation objectives and methods for mass customization (MC) to overcome the difficulty of platform and module dynamic planning/re-design for product family design. A graph-theoretical approach was developed for platform and module planning. Firstly, the commonality of the product parts and the physical structure of the existing product variants were analyzed in a product family. Part commonality and the physical structure of similar products were then modeled using a directed and an undirected graph, respectively. According to market demands, different platform thresholds and boundary parameters of modules were set dynamically. The product platform and modules were then generated in a product family and the potential parts to be used were identified. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach was demonstrated by the dynamic planning of the working devices of small wheel loaders.
Keywords: product family; product platform; modularization; graph theory.
Intelligence Technique for Energy Management of Hybrid Renewable Energy System Connected with AC Load
by T. Bogaraj, J. Kanakaraj
Abstract: In this paper proposed energy management of hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) connected with AC load using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Interference System (ANFIS) technique. This proposed algorithm is developed with an aim of increasing the power transfer capability between the source side and load side and it offers several benefits like the enhanced predicting capability, degradation in complexity as well as the randomization and so forth. Here, the photovoltaic (PV) system, wind turbine (WT), fuel cell (FC), ultra capacitor (UC) and the battery are considered as the energy sources. The ANFIS technique is trained with the inputs such as the previous instant energy of the available sources and the required load demand of the current time and the corresponding target reference power of the sources. According to the load variation, the proposed method makes the appropriate control signals at the testing time to manage the energy of the HRES. The implementation is done using the MATLAB/Simulink platform and the performance of the proposed method is analysed by using the comparison analysis with the existing techniques. The results of comparison confirm that the performance of the proposed method is far better than those of the other approaches and prove its ability in handling the associated issues.
Keywords: ANFIS; HRES; ac load; power transfer; control signals; energy management.
Characterization and modelling of Tool Electrode Wear during Planetary EDM of Titanium Grade 5 alloy
by Vishal Mathai, Harshit Dave, Keyur Desai
Abstract: Despite having a wide acceptability in the manufacturing sector, one of the most critical issues that is still being faced in Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) process is the wear of tool electrode. Since this aberration is unavoidable and heavily dependent on machining conditions and stability, in depth study regarding the effect of various process parameters on the same is essential, irrespective of the machining strategy applied. Planetary actuation of the tool electrode is a technique which is capable of reducing the occurrence of sparking instability, as it facilitates better flushing at inter electrode gap. This paper discusses a detailed experimental study carried out to investigate the effect of machining as well as tool actuation parameters on tool wear rate (TWR) during EDM of titanium grade 5 alloy with planetary tool actuation. End wear and corner wear on the tool electrode have also been studied qualitatively to understand the intensity of material erosion. Two different tool electrode materials, viz. Copper and Graphite with square shape have been used for experimentation. Further, semi empirical models has been developed by incorporating process parameters as well as physical properties of the electrode materials for predicting rate of erosion from the tool electrode. The results predicted by models developed for both copper and graphite electrodes have found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.
Keywords: Wear; EDM; Titanium; Model; Tool Wear Rate; Planetary.
Implementation of Kanban to improve efficiency of a Manufacturing System subject to bottlenecks
by D. Sudarsan, G.D. Sivakumar
Abstract: The strategy of a Kanban is to optimize the inventory level by minimizing the inventory holding cost and the back order level. The number of Kanbans determines the total inventory has been used for manufacturing. A bi-criteria objective performance consisting of weighted tardiness and weighted work-in-process has been utilized for assessment. The bottleneck is a hurdle to reaching the objective. The major role of the projected paper is evolving the model to enhance kanban system in a product manufacturing Industry by various optimization methods by considering the hurdles due to bottleneck operation. These Industrialized models can be used to enhance the system by minimizing the tardiness and work in progress cost in the flow of product at the restricted access point with kanban production scheme. From the solutions attained, the optimal kanban size with minimum tardiness and WIP cost is identified by Harmony Search (HS) optimization algorithm.
Keywords: Kanban process; bottleneck analysis; product manufacturing; industry and optimization techniques.
RANKING OF FACTORS THAT UNDERLIE THE DRIVERS OF SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING BASED ON THEIR VARIATION IN A SAMPLE OF UK MANUFACTURING PLANTS
by Haitem Fargani, Wai M. Cheung, Reaz Hasan
Abstract: The trend towards environmental sustainability has encouraged research to explore this new area in manufacturing. Part of the research effort is directed at identifying the drivers of this new development to understand how it is impacting traditional manufacturing. Government regulations, customer demand, and cost savings are amongst many drivers that have been identified. Research so far, however, represents merely the tip of the iceberg of a very complex phenomenon. A deeper understanding of the factors affecting these drivers is lacking. This study, therefore, aims to identify factors that support some sustainability drivers. This study has identified four key drivers and the factors that underlie them. For example, customer demand is a driver that was found to be influenced by underling factors such as the bargaining power of customers and the importance of environmentally-friendly products to win orders. Ten underlying factors are described and then analysed by conducting statistical tests that show their variation in a sample of manufacturing companies. Based on the principle that the control of variation could lead to potential improvements, these factors are ranked according to their variation in the sample. The novelty of this study is its attempt to provide deeper knowledge of what influence the strength of sustainability drivers by shedding light on the factors that underlie them. The approach used to rank the factors based on their variation is also unique and has the potential to be widely used to identify opportunities for improvements in other areas.
Keywords: Sustainable Manufacturing; Statistical analysis; variation control; Environmental Management; Sustainability Drivers; Operations Management.
Revisiting sustainable EOQ model considering carbon emission
by Hui Ming Wee, Yosef Daryanto, Kuo-Hsing Wu
Abstract: From our review of sustainable EOQ inventory models, most researchers include carbon emission in the objective function or constraint. In this study, we have enriched current researches by in-cooperating sustainability criteria into inventory model. The study develops a sustainable EOQ model by considering carbon emission comes from transportation and warehouse operations; we also consider imperfect quality items and assume complete backordering. A numerical analysis has been provided and it has been shown that our model results in a higher expected total profit per unit time.rnrn
Keywords: Sustainable EOQ; Carbon emission; Imperfect quality; Complete backordering.
Power Factor Correction of the Enhanced SEPIC Converter Using a New Control Methodology
by Sivakumari Murugan, Karthika M, Renuga M
Abstract: In the paper, an enhanced single-ended primary inductance (SEPIC) converter is proposed with BLDC motor drive. The enhanced SEPIC converter is designed with the switched inductor and their control topology is analyzed with the Fractional Order proportional integral and Derivative (FOPID) controller with Ant-Lion Optimizer (ALO) algorithm. The advantage of switched inductor based converter is to provide the high gain ratio and good efficiency. The enhanced control topology of SEPIC with BLDCM is utilized to done the power factor correction and to mitigate power quality (PQ) issues. In a conventional scheme of BLDC motor, the speed is varied by controlling the duty ratio of high-frequency pulse width modulation signals, which increase the switching losses in the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDC motor. However, this paper presents a BLDC motor of which the speed is controlled by adjusting the DC bus voltage of the VSI feeding BLDC motor. Moreover, a fundamental switching frequency of VSI is employed for reduction of its switching losses by operating the BLDC motor in electronic commutation. A PFC-based SEPIC is designed for its operation in discontinuous inductor current mode such that the voltage control is achieved using a single voltage sensor with inherent PFC at AC mains; which also makes it a cost effective solution for low power applications. In the controller topology, the speed of the BLDCM is analyzed with the FOPID controller and generated the control pulses for the optimal operations. The proposed enhanced SEPIC converter based motor drive is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and developed the converter performances. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed enhanced control topology, this is compared with the existing methods, such as, without controller and PID controller topology. The proposed and existing method is tested with the various speeds of BLDCM drive system.
Keywords: SEPIC; BLDC; PFC; ALO; Efficiency; FOPID and PID controller.
Investigation of HFRC beams retrofitted using GFRP for enhancement in flexural capacity
by Vinodkumar M., Muthukannan M.
Abstract: The applications of FRP have been widely used in repair and upgrading of concrete structures. Research and design guidelines accomplished that externally bonded FRP could increase the load carrying capacity of RC elements efficiently. A study was undertaken to investigate the flexural behaviour of Hybid Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HFRC) beams, which were preloaded and retrofitted by externally bonded with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) laminate to the bottom (soffit) of the beam. The compressive, split tensile and flexural strength tests were conducted to find the optimum percentage of hybrid fibre which can be used for casting of beam specimens. Two sets each containing 3 numbers of beams were cast and tested in this study. Based on the test results, it is found that the HFRC beams retrofitted with GFRP show an improvement in load carrying capacity of about 45% and 23% than the same set of retrofitted control beams.
