International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management (92 papers in press)
Integration of ANP and DEA Methods for Evaluating Efficiency of Maintenance Strategies
by Ehsan Pourjavad, Hadi Shirouyehzad, Arash Shahin
Abstract: Selecting a suitable maintenance strategy has become an important challenge for facility/maintenance managers in most companies, and it keeps coming up because of complex equipment and variety of maintenance plans. The main purpose of this paper is to propose a prompt method to evaluate the efficiency of maintenance strategies and determine the optimum one. To further investigate this issue, an integration of Analytic Network Process (ANP), and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methods are employed. At first, the weight of each criterion is calculated by ANP method and the ratio of weights of criteria is employed as a restriction. Then the weight of each criterion for maintenance strategies will be determined by paired comparison of maintenance strategies related to criteria. These weights are taken into account as inputs and outputs of DEA model. Finally, the efficiency of maintenance strategies will be calculated by DEA. In this research, the efficiency of five maintenance strategies is examined according to four criteria; Cost, Reliability, Maintainability, Availability for one class of equipment at Chadormalu Mining-Industrial Company. It results in that TPM and CBM strategies have been confirmed to be the optimum strategies for maintaining this equipment.
Keywords: Analytic Network Process, Data Envelopment Analysis, Maintenance Strategy, Mining Industry, Efficiency
Modeling of flexible manufacturing systems
by Sergey Egorov, Alexey Kapitanov, Vladimir Mitrofanov, Leonid Shvartsburg, Natalia Ivаnоvа, Sergey Ryabov
Abstract: This paper describes an original approach to one of the key problems in modern mechanical engineering modeling of modern manufacturing systems with regard to the choice of relevant model type. It is shown that in terms of systemology, all the existing models are divided into the imitating (replicating) and optimizing ones, while manufacturing system design belongs to semi-structured issues. Therefore, at the macro-designing stage one should use optimizing models, rather than the imitating ones. The study provides a broad definition of the technological process as a set of actions aimed at product manufacturing, designing the sequence of relevant steps. It defines production flexibility and adaptation of the manufacturing system to changing conditions. These solutions can be used in automation in manufacturing, computer aided design (CAD) and modeling (CAM), computer aided engineering analysis, flexible manufacturing systems, flexible automation and production engineering.
Keywords: manufacturing system; designing; macro-design; optimizing models; systems analysis; decision making; flexible technology; automation; market; order.
An experimental investigation and modelling for travelling wire electrochemical machining of Monel 400 alloys
by Kalaimathi M, Venkatachalam G, Sivakumar M
Abstract: Monel 400 alloys find its applications in aerospace and marine industries. It is tough to cut these alloys using conventional machine tools as the hardness is high and also these alloys work-harden during cutting. Travelling wire electrochemical machining (TWECM), a non-traditional machining technique, can cut these alloys efficiently and improves material removal rate (MRR) and surface quality. In this investigation, an attempt was made to investigate the TWECM characteristics of Monel 400 alloys and model the equation for MRR with the three process parameters i.e. voltage (V), electrolyte concentration (EC) and travelling wire speed (TS). TWECM is preferred to wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) as it does not generate heat affected zone. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for design and analysis of experiments. The contour plots were generated to understand the effect of machining parameters on MRR. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were implemented to predict the process parameters. The results were validated with obtained experimental results. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test shows that the voltage (V) and wire speed (TS) are the major influencing factors for MRR. The modelling and predictive abilities of ANN were compared with the regression model using correlation coefficient and mean absolute standard deviation (MAD). The predicted values of MRR with regression equation and ANN are in close agreement with the experimental results. The ANN was found to be superior fitting to the regression model.
Keywords: Travelling wire electrochemical machining (TWECM); Material removal rate (MRR); Response surface methodology (RSM); Artificial neural networks (ANN).