Keywords: Hybid Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HFRC); Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) laminate; Steel; Glass and Polypropylene fibres; non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) ANSYS.
Modeling and Analysis on Influential Machining Parameters of 38MnSiVS5 Micro alloyed Steel by D-Optimal Design
by MUNIRAJ Subramaniyam, Nambi Muthukrishnan
Abstract: This article presents the experimentally comparison on machining of Micro Alloyed Steel (MAS) of cylindrical rods with 80 mm diameter and length of 350 mm using the medium-duty lathe of 7.5 kW spindle power at 1600 rpm to set the guide lines and to understand the machining behaviour of MAS using K20 uncoated, single layer (TiN) coated and multi-coated (TiN-TiCN-Al2O3-ZrCN) carbide insert. The mathematical modeling and optimum cutting parameters have been identified by Response Surface Method (RSM) based D-Optimal Design technique. Significant contribution of parameters can then be determined by Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA). Experimental results have shown that surface roughness performance can be improved effectively through this approach. . The results shown the relation between the machining parameters such as cutting speed, depth of cut and federate on surface quality and also the role of cutting parameters on cutting force. It is concluded that, the experimental values are in reasonable concord with the proposed model values. The proposed model and analysis is very effectual in the turning operation of micro alloy steel.
Keywords: ANOVA,Cutting Force,Responsesurface Method-D-Optimal method,surface roughness; Turning.
Prediction of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Microexplosion Process in C.I Engine by Utilizing NN-IABC Approach
by Selvaraj Manickam, Sentilkumar P.
Abstract: The world is getting modernized and industrialized step by step. Utilization of traditional diesel fuel causes a difficult issue of air contamination and consequences for the earth prompting impact like nursery, a few considers diesel fuel brings about high discharge in diesel motor. In this paper propose a Jatropha bio-diesel, which can be utilized as an option diesel fuel, is produced using inexhaustible natural sources, for example, vegetable oil and creature fats. The principle destinations of this paper are to examine the execution and discharges qualities of a Compression Ignition (CI) Engine keep running with biodiesel under miniaturized scale blast handle with different loads and weight. The test consequences of SFC, SEC, TFC, BP, BTE and fumes temperature and additionally CO2, O2, NOx, CO and HC outflows were displayed and talked about by the assistance of NN improvement with IABC calculation. In view of the exploratory outcomes NN performs preferred outcome over ordinary calculations. The improvement calculations foresee the parameters viably and executed in MATLAB programming.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Compression Ignition engine; microexplosion; NN; IABC.
Design of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller for Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
by Brijet Z, Bharathi N
Abstract: Modeling and controlling of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) is a challenging problem since it is a highly nonlinear and interacting process. Model of FCCU that describes the dynamic behavior of reactor and regenerator has been developed by considering energy and material balance equations. Fuzzy logic control technique in the field of intelligent control has been used in this paper, since it handles uncertainty very well. In this work, centralized mamdani types T1FLC and T2FLC have been designed for FCCU to control the reactor and regenerator temperature. The closed loop simulation study for servo and servo with regulatory performance has been carried out for the two controllers and the performances have been analyzed. The comparative study of these two control schemes reveals that the Type2FLC gives better performance than Type1FLC.
Keywords: fuzzy logic; intelligent control; reactor; regenerator; fluid catalytic cracking unit.
Dual-Network Embeddedness, Absorptive Capacity, and Enterprise Innovation Performance: Evidence from the Chinese Hi-Tech Manufacturing Industry
by Qian Sun, Renyong Hou, Gebremichael Hailekiros
Abstract: Embedded innovation represents a new innovation mode. However, the relationships among network embeddedness, absorptive capacity and enterprise innovation performance remain unclear. This paper develops a conceptual framework of value chain and knowledge chain embeddedness, absorptive capacity and enterprise innovation performance to reveal the mechanism of dual-network embeddedness in enterprise innovation performance from an absorptive capacity perspective. Structural equation modelling and survey data from the hi-tech manufacturing industry in China are used. The results reveal that (1) both value chain embeddedness and knowledge chain embeddedness enhance enterprise innovation performance, but (2) they promote enterprise innovation performance in different ways. Knowledge chain embeddedness promotes enterprise innovation performance through assimilation capacity, while value chain embeddedness promotes enterprise innovation performance through search and acquisition capacity. Suggestions are presented on how to enhance enterprise innovation performance from the network embeddedness and absorptive capacity perspectives.
Keywords: Network Embeddedness; Enterprise Innovation Performance; Absorptive Capacity; Value Chain; Knowledge Chain; Hi-Tech Manufacturing Industry.
QUANTIZATION OF DRIVING ENABLERS ENABLING TRANSITION FROM TRADITIONAL TO FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
by PRABHU DUBEY, Prashant Chauhan, Prashant Shekhar, Prakhar Agrawal, Paras Sharma
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to empirically test a conceptual framework based upon three constructs, i.e.: 1) top level management (TLM); 2) clear vision (CV); 3) support from government(SFG). TLM is measured in terms of: 1) qualification of employees; 2) behaviour with subordinates; 3) strategic planning; 4) long- term goals. CV is measured in terms of: 1) willingness of employees to change; 2) long- term planning; 3) core competency; 4) scheduling. Availability of SFG is measured in terms of: 1) infrastructure facility; 2) availability of loans; 3) adequate supply of energy; 4) feasibility of trading; 5) approval of project; 6) governments cooperation. Various statistical techniques were used to verify, validate and test the reliability of the hypothesis and their sub- dimensions. Results of structural modeling (SEM) revealed that TLM dimension has a direct and significant impact towards CV (0.83) and SFG (0.62). Also, CV dimension shows a direct, positive impact on SFG (0.70).
Keywords: top level management; clear vision; support from government; structural equation modeling.
An Adaptive Customized GA optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller based DVR to Mitigate Voltage Disturbance in DFIG based WPGS
by Sugirtha M.G, Latha P
Abstract: The increased permeation of Wind Power Generation System (WPGS) into grid has resolved enormous energy demand in the past- present decades. The WPGS suffers a lot due to uncertain wind flow and this negatively impacts the quality of power served into the power distribution network. In this paper, Customized Genetic Algorithm (CGA) based optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) based Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is modelled to protect WPGS, grid loads, mitigate the voltage disturbances and to improve the quality of power served into the distribution network. The DVR is chosen, as it is an efficient device for compensation of voltage based power quality issues in distribution system. Further, the proposed DVR uses CGA optimized FLC to control both d and q voltage components of the system. The outstanding aspect of the proposed controller is that, it not only compensates harmonics in the load voltage it also compensates unbalanced sag/swell raised in the distribution voltage and further, prevents WPGS from terminating during grid faults. The performance of the proposed DVR controller is analyzed for different fault condition using simulation studies carried out in MATLAB /Simulink environment.
Keywords: Wind Power Generation System; Doubly fed induction generator; Fuzzy Logic Controller; Dynamic Voltage Restorer; Genetic Algorithm.
Microstructural Comparison and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 316L Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting and Metal Injection Moulding Processes
by Mohd Faizul Farhan Ahmad Hamidi, Wan Sharuzi Wan Harun, Nur Zalikha Khalil, Mahendran Samykano
Abstract: Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process is one of an additive manufacturing technology that has the capabilities of fabricating complex geometries with an excellent accuracy and resolution. Compared to conventional powder metallurgy techniques Metal Injection Moulding (MIM), SLM has several advantages such as low production cost for small batch fabrication, high degrees of geometrical freedom and customization, and short cycle time. The present work analyses and compares the tensile properties and metallography differences of the stainless steel 316L compacts fabricated by two powder-based manufacturing processes; SLM and MIM, respectively. The SLM compact was built at 0-degree building orientation by SLM 125 HL machine with default optimum processing parameters for stainless steel 316L powder. On the other hand, MIM process produced similar dimension of tensile-shaped compacts differently that by sintered at three different sintering conditions in highly pure argon flow atmosphere. The tensile testing revealed that SLM tensile compact was higher in tensile strength (29 % more) and elongation (62 % more) at fracture as compared to MIM compact. From microstructure observation, the MIM compact showed the presence of significant amount of porosity which led to moderate mechanical properties compared to SLM compact performances.
Keywords: Selective laser melting; metal injection moulding; mechanical properties; microstructure.
Grey- Relational Analysis of Fluid Assisted Blank Holding System in Deep Drawing Process for Al Alloy 1050 by Using a Numerical Simulation
by Nitin Kamble, Bhagwan Sonawane, B.B. Ahuja, Sandeep Sarnobat
Abstract: The objectives of this work is to develop a fluid assisted blank holding (FAB) system for deep drawing process and to study the effect of process parameters on thickness distribution, wrinkling and strain rate for Al 1050 through experiments. Deep drawing method have been investigated on Al alloy 1050 material, which is one of the lightest material for manufacturing parts. Limiting Drawing Ratio (LDR) has been improved compared to the conventional constant force mechanical blank holding system. Experiments were carried out by considering input parameters as punch force and blank holding force. The responses were measured using a modern photogrammetric measurement system named ARGUS. Multi objective optimization technique Grey Relational analysis have been used to find out optimum process parameters for the present conditions. The experimental results reveal that the quality of the resultant cup has been enhanced in terms of thickness distribution, strain rate and surface finish. The effectiveness of the FAB process has also been verified through simulation tools such as LS Dyna and FEA. These results were compared with the experimental results.
Keywords: Fluid assisted Blank Holding system (FAB); Al 1050 Alloy; Argus Mehod; Grey Relational Analysis; FEA Simulation Ls Dyna.
ABRASIVE WATER JET MACHINING PROCESS PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION FOR MACHINING OF COMPLEX PROFILED COMPONENT FROM INCONEL 718 SUPER ALLOYS
by Vishnu M, Saleeshya P.G
Abstract: The demands for machining complex profile from difficult-to-machine materials find wide applications in various industries, that has been triggered the neck for development of advanced machining technologies, specifically non-conventional processes and associated optimization of machining parameter. Keeping in view the applications of Inconel-718 material for Aerospace applications, it has been selected as the specimen material for machining complex profiled component on KMT Steam line SL-V50 Water jet five axes CNC Abrasive Water Jet Machine at the research organisation. In the present work AWJM (Abrasive water jet machine) process parameters are optimized by Taguchi- Grey relational method on dimensions, geometries and surface roughness of complex curved contours. Additionally, the Pareto ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) of grey relational grade is also applied to find the most significant process parameter. Traverse speed is found to be the most significant process parameter for profile cutting in AWJM, also Confirmation experiments were conducted to validate the results. The experiment was done for a specified profile for cross sectional thickness of 6.6 mm and 18 sets of experiments were conducted based on stark‟s L18 orthogonal array.
Keywords: Grey relational analysis; AWJM; complex profile cutting; Inconel 718; Pareto ANOVA.
An Adaptive method for improving the Dynamic Performance of Two Area Power System using CS based neural network
by Jeha Jacob, Raja S
Abstract: An adaptive method is estimated for emerging the energetic performance of the two region power system with the help of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) gadget in this article. An adaptive method is the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm between neural networks (NN) is burdened to enhance the steadiness of the summarized two region power scheme illustration and assessed the power producer reactance and inactivity in the transmission demonstration. The CS algorithm is enhanced the energetic constraint and the NN is enlarging the probing activities of the anticipated algorithm. The anticipated technique is involved in assessing the energetic performance of the general apparatus for all regions setting the voltage and current constraint at the transactional end of the transmission demonstration. The originality of the predictable system is to assess and reservation the inter region energetic constraint of radial, two apparatus shortened apparatus power system illustration with the help of transactional energetic voltage and current constraint regulator. At this time the voltage regulator alike to TCSC device is engaged to accomplish the voltage constraint and feat the bus voltage phasor information at many buses along with the voltage manage bus and the demonstration currents on the power transmission demonstration. The anticipated method is midpoint on the transmission demonstrations which is affianced with the help of the TCSC for comforting the voltage and disrespects the blooper signal in the system, the three step blunder signal is beneficial in the two region power system. Subsequently, the energetic performance of the summarized two apparatus power system is envisioned with the help of the anticipated method and enhanced the energetic fortification. The anticipated procedure is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink functioning platform and also the productivity performance is assessed and compared with the prevailing methods like deficient of FACTS devices, with FACTS devices, three phase blunder condition, GA together with TCSC and ABC with TCSC congruently.
Keywords: Two machine reduced model; Dynamic parameters; Voltage and current parameters; TCSC; CS algorithm; NN technique and Reactance and Inertias.
Deterring Independent Remanufacturers by Strategic Inventory
by Zhongkai Xiong, Nian Guo
Abstract: In many industries independent remanufacturers (IRs) abound and their remanufactured products impose an external threat on the new products of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). To cope with the threat, conventional wisdom suggests OEMs involve in the remanufacturing process. However, in reality there are still many OEMs who are unwilling to adopt the remanufacturing strategy worrying their own remanufactured products would cause an internal competition and cannibalize with their new products. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for OEMs to deal with the dilemma. Specifically, we use a two-period model to show by building up strategic inventory in the first period, OEMs can successfully deter the entrance of IRs. The strategic inventory strategy works because it can be used as a commitment device to convey a credible information that there will be enough new products in the second period and entering the market will be rendered unprofitable for IRs.
Keywords: strategic inventory; entry-deterrence; closed-loop supply chain; remanufacturing.
Collaboration between Universities, Government, and Industries ~applying the Triple Helix relationship model to Indonesian education improvement ~
by Mingchang Wu, Ibnu Siswanto
Abstract: Triple helix model is a dynamic interaction approach to facilitate the government, industry, and academia for continuously generating innovative products to encounter the globally knowledge-based economic trend. This article firstly reviews and analyses the purposes, operations, and effects of the three sectors collaboration at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Empire state development division of science, technology and innovation, Medicon Valley, and BioStar. Three supporting factors are identified, human resources quality, competitive supporting system, and entrepreneurship, as the key factors for the successful trilateral collaboration. The second part of the article presents a conceptual framework to implement the mutual collaboration model in Indonesia. Finally, this paper suggests the three institutions in Indonesia to actively reconstruct their roles in society to create new innovative product and/or innovative area creation in order to speed up the growth of knowledge-based economy, which in turn provide well-being and comfort for the individual and society.
Keywords: university; government; industry; Triple Helix model; Indonesia.
Cellular layout cell assignment in cellular manufacturing system layout using colonel selection algorithm with considering entry and exit position of the parts to be processed in the layout
by V. Anbumalar, R. Mayandy, M. Shunmugasundaram
Abstract: Cell formation and facility layout formation are the two important steps in a cellular manufacturing system. The cell formation is a combination of part families identification and machine cell formation. The facility layout formation is defined as the determination of the relative locations for allocating the workstations in the available space. In this paper, the cells are assigned optimally in the cellular manufacturing system layout with an objective of minimize the traveling score for a planning horizon using colonel selection algorithm with considering the entry and exit point of the parts to be processed in the cell in addition to sequence of operation and demand required for a planning horizon. The results obtained by the proposed colonel selection algorithm are compared with few heuristic and Meta-heuristic algorithms available in the literature and shows it gives better results.
Keywords: cellular layout; cellular manufacturing system; clonical selection algorithm; fixed entry and exit point; total traveling score.
Machining Parametric Data Analysis and Optimisation Using Taguchi and Swarm Intelligence
by Rekha Rajasekaran
Abstract: Accuracy and precision, the two important aspects of quality are vital issues for many industries, such as aeronautical, automobile, electronics, medical equipments etc. To improve the quality of components, and to trim down the production costs and to amplify the productivity, it is very imperative to choose the suitable operating parameters. Even though substantial progresses have occurred in near-net-shape manufacturing, surface finish operations are very much essential to obtain dimensional tolerance as well as good surface finish. Grinding which is a finishing process is affected by multiple factors such as tool, workpiece, mechanism and procedure. Optimisation of external cylindrical grinding operation will be a solution for selecting the suitable grinding parameters in a cost-effective way. In the present work, experiments are carried out according to Taguchi L27 orthogonal array and statistical models based on regression analysis are developed for various responses. Subsequently, optimisation of grinding parameters is carried out using the swarm intelligence. The developed statistical model and the results of optimisation are validated experimentally.
Keywords: Cylindrical grinding. Taguchi. Empirical model. Particle Swarm Optimization.
A Review on Application of Genetic Algorithms in Cellular Manufacturing Systems
by Barnali Chaudhuri, R.K. Jana, Manojit Chattopadhyay, Pranab Dan
Abstract: This study provides a systematic and integrated review of articles, puts up perspective into conceptualization and various critical parameters for research on the application of genetic algorithms to cell design of cellular manufacturing systems during the period 1992 to 2015. Taxonomy of genetic algorithms applications in cellular manufacturing systems is suggested by identifying 10 objectives/criteria, 33 production factors, and 10 performance measures. Considering the heterogeneity of parameters and operators applied by researchers, a metrics for genetic algorithms is developed. The objective of this study is to identify the research trends, chronological progress, the continuous development and the changing pattern of implementation of genetic algorithms in cellular manufacturing systems.