Stress relaxation behavior of hot deformed austenite in high strength microalloyed pipeline steel
by Bahman Mirzakhani, Mostafa Mansourinejad
Abstract: The objective of the present study is to investigate the static restoration of CMn(VNbTi) pipeline steel utilizing comparative study of the stress relaxation and microalloying precipitates behavior. The hot compression tests in temperature range of 850
Keywords: Microalloyed steel; Stress relaxation; Recrystallization; Precipitation
Multi-response optimization of electrochemical machining process parameters by harmony search-desirability function (HS-DF) optimizer
by KALAIMATHI M, VENKATACHALAM G, SIVAKUMAR M, AYYAPPAN S
Abstract: Selection of the optimum electrochemical machining (ECM) process parameters is extremely crucial as this machining process involves huge capital investment and operating cost. In this work, the harmony search (HS) algorithm is integrated with desirability function (DF) in such a way that new HS-DF optimizer is proposed to optimize the ECM process parameters. The influence of three predominant ECM process parameters i.e. inter-electrode gap (IEG), voltage (V) and electrolyte concentration (EC) on the performance measures of material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) was considered. The optimized values of EC =115 g/l, V=13 V, and IEG=0.11 mm resulted in MRR of 0.726 g/min and Ra of 1.53 μm for electrochemical machining of Monel 400 alloys. The optimized results are compared with those drawn from the past research and found better. The HS-DF optimizer proves its applicability and suitability for optimizing process parameters of ECM process, which reduces considerable computational, experimental cost and time.
Keywords: Electrochemical machining (ECM), Multi-response optimization, Harmony Search (HS) algorithm, Desirability function (DF)
Circular Material Resource Consumption for Sustainability of Manufacturing Growth: A System Dynamics Analysis
by Ravindra Ojha, Prem Vrat
Abstract: The paper highlights the volatility in material prices and other environmental impacts due to sharp depletion of material resources. The depletion is an outcome of the linear model of resource consumption based on take-make-dispose approach to managing material resources. The circular model of resources consumption based on take-make-use-collect-reprocess-reuse approach has been proposed as an alternate paradigm which has been of interest to economists and policy planners in recent times. The paper develops a System Dynamics (SD) model to understand and analyse long-term policy implications of the circular model on manufacturing growth. Using the generic SD model developed; twelve scenarios have been simulated which provide very useful insights to facilitate sustainable policy decisions for manufacturing growth. A case study for recycling of Zinc is provided which examines the issues involved in the context of Zinc as an important metal- necessary to sustain manufacturing growth.
Keywords: Green-reserve; Circular material-consumption; Manufacturing growth; End-of-Life of product; System Dynamics and Causal Loop Diagram.
Multi Response Optimization of Machining Parameters in Wire - EDM Process using Grey Relational Analysis
by P.C. Padhi, D.K. Tripathy
Abstract: Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is extensively used in machining of materials when precision is of prime importance. It is a specialized process for cutting complex contours or fragile geometries that would be difficult to be produced using conventional cutting methods. In the present work, the WEDM machining of EN-31 alloy steel has been studied with multiple performance characteristics such as cutting rate (CR), surface roughness (Ra) and dimensional deviation (DD) using Gray-Taguchi method. The process parameters considered for optimization are pulse on time (Ton), pulse off time (Toff), wire feed (WF), wire tension (WT), spark gap set voltage (SV) and servo feed (SF). For experimentation Taguchis L27 orthogonal array (OA) has been used. The application of Grey relational analysis is adopted to convert multi-objective criterion into an equivalent single objective function; overall grey relational grade (GRG), which has been maximized by using Taguchi technique. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for GRG is utilized to determine the most significant process parameters. Optimal setting has been verified through confirmatory test; found good agreement with predicted value. The experimental results confirm that the proposed method effectively improves the machining performance of wire EDM process.
Keywords: Wire Electrical Discharge Machining; Cutting rate; Surface Roughness; Dimensional deviation; Orthogonal Array; Grey Relational Analysis.