Keywords: Cell Formation; Cellular Manufacturing Systems; Genetic Algorithms; Hybrid Genetic Algorithms; Review.
Effect of Machining Parameters in Drilling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite with Modified AJM Process.
by Basanta Kumar Nanda, Debabrata Dhupal
Abstract: Conventional drilling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite produces delamination effect due to peel-up and pull out of the layers. This research work represents drilling of GFRP rectangular workpieces with fluidized bed abrasive jet machining (FB-AJM) process using silicon carbide (SiC) abrasives. Experiments were conducted according to Box-Behnken design matrix to measure the four responses, namely, material removal rate (W), surface roughness (Ra), depth of cut (h), and taper angle (TA) by utilizing bed pressure (P), nozzle tip distance (Z) and abrasive grain size (G) as input parameters. Desirability based particle swarm optimization (PSO) was performed for the multi-objective optimization to find the optimal input parameters P, Z and G of 6 kgf/cm2, 7 mm, 260μm respectively. A single experiment was performed at the predicted optimal conditions to validate the model with minimum error. The SEM analysis of the machined composite surface revealed the initiation and propagation of cracks along with embedment of erodent particle.
Keywords: Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP); fluidized bed abrasive jet machining (FB-AJM); silicon carbide (SiC); response surface methodology (RSM); Desirability-Function; particle swarm optimization (PSO).
Evaluation of Fuzzy Logic modeling and Response Surface Methodology modeling for determining Appropriate Drilling Parameters of Magnesium AZ91
by Varatharajulu Muthukrishnan, Jayaprakash Govindarajalu, Baskar N
Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) alloy is extensively used in the automotive and aircraft industries due to its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratios. During drilling the degree of drilling time, burr height, thickness, and roughness of the Mg material plays a significant role, though any irregularities will reduce the final quality of the product and increases the production time. Deburring processes are not yet well automated, understanding of the burr development in drilling and its principal parameters are important for controlling the burr development at the machining stage itself. Likewise the other process parameter needs automation. The present work deals with the development of intelligent systems for drilling process using Fuzzy Logic (FL). The spindle speed, feed rate and drill diameter are considered as process parameters and responses are drilling time, burr height, burr thickness and roughness over Mg AZ91 with Solid Carbide (SC) tool. Two different approaches have been developed to predict the responses. They are Mandani-based fuzzy model and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The FL gives better results for burr height and roughness than RSM model rather drilling time and burr thickness are better in RSM.
Keywords: Machining Processes; FL; RSM; Mg; Drilling time; Burr; Roughness.
Robust Design Optimization of Constituent Mix and WEDM Electrical Parameters of AA6063/SiC Composites
by Iyyadurai Balasubramanian, Rathinam Maheswaran
Abstract: This paper addresses robust design and development of aluminium based composite materials with ceramic silicon carbide reinforcement with minimum sensitivity subjected to uncontrollable material factor constituent mix of the composite and Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) electrical machine setting parameters. The robust design reduces the variation in machinability performance of composite caused variations due to the unforeseen input parameters. In manufacturing sectors, the variation in performance is a major problem during the development of material for a process or product. The popular Taguchi parametric design approach is implemented in this work, to identify the best optimum parameter setting towards the single characteristic optimization of machinability performance measures like surface roughness, material removal rate and cutting width, by machining AA6063/SiC composites with different constituent mix through different levels of Electronica Sprintcut WEDM electrical machine setting parameters like pulse on time, pulse off time and peak current.
Keywords: Constituent mix; Wire Electric Discharge Machining; Surface Roughness; Material Removal Rate; Cutting Width; Pulse on time; Pulse off time; Peak current.
Application of MOORA Method to Optimize Multiple Quality Characteristics during Turning of Nickel Based Super Alloy
by Akhtar Khan, Himadri Majumder, Deepak Kumar Naik, Ashwini Bhoi, Abhishek Sharma
Abstract: In the present paper the applicability of a multi-objective optimization based on ratio analysis (MOORA) method has been reported. A round bar of Inconel 718 was turned in a dry cutting environment with the help of square shaped carbide inserts. Experiments were carried out according to Taguchis L9 orthogonal array. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were considered as three different process variables each at three different levels. At the same time, the cutting force and surface roughness were measured with an aim to obtain the optimal cutting condition for machining the work material. The MOORA method was utilized for the simultaneous optimization of cut qualities viz. cutting force and surface roughness respectively. The results indicate that minimum cutting force and higher surface finish can be attained in the following cutting condition: cutting speed of 75 mm/min, feed rate of 0.08 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.1 mm.
Keywords: Carbide tools; Inconel 718; MOORA; optimization; Taguchi.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF COLD ORBITAL FORGING PROCESS FOR GEAR MANUFACTURING
by Sundar Singh Sivam, Avishek Mishra, Shubham Mishra, Arpan Mondal, Gopal M
Abstract: Cold orbital forming is an novel metal forming process, which is employed to manufacture various parts such as gears, rings, disks etc. In this method, one of the dies is tilted to some angle and the top die performs a rocking motion. As a result the contact area between the die and work piece changes frequently. The final product that is obtained has a specific number of incremental steps and the work piece undergoes cyclic loading. The simulation of the whole setup is carried out and based on the result conclusions are drawn. The billet dimension play a significant role in the final output obtained by the forging process to have a better insight over the process two cases with dissimilar diameter are consider so as to study various cases that may arise due to the metal flow during the process. Two different cases one with work piece diameter 60mm and the other case with work piece diameter 80mm are chosen for understanding how different billet dimensions predict the gear product. Graphs of various basic parameters such as strain rate, plastic strain, temperature etc. are obtained and comparisons are drawn between the two cases. The graph patterns obtained are considered for the study of the process. This pa-per presents a brief overview of cold orbital forging process, its mechanical characteristics based on simulation of the gear.
Keywords: Cold orbital forming; Gear Manufacturing; near net shape technique.
How does justice matter in developing supply chain trust and improving information sharing An empirical study in Pakistan
by Sahar Erfanian, Muhammad Ziaullah, Muhammad Abubakar Tahir
Abstract: In supply chain management information sharing has become a major driver of competitive advantage. Because organizations are an essential part of globalized competitive economies which are characterized by the network of intra and inter-firms relationships. Information sharing is an important prerequisite of supply chain integration. This article proposes to examine the association between supply chain justice, trust and information sharing. It presents a conceptual framework in which supply chain justice can affect information sharing through the development of trust between trade channel partners. The conceptual model comprises four hypotheses. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis to test the validity and reliability of the model. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling on data collected from 170 firms of Pakistan. The study results indicate the importance for firms to promote supply chain justice in the whole supply chain for the development of partners trust, which can improve the high level of information sharing. Finally, implications for practice, limitations, and guidelines for future research are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: information sharing; supply chain integration; justice; trust; Pakistan.
On process analysis and optimisation of Nd: YAG laser cutting characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using RSM and NSGA-II
by D. Rajamani
Abstract: In recent years, titanium alloys has find diversified applications in aerospace, manufacturing and processing industries due to its unique characteristics. Ti alloys are difficult to cut by conventional machining techniques due to their uneven temperature distribution and high tool wear rate. The present study investigates the influence of major pulsed Nd: YAG laser process variables (i.e., pulse width, pulse energy, cutting speed, and gas pressure) on different performance measures (kerf deviation (KD) and metal removal rate (MRR)) during cutting of Ti-6Al-4V superalloy sheet. The experiments are designed and carried out based on RSM based Box-Behnken statistical design and the adequacy of developed mathematical model was analysed through ANOVA technique. Then, the optimal settings of operating conditions were predicted using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA II). The microstructures of laser cut surfaces were investigated and correlated using scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Keywords: Ti-6Al-4V; laser cutting; optimisation; ANOVA; RSM; NSGA II; kerf deviation; material removal rate; microstructure.
Solution for Multi-Objective Single Row Facility Layout Problem using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
by Lenin N
Abstract: Facility layout design is an important area of research. An optimized layout helps to ensure a high level of machine usability, in addition to achieving common engineering objectives such as reducing cost and increasing performance. However, facility layout is a multi-objective design optimization problem and, as such, it is difficult to solve. The aim of this original research work is to design an optimal linear machine sequence that minimizes the following parameters: the total investment cost of machines; the total number of machines in the final sequence; the total flow time of the products; and the total flow distance of the products. Particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to determine the optimal layout. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by solving a number of typical layout design problems taken from literature as well as several randomly-generated problems. Compared with previous approaches, the proposed algorithm generates good results in most of the problems. Maximum of 19.1% reduction in total flow distance of products, 12.8% reduction in total investment cost of machines, 28.4% reduction in total flow time of products and reduction of 2 numbers of machines in the final sequence are achieved by proposed method compared with the previous approaches.
Keywords: Linear machine sequence; Particle swarm optimization algorithm; Investment cost of machines; Flow time; Flow distance.
Speed Control of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) by Genetic Algorithm Based Optimal H-infinity Control Approach
by A. Rajendran, S. Padma
Abstract: In classical H- Infinity control technique, the uncertainties have parameters namely model error and variation outer disorder. But, the H-infinity control technique is an external control technique. The weight of the transfer function matrix is changed at different system state. Therefore, an optimal control weight is needed to make the system robust. The process of finding optimal control weight is complex because the H-infinity control process is a closed loop controller. To overcome these difficulties, in this paper, an optimal H-infinity control concept is proposed. In the proposed control procedure, the optimal transfer function matrix weight is obtained by genetic algorithm (GA) which is an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method is implemented in MATLAB and the speed of the SRM is controlled. Then the weight noise setting is obtained for every time instant. The optimal weight noise setting can be attained by H- infinity optimal control using GA approach.
Keywords: switched reluctance motor; Speed Control Technique; Optimal H-infinity Control; Robustness and genetic algorithm.
SIMULATED ANNEALING ALGORITHM FOR MINIMIZING ASSEMBLY VARIATION IN NONLINEAR ASSEMBLY
by R. Sivasubramanian, G. Venkatesan, M. Sivakumar, R. Sivasankar
Abstract: Precision assemblies need close tolerance components. A close tolerance component requires secondary operations, which increase the manufacturing cost considerably. A good number of methods like uniform grouping, equal probability, uniform tolerance etc., were discussed in literature focused generally on reducing surplus parts or minimizing clearance variation in selective assembly (SA) on the linear assembly. Moreover, existing techniques have used components tolerance for obtaining the best bin combinations rather than using the components dimension. The present work aims to obtain maximum number of products with closer assembly specification from wider tolerance sub components of a non-linear assembly by mating their components dimension based on the best bin combinations. Overrunning clutch assembly (OCA) is considered as an example problem, in which the sub components are manufactured with wide tolerance and partitioned into three to ten bins. A combination of best bins is obtained for the various assembly specifications by implementing Simulating Annealing Algorithm (SAA). The proposed method is proved its effectiveness through showing 24.9% of cost saving in making OCA.
Keywords: Tolerance; Clearance Variation; Non-Linear Assembly; Over Running Clutch Assembly and Simulated Annealing Algorithm.
Experimental Investigations on the Electrodeposition of Ni on Copper Substrate
by Aniket Das, Surekha B, Srinivasa Sai V
Abstract: In the present investigation, an attempt is made to study the electrodeposition of Ni coatings on the copper substrate. It is important to note that the addition of nickel on the copper surface improves the strength and corrosion resistance by allowing the alloy base substrate remain ductile. In this research, Watts bath has been used to perform the electrodeposition of Ni layer on copper substrate. During experimentation, the variables, such as current, solution concentration and electroplating time are considered as the input process parameters and metal deposition rate and micro hardness of the coating are treated as the responses. The number of experiments conducted to study the electrodeposition process has been decided based on the central composite design of experiments. It has been observed that the metal deposition rate and micro hardness of the coating is increased with the increase in the operating range of the input process parameters
Keywords: Electrodeposition; Ni coating; copper substrate; central composite design of experiments.
Modified Firefly Algorithm and Fuzzy based FOPID controller for Load Frequency Control of a power system
by Naresh Kumari, Nitin Malik, A.N. Jha
Abstract: In this paper, Fractional Order Proportional Integral Derivative (FOPID) controller is proposed for load frequency control (LFC) in an interconnected power system. For proper tuning of the FOPID controller parameters, modified firefly algorithm (modified FA) with Fuzzy Logic control (FLC) technique is used. It is a new evolutionary algorithm with proved efficiency. A modified FA is investigated with the help of genetic algorithm (GA). The aim of the proposed method is to minimize the deviation in frequency of the integrated system. Random movement factor of firefly algorithm is improved by hybridizing the GA with classical firefly algorithm. In firefly algorithm, the next movement of firefly depends on the movement factor which is determined randomly so the best movement of firefly has possibility to fail by the distribution of random number. Thus, the optimal tuning of FOPID controller parameters can never able to recognize accurately. So, in this paper, a GA based optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal random movement factor of fireflies. Thus, the optimal tuning and load frequency is determined efficiently when compared to traditional fire fly algorithm. Moreover, FLC is added to get the optimal performances of the power system. The output of the modified FA is applied to the input of FLC. Here, simulation investigations are carried out on an interconnected power system that the integration of different energy resources like offshore wind, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage elements like flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS) are considered. The proposed controller is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink platform and the load frequency control responses are evaluated. The performances of proposed controller are compared with PID controller; Fuzzy based FOPID controller and FA-FOPID controller.
Keywords: FOPID controller; modified firefly algorithm; GA; fuzzy logic controller; load frequency; wind turbine and PV system.
Optimized Fault Tolerant Core based ASIC Design for SRAM
by T. Suresh, Z. Brijet
Abstract: SRAMs are suitable to the applications of space and other radiation environment. Unfortunately, SRAMs are vulnerable to Single Event Upsets (SEUs) induced by radiation environments particles. So, the designer needs to validate an efficiency of the developed designs to detect and correct the errors. In this paper, an error-detection Hamming code which can be used to detect single and multiple bit errors and correct these errors in SRAMs has been proposed. It is a novel self-repairing approach for fast fault recovery with an optimized design which requires less number of resources, which can be easily applied to real time complex digital applications. The fault tolerant core is verified using Hamming code and synthesized using Xilinx ISE 14.5 and Cadence RTL compiler targeted to UMC90nm CMOS technology. After the successful synthesis the physical design using the CADENCE ENCOUNTER has been created. The physical design involves the floor planning, routing and generating a GDS II file. The total optimized area is about 3512mm
Keywords: Fault tolerance; SRAMs; Hamming code; Single-event-upset (SEU).
FPGA Implementation of Gate Level Modified Adaptive Filter Architecture for Noise Cancellation Application
by Gomathi Swaminathan, Murugesan G
Abstract: This paper provides an approach for the implementation of modifications in the gate level in the adaptive filter architecture. An adaptive filter is appreciable when processing real time data and under the conditions when the signal statistics are not known a priori. Filtering data in real time needs a dedicated hardware. The resources available for implementing an efficient digital filtering algorithm are present in Field Programmable Gate Array. To design a dedicated hardware with low computational complexity, an approach of gate level modifications is incorporated in the EX-OR gate and the modified EX-OR gate is implemented in the coefficient decimation method. The proposed modified coefficient decimation method is applied in the adaptive algorithms such as Recursive Least Square, Affine Projection, and Kalman algorithm. The designed structures are experimented with the ECG and speech signal and implemented in the Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. Simulation and implementation results infer area reduction is achieved up to 50% and delay reduction of 10% is obtained in the proposed structures.
Keywords: Field Programmable Gate Array; EX-OR; ECG; hardware; XILINX System Generator; full adder; half adder.
The International Location Decision: A Study of Manufacturing Firms
by Ebou Touray, Andreas Schmidt, Zaza Hansen
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to build a broader understanding of the international location decision (ILD) of manufacturing by investigating and mapping Danish manufacturing firms related activities and underlying processes. Using an exploratory survey approach on 17 Danish firms, the study shows there is less emphasis on cost than in past studies and a large unstructured human influence. A framework containing six categories of ILD factors cost, labor and social characteristics, infrastructure, politics and regulations, economics, and markets and resources and an assessment of their respective single factors are presented. Lastly, the paper identifies five major shortcomings in the current practice: unstructured processes, noninvolvement of the operational level of the organization, static perspective of dynamic factors, uneven balance between quantitative and qualitative factors, and no organizational learning.
Keywords: The International Location Decision; manufacturing firms; framework; shortcomings.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS IN WEDM OF TITANIUM GRADE 6 THROUGH PROCESS CAPABILITY INDEX
by Himadri Majumder, Kalipada Maity
Abstract: Consistent investigation, control and monitoring of the manufacturing processes are the precondition organizations that have to consider in order to obtain excellent products. Nowadays manufacturing industry apprise process capability index (Cpi) to evaluate the nature of their things with an aspect to enhance quality and also to improve the productivity by cutting down the operating cost. In this paper, process capability analysis was applied during wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) of titanium grade 6, to study the process performance within specific limits. Four machining input parameters viz. pulse ON time, pulse OFF time, wire feed and wire tension were chosen for process capability study. Experiments were carried out according to Taguchis L27 orthogonal array. The value of Cpi was evaluated for two machining attributes, namely average surface roughness and material removal rate. For these two machining qualities single response optimization was executed to explore the input settings, which could optimize WEDM process ability. Optimum parameter settings for average surface roughness and MRR were found to be TON: 115
Keywords: MRR; Process capability analysis; Surface roughness; WEDM.
A comprehensive VIKOR model for the selection of optimal parametric combination during plasma arc cutting of abrex material: A case study
by Deepak Kumar Naik, Kalipada Maity
Abstract: The purpose of this research work is to propose a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique namely VIKOR, to determine an optimum cutting condition during plasma arc cutting (PAC) of abrex 400 material plate. In this paper, high abrasion resistant and high strength material abrex 400 of 5 mm thickness has been used to cut through plasma arc cutting process. The input factors were selected as cutting current, gas supply pressure and cutting speed. The article recommends the optimal machine setting with an aim to maximize the material removal rate and to minimize chamfer and kerf as output characteristics with the help of VIKOR method. An ANOVA test was established to evaluate the significance of process parameter and revealed that the cutting speed was the most significant process parameter followed by supply gas pressure and cutting current. The results indicated that, the suggested VIKOR method is capable of identifying the most preferable parametric setting within the specified range of process variables. Comparison between VIKOR and desirability approach (DA) shows the effectiveness of VIKOR over desirability approach. Finally, a confirmation test was obtained to show the degree of effectiveness of VIKOR method.
Keywords: Abrex 400 steel; MCDM; Plasma arc cutting; VIKOR; Utility measure.
Special Issue on: 3D Printing the Next Industrial Revolution
Effect of Process Parameters on the Tensile Properties of LENS Deposited Co-Cr-Mo Alloy
by Kedar Mallik Mantrala, Srinivasa Rao Ch., Kesava Rao V V S, Abdul Munaf Sk.
Abstract: Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSTM) is attracting the attention of the researchers because of its ease in operation and wide variety of material acceptance. Tensile specimens of Co-Cr-Mo alloy are prepared using LENS process as per JIS standards. Laser power, powder feed rate and laser scan speed are the process parameters used. All the specimen samples are tested for their tensile strength. The samples fabricated with high laser power, low powder feed rate and high laser scan speed have exhibited highest tensile strengths (both Yield Strength and Ultimate Tensile Strength) among the samples tested. The tensile properties of the LENS deposited samples are compatible with or superior than the as-cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy samples.
Keywords: Co-Cr-Mo alloy, Laser Engineered Net Shaping, Tensile test, JIS standards, ANOVA
The cash is in the medium, not in the machine: toward the golden moments of 3D printing
by Steffen Roth
Abstract: Since 3D printing technology has been available as early as in the early 19th century, the present article start from the question why this radical and probably disruptive technology has been observed as only incremental innovation for so long a time. In answering this question, we assume that this incrementalisation of the supposed key to the next industrial revolution occurred due to circumstances that complicated and complexed the observation, with the most important of which being that 3D printers do not print on the medium, but rather print the medium, which emerges as form. In this article, this paradox is unfolded in the form of a form-theoretical theory statement on the inherently paradox nature of observation, subsequent to which 3D printing can be observed as both form and medium. In exploring this paradox, we will show that suppliers of 3D printing solutions currently try to sell 3D printing as form, whereas demanders observe 3D printing as medium. In focusing the latter side of the distinction, we finally suggest that the key to successful 3D printing business models will be in solutions that relate observations of the technological multifunctionality of 3D printing to a social multifunctionality lens.
Keywords: 3D printing; form theory; golden moment; technology marketing; George Spencer Brown; Niklas Luhmann.
How do fab-spaces enable entrepreneurship? Case studies of 'makers' - entrepreneurs
by Letizia Mortara, Nicolas Parisot
Abstract: Fabrication spaces (fab-spaces), such as TechShops or Fab Labs, provide access to sophisticated digital manufacturing technologies to individuals. They could be a new institutional context which influences entrepreneurial behaviour. To understand how this might happen, we used a grounded approach to examine the experience of eight individuals who have benefitted from fab-spaces to push forward their entrepreneurial ventures. This examination led to the development of new hypotheses regarding the potential role of fab-spaces in the entrepreneurial journey. In particular, it has emerged that fab-spaces might affect the entry phase of a new venture by lowering the 'perception of performance' threshold. Fab-spaces also affect post-entry barriers, as they provide an opportunity to entrepreneurs for fast learning, and consequently, to establish effective routines. However, this paper also shows how these positive effects might be moderated by fab-spaces' institutional setup, chiefly their location and cultural characteristics.
Keywords: Fab Labs; makespace; hackerspaces; TechShops; fabrication spaces; makers; peer production; 3D printing; additive manufacturing; barriers to entrepreneurship; crowdfunding; knowledge intensive business services; incubators.
Industrial 3D printing in Italy
by Luca Beltrametti, Angelo Gasparre
Abstract: This paper aims at providing a comprehensive outlook on the economic and organisational rationale of 3D printing technologies and their implications for innovation in the Italian manufacturing industry. Despite its limited impact on the industrial world, the idea of printing actual 3D objects has clearly captured the popular imagination; 3D printing is often linked to 'big changes' or to sometimes indefinite industrial revolutions in progress because it is considered that 3D printing will eventually enable 'mass customisation'. None of the most significant actual applications of AM in Italian manufacturing, however, suggests that any real 'manufacturing revolution' has started or can be foreseen in the near future for consumer goods. For these AM is neither competitive today, nor can it be made so in the future, unless some sort of technological quantum leap occurs.
Keywords: 3D printing; rapid prototyping; additive manufacturing; Italy; aerospace; biomedical; automotive; jewellery; designed for additive.
New industrial platforms and radical technology foresight: the case of 3D printing in Finland and Europe
by Jari Kaivo-oja, Toni Ahlqvist, Osmo Kuusi, Risto Linturi, Steffen Roth
Abstract: This article presents futures oriented analyses of 3D printing, which are based on technology foresight study performed in Finland in 2013. The methodological framework of the Finnish technology foresight study is shortly introduced and explained in this article. The analysis reflects current discussion about 3D printing technology options in Finland, as is reflected in report of Linturi et al. (2013, 2014). The analyses of 3D printing provided in this article are also linked to broader international and European context. TechCast study (Halal, 2013) and FutMan scenarios of JRC (Geyer et al., 2003a, 2003b) are elaborated. The analyses reveal several emerging aspects and bottlenecks of 3D printing and new industrial revolution. The emerging aspects are related to the rise of new technological possibilities and new production processes. The bottlenecks include issues such as lacking capacities and competencies of industrial actors in adopting new technological solutions, uncertainties in the efficiency and performance of 3D printing solutions, problematic of wider societal transition, and potential risks potentially generated by 3D printing systems and technologies.
Keywords: 3D printing; manufacturing; industrial scenarios; technology foresight; radical technological solutions; innovation policy; innovation management.
Special Issue on: LISS 2014 Modern Logistics Technologies and Applications
Economic Evaluation on Container Shipping Route Selection
by Lu Bo, Qiao Han, Zhang Xu, Hua Guo Wei
Abstract: The competition in between each attractive container cargo port has been increasingly become drastically, every port is striving to maintain the competitive edge and provide satisfactory services. This paper will provide an economic evaluation model which corresponds to the change of transshipment cargo volume of neighbor ports in North East Asia. The model, which classifies to Route 1 and Route 2, figures out an economic evaluation of the sea route, both routes hypothesize the Busan Port as a starting point. Basing on this model, it can generate an important data for deciding sea routes and calling ports of the shipping companies. Moreover, the shipping companies could improve a more efficient route and the related government authority or operational institution of each country could figure out the threshold of feeder cargo volume through this economic method.
Keywords: Shipping sea route; Container transshipment cargo; Economy evaluation model
An Approach Based on FMECA Methodology for a Decision Support Tool for Managing Risk in Customs Supply Chain: A Case Study
by Lamia HAMMADI, Abdellah AIT OUAHMAN, Eduardo SOUZA DE CURSI, Aomar IBOURK
Abstract: Risks such as smuggling of drugs, smuggling of weapons and commercial fraud highlighted the vulnerability of the customs supply chain. therefore, their economic, political and social impacts are highly detrimental to the countries, businesses and to the public. Risk Management plays a major role in mastering safety in a proactive manner. For this reason, Customs Supply chain, faced with these risks, requires specific and adequate responses such as techniques, attitudes and strategies for risk management. This paper aims to set up a new concept Customs supply chain, and design a specification of this concept by establishing the conceptual, structural and functional aspects of customs supply chain. This paper also deals with a new approach for managing risks in customs supply chain based on Failure Modes Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA method). Such new approach aims to not only determine the key critical risks using criticality as a risk indicator, but also recommend best possible solutions to manage these particular risks. Hence by the implementation of our step by step approach in Moroccan Customs Supply Chain as an application context, the effectiveness of our risk management approach as a tool for decision making is fitted and validated on the entire risk typologies in customs context. Moreover, the findings of our case study provide a general framework to better manage risks in customs supply chain.
Keywords: Risk; Risk management; Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis(FMECA); Customs supply chain; Moroccan customs.
Coordinated Decision-making on Inter-organizational Knowledge Innovation of Project-based Supply Chain
by wu guangdong
Abstract: Considering the coordinated decision-making on inter-organizational knowledge innovation of project-based supply chain, this paper analyzed the coordinated decision-making on knowledge innovation made between the owner and the contractor based on game theory under three scenarios: Nash non-cooperative game, Stackelberg game and Coordination game. The results showed that under the coordination and cooperation model, both the effort level of both the owner and the contractor and the total project value-adding are higher than those under non-cooperative condition. When reasonable allocation plan for residual project value-adding exists, the net profit of the owner and contractor is improved compared with that under non-cooperative game. This paper aims at providing a reliable decision and theory direction for project-based supply chain knowledge cooperation innovation, thus to achieve project value-adding.
Keywords: project-based supply chain; knowledge innovation; coordinated decision-making
Special Issue on: Green Production and Management
A Conceptual Framework Linking LM, TQM, QMS, and EMS Practices With the SP: Assessment of Responses from Managers of Some Malaysian Industries
by Amjad Khalili, Md Yusof Ismail
Abstract: This paper presents a qualitative study for exploring the applicability of a proposed model consisting of a few important Operations Management (OM) practices by the verbatim responses gathered from some managers engaged in Malaysian industries. The OM practices which include Lean Manufacturing (LM), Total Quality Management (TQM), Environmental Management System (EMS), and Quality Management System (QMS) are assessed for their relations to Sustainable Performance (SP). Studies conducted to assess such an integrated model involving the stated initiatives are rarely available specially from Malaysian perspective. A semi-structured interview protocol was developed and examined by academics to ensure its validity. Fifteen (15) diverse managers from five (5) manufacturing industries were interviewed. Findings from the thematic analysis indicate that managers in the manufacturing sector are adequately aware of these practices, understand the postulated benefits, and these Practices are aligned with the OM theories.
Keywords: Assessment; Applicability,Thematic; qualitative; interview; Malaysia.
Prioritization of barriers in implementation of green manufacturing in Indian SMEs through integrated grey-DEMATEL approach
by Piyush Jaiswal, Amaresh Kumar
Abstract: The issue of global warming has gained significant attention because of expeditious industrial growth of developing nations and their small and medium enterprises (SMEs) not adopting modern manufacturing strategy like green manufacturing (GM). It is well known that adoption of GM can enhance environmental performance. However, there are some potential barriers which oppose the implementation of GM. In order to eliminate these critical barriers, prioritization is highly requisite. So, this paper aims to prioritize the potential barriers and categorize them into cause and effect groups also divulging their interrelationships by employing integrated grey-Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory approach. Findings of present study shows that high implementation cost and insufficient return on investment is the most critical barrier and lack of top management commitment exhibits maximum correlation with other barriers. This study provides important insight for manager of SMEs to develop better decision making strategies to become more environmental friendly.
Keywords: Barriers; Green manufacturing; Grey-DEMATEL; Indian SMEs.
An Empirical Investigation on Malaysians Green Purchasing Behaviour
by Amiruddin Ahamat, Syed Zamberi Ahmad, Rohaini K.Mohd
Abstract: Although global environmental issues have been an important research topic for several decades, very little research has focused on consumer demand for environmentally-friendly products in developing countries. Compared to consumers within developed economies, Asian consumers have far less awareness of environmental sustainability. Therefore, the objective of this country specific research is to examine the factors that influence the purchasing behaviour of Malaysian consumers with respect to green products. The conceptual framework and the development of hypotheses are grounded in related literature. This paper has examined four independent variables related to consumer behaviour; price sensitivity, green advertising, environmental awareness, and the faith placed in green products. A survey questionnaire was directly administered to 200 consumers visiting various hypermarkets and supermarkets in a southern state of the country. The findings revealed that all four factors have a positive effect on the green purchasing behaviour of consumers. Theoretical and managerial implications, limitations, and opportunities for future research were discussed.
Keywords: Green product; green consumer; purchase behaviour; attitudes; developing country; Malaysia.
Energy effectiveness achieved by orienting prototype of a laparoscopic instrument handle using polyjet additive manufacturing technology
by Sreekanth M.P, Rajesh Ranganathan, Vivek C
Abstract: Additive manufacturing technology can be considered as an answer to energy effective manufacturing system as it is capable of reducing process lead time. Reduction in manufacturing time is an indication of a reduction in energy usage. This paper analyzed 64 various orientations on Objet 260 Connex additive manufacturing machine during manufacture of a laparoscopic forceps to find an orientation which gives minimum energy, minimum material consumption and maximum strength. From this study, orientation 0-0-90 shows lowest build time in high quality (1 hour and 9 minutes) and high speed (41 minutes) printing modes. Orientations 0-0-0, 0-0-30 and 0-0-45 have slightly higher build time comparing to 0-0-90 and it is 1 hour 10 minutes in high quality build mode and 42 minutes in high speed print mode. 0-0-0, 0-0-30, 0-0-45 and 0-0-90 have the minimal build material consumption in high quality (26 grams) and high speed (24 grams) building modes. To impart maximum strength in the build parts 0-0-0 is selected as preferred orientation and build mode as high speed which consumes 1.05 kWh of energy. 40% of energy can be saved with this mode comparing to high quality print mode with the same orientation. This paper provides an outline for a possible way to energy efficient manufacturing method.
Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Polyjet; Energy effectiveness; Material Consumption; Orientation; Laparoscopic Instrument Handle; 3D Printing.
Recycling Waste & Upcycling People: A new type of an environmentally-motivated social enterprise strategy
by Irena Descubes, Tom McNamara, Tony Cragg
Abstract: With the use of a case study methodology, the socially responsible enterprise La Feuille dErable, based in north-west France, was analysed based upon the framework proposed by Boons and L
Keywords: Socially responsible human resource management; green social economy; social enterprises; waste recycling; social inclusion.
Special Issue on: LISS16-OPMSC Optimisation Problems in Manufacturing and Supply Chains
Optimization of Shot Peening Process for AISI 4140H Forged Connecting Rod using MADM Techniques
by Ashutosh Dounde, Chandrakant Seemikeri, Suresh Kamthe
Abstract: Shot peening is a process that set up compressive residual stresses on the surface of component and alters its mechanical properties, which depends on proper selection of peening parameters. Manufacturer is always in demand to improve productivity and reduce cost. The attempt of this paper is to optimise shot peening process parameters by various multiple attribute decision making (MADM) techniques such as TOPSIS, GRA, SAW and Desirability Approach. In the present investigation shot mix, exposure time and shot flow rate are considered as input process parameters whereas surface roughness and compressive residual stresses are considered as response variables. MADM techniques suggest that, shot flow rate of 21 Amp and exposure time of 120 sec are optimum setting of peening parameters. The analysis will be useful for process planning to decide the peening parameters for best combination of performance characteristics.
Keywords: Compressive residual stress; DOE; MADM; shot peening.
Experimental Investigation and Multi Objective Optimization of Duplex 2304 Drilling Operation using Evolutionary Algorithm
by Varatharajulu Muthukrishnan, Jayaprakash Govindarajalu, Baskar N, Narayanasamy R
Abstract: This paper deals with identification of optimal input parameters of Duplex 2304 in drilling operation using evolutionary algorithm. The influence of the spindle speed and the feed rate on thrust force, torque, drilling time, burr height, burr thickness, roundness and roughness have been investigated and a mathematical model has been proposed in the present work. Contour graphs are used to study the effect of drilling parameters on the various objectives of the experimental investigation. The response of material behaviour with respect to the given input has been analyzed in order to understand the deeds. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to identify the significant drilling parameters on their performance characteristics. The developed regression model is in good agreement with the present experimental results. Further spindle speed and feed rate were optimized as 539.47253 rpm and 0.03828 mm/rev. respectively through Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to minimize the responses.
Keywords: Drilling Processes; Regression Analysis; Duplex; Thrust force; Roughness; Evolutionary Algorithm.
Predicting Bottlenecks in Manufacturing Shops through Capacity and Demand Observations from Multiple Perspectives
by Tang Juan, Li Bang-yi, Liu Zhi
Abstract: Uncertain factors in modern multi-variety and small-lot manufacturing make it extremely challenging to optimize and control the production process. Researchers propose a bottleneck-based optimization method to reduce perplexity and enhance optimization. Detecting bottlenecks is a crucial first step in this method and its accuracy has great impacts on production optimization. This study proposes an independent bottleneck degree to describe the probability of a manufacturing cell becoming a system bottleneck, and model it using capacity and demand observations from the perspectives of capability, quality, and cost. Based on the independent bottleneck degree, we design a closed-loop multi-bottleneck prediction method, which can solve the responsibility cognizance problem resulting from correlation among manufacturing cells. Therefore, it can predict bottlenecks, especially multiple bottlenecks, accurately compared to existing methods.
Keywords: Bottleneck; Independent bottleneck degree; Bottleneck responsibility; Closed-loop prediction.
Benchmarking Framework For Internal Supply Chain Management (ISCM): A Case Study For Comparative Analysis
by Kailash Attri, Rajeev Kumar Saha, Sanjeev Goyal
Abstract: The objective of this research work is to develop a benchmarking frame work for internal supply chain management (ISCM). The working steps of benchmarking framework can be explained by a functional activity flow chart. Timely regulation of benchmarking framework should be helpful for optimizing the existing internal supply chain process. A case study is used to gather the relevant data information from industrial experts, advisors, supervisors and academics experts. The aim of authors is to evaluate ROI of top two heavy fabrication construction equipments manufacturing industries. The optimization of ROI has done by identifying problems of ISCM and taking appropriate corrective measures to rectifying them.
Keywords: Internal supply chain management (ISCM); Benchmarking; return on investment (ROI).
Quality Cost Model Improvement Based on 6 Management
by Baoguang Bai, Jian Zhang
Abstract: 6σ management theory has been successfully used in the top enterprises around the world, such as Motorola and General Electronics However, a serious contradiction has found between the traditional quality cost theory and 6σ theory, e.g. when quality level approach to zero defect, total quality cost does not converge to infinite rapidly. It is contradict with the main conclusion of traditional quality cost model. This paper optimized the traditional quality cost model with learning curve and 6σ management ideas. Through the continuous improvement of working processes and service quality, the first pass rate approach 100% gradually. The costs losses can be reduced greatly. The new quality cost model proposed in this paper is more suitable to the manufacturer and the modern quality concept. We also give the optimal quality level in different setting.
Keywords: 6σ management; quality cost model; learning curve.
An Inventory Decision-making Model Considering Continuous Production and Detection of Electric Energy Metering Device
by Wenliang Bian, Haifeng Yang, Yao Sun, Yan Xie
Abstract: This paper studies the inventory decision problem of power metering device under the condition of continuous production testing. Using the theory of constraints(TOC) to identify bottlenecks existing in the production test system, and then through the establishment of integer programming model, the research focuses on the initial inventory optimization decision-making of inspection device and checked device in a week. According to the practical decision-making situations, this paper researches the in-out warehouse and vehicle scheduling constraints such as time window; under the condition of continuous operation it optimizes the total cost of inventory and vehicle scheduling. Then we use Matlab software to analyze the model, and use the Flexsim software to simulate the process of testing. In this paper, the research for inventory control of measuring center with continuous production line provides the beneficial reference for power grid enterprises.
Keywords: power grid; metering device; continuous production; detection; inventory management.
Optimization Strategy of Online Dual Channel Supply Chain under Differentiated Products
by Jie Xu, Xiru Yang, Ce Xiao, Lei Chen
Abstract: In this paper, differentiated products is its background. When manufacturers direct sales channels and retail channels are both electronic channels, this paper studies manufacturers and retailers pricing strategy about new products and inventory respectively. Taking into account the actual situation, this paper considers the three main factors that affect the utility of consumers, namely, the degree of channel preference, product discount coefficient, service sensitivity to the profit of manufacturers and online retailers, using consumer utility and game theory to build online dual channel supply chain model, studying the optimal decision of the supply chain when considering the optimal profitability of the supply chain and the different scenarios of profit and inventory sales. Finally, the reliability of the model is verified by an example. The research of this paper can not only enrich the theoretical research of online dual channel, but also can provide reference for the implementation of online double channel enterprises.
Keywords: online dual channel; differentiated product; price; differentiated service.
CORRELATION ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIZED ABC FSN MATRIX FOR PHARMACY INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
by Manivel Palanisamy
The aim of the study was to identify the pitfalls in the existing supply chain of private and hospital pharmacies, identify the variables that influencing more in the efficiency of the pharmacy, select the appropriate inventory analysis and suggest the prioritized inventory matrix to meet customer requirement in efficient manner.
The qualitative and quantitative data has been collected through questionnaire and interview of the pharmacy personnel. Through SPSS, the normal distribution and correlation analysis to be carried out on sample data. The pitfalls were solved by the selection of appropriate inventory analysis and suggesting the prioritized inventory matrix to narrowed down the drugs for monitoring and control strategies of pharmacy drugs.
The normal distribution and correlation analysis results shows that the variables collected through questionnaire are normally distributed and the variables that most influence the efficiency of the pharmacy supply chain. The implementation of Prioritized ABC FSN matrix in pharmacy will helps to provide high-quality service to the customer and there will be an adequate supply of the items in the pharmacies. The future work also to be discussed.
The prioritized ABC FSN matrix to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock and over stock situations in the hospital and private pharmacy.
Keywords: Pharmacy Supply Chain; Inventory Management System; Stock Outs; Overstock; IT Support in Pharmacy; correlation analysis; Inventory analysis.
Examining the Causes of the Bullwhip Effect: A Study of the Qinhuangdao Ports Coal Supply Chain
by Hongmei Chen, Haiju Hu, Meimei Yang
Abstract: Although in recent years the coal business of Qinhuangdao port maintains relatively efficient operations, the problem of coal inventory overstock remains. The main reason of such problem is the so-called bullwhip effect. In this study, we examine the causes of the bullwhip effect by analyzing Qinhuangdao ports coal supply chain. A factorial design is used with the possible bullwhip effect contributors quantified. We find that information sharing disorder, inefficient logistics operation, as well as the outdated traditional coal ordering system contributes to distorted demand information. Such demand information distortion causes the serious bullwhip effect. Our study has implications for researchers and practitioners. By adopting a quantitative approach, our findings provide possible ways to mitigate the bullwhip effect.
Keywords: Bullwhip Effect; Coal Supply Chain; Qinhuangdao Port; Factorial Design; Witness.
Selection Model and Algorithm of Logistics Corridor Based on the Network Utility
by Wenliang Bian, Lei Chen, Lina Chuan, Yong Zhao
Abstract: With the development of logistics industry in China, logistics networks become increasingly important. Especially, people who manages a nation-wide or world-wide company is eager to know how to make a better decision to choose corridors in complex networks. In order to help them to solve this problem, this paper expands two concepts of centrality, the node degree centrality and the edge betweenness centrality, as the basis for further analysis. Then, the network utility is defined based on which a logistics corridor selection model is proposed. Meanwhile, this model also takes not only the corridors travel time and construction costs but its impact on the whole network into consideration. Subsequently, a combination algorithm among Dijkstra, Floyd and the ith shortest path algorithm is developed to solve the theoretical model. In addition, a numerical experiment is provided to verify the validity of the model and algorithm. The results from this paper implicate that managers can make a balance between operational factors and strategic factors to better solve the decision making problem in logistics network development by this feasible decision making model.
Keywords: logistics corridor; degree centrality; betweenness centrality; network utility.
Multi-Objective Optimization of EDM Process using ANN integrated with NSGA-II Algorithm
by Shiba Narayan Sahu, Narayan Chandra Nayak
Abstract: Real world engineering problems are usually contradictory in nature, preventing simultaneous optimization of each selected parameter. The above is prevalent in the case of Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) process. This paper presents an artificial intelligent approach for process modeling and optimization of A2 steel in EDM process. In this investigation A2 steel was machined by EDM process for the correct selection of manufacturing conditions, optimal material removal rate (MRR) and tool wear rate (TWR). At the initial phase of investigation, process modeling of MRR and TWR of A2 steel work piece in EDM has been performed by Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In the later phase of the work, a GA based multi-objective algorithm (NSGA-II) has been implemented to find out the best trade-ups between the two conflicting response parameters MRR and TWR. It may be concluded that, the maximum MRR is achieved for the parameters setting Ip and Tau towards their upper bounds and the parameters Ton and V towards their lower bounds. Again, optimum TWR can be achieved by the parameters setting of Ip and Tau towards their lower bounds, V towards its upper bound, and Ton in the middle of the machining range.
Keywords: Electro-discharge machining; Artificial neural network; GA; Multi-objective optimization; Tool wear rate; Material removal rate.