Laser Modification of HVOF Thermal Sprayed Nano-structured WC-12Co mixed with Inconel-625 Coatings for Petrochemical Industries
by Sivarajan Shanmugasundaram, Padmanabhan Raghupathy, Adwait Joshi, Karthikeyan C.P, Joseph Stokes
Abstract: Laser surface modification of coatings has proved to be an effective method to enhance the mechanical properties of the material due to its good interfacial and metallurgical bonding. Three different types of coating powders namely Inconel 625, nano- sized tungsten carbide WC-12Co and micro sized tungsten carbide WC-12Co were coated on AISI 4140 carbon steel substrate. The coating powders were sprayed by a 1050 DJH automated High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) gun thermal spray. The coating powders deposited on the substrate were treated by 1.5 kW CO2 laser. The objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of coating powder type, laser power and laser scanning speed on the micro hardness and microstructure of the coated samples. Hardness measurements performed on both nano and micro sized WC-12Co coatings show consistently higher values for nano coatings. The higher percentage of nano WC-12Co particles in the starting powder seems to be the reason for higher hardness in these coatings. Amongst the produced coatings the results concluded that nano sized WC-12Co Inconel 625 coatings are found to have best microstructure due to its low porosity and increased density.
Keywords: Laser; Coating; HVOF; Hardness.
A review on droplet deposition manufacturing - A rapid prototyping technique
by Rajashekhar V S, Pravin T, Thiruppathi K
Abstract: Droplet deposition is a liquid phase rapid prototyping technique which is used to create 3D components. This paper provides an overview of the droplet deposition process. In particular, the paper deals with the process parameters, experimental setup, and the role of computers. It is inferred that in recent years computer play a vital role in simulating and controlling the droplet deposition process. The review shows that a heating furnace is mostly used to produce molten droplets which need to be controlled using a nozzle. Alternatives such as using laser as a source to melt wires to produce droplets can be adopted to reduce the complexity of controlling the molten droplets formed. The future challenge lies in shooting the molten droplets at an angle by using robots to create complex parts instead of moving the substrate at all times as done at the present.
Keywords: Droplet deposition; Rapid prototyping; Laser based metal melting.
Mechanical Characterization of Al and Al-4%Cu alloy prepared by horizontal centrifugal casting process
by Smrutirekha Sen, Sudheer Reddy, P.G. Mukunda
Abstract: Centrifugal casting as a process results in improved productivity, efficiency, reliability and yield. The mechanical properties of centrifugally cast metals and alloys are influenced by various factors like rotational speed, pouring temperature, viscosity and aspect ratio of the mould. In the present investigation, horizontal centrifugal casting method has been chosen to produce casts of Aluminum(Al) and Aluminum- Copper alloy (Al-4%Cu). These Casts were produced by varying parameters like rotational speed, aspect ratio and mould wall thicknesses. Wear behavior and mechanical characterizations of the casts have been determined and the relations between the wear and mechanical behavior, namely hardness and tensile strength have been studied for these two materials. The effects of mould wall thickness and rotational speed on the microstructure of Al and Al-4%Cu alloy had been investigated. The hardness of Al casts was found to be lower than that of Al-4%Cu alloy where as specific wear rate of centrifugally cast Al-4%Cu alloy was lower than those of pure Al casts. The hardness of centrifugally cast Al and Al-4%Cu was found to be improved as compared to conventional castings. The co-efficient of friction and frictional force of specimens was found to be lower for the cast produced under a greater rotational speed of the mould and it was also observed that frictional force gradually increases with load. The presence of copper in aluminum base (4% Cu) has enhanced the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy.
Keywords: Centrifugal Casting ; Hardness; wearing behavior; Al-4%Cu alloy.
Cellular layout formation by using weighted similarity based modified flow matrix with process sequence data
by M. Shunmugasundaram, V. Anbumalar
Abstract: Cellular Layout Formation (CLF) is an important problem in the design of a Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS). From the previous studies, most of the researchers have been used Machine Part Incidence Matrix (MPIM) as input in CMS. In this paper, weighted similarity based modified flow matrix is proposed to solve the Cell Formation Problem (CFP) and CLF simultaneously. The objective of our proposed approach is to group dissimilar machines based on the process sequence of different parts. Two well-known benchmark problems are selected from the literature and results are compared based on modified Grouping efficacy with the existing methods. The results clearly indicated that our proposed approach outperforms the previously proposed methods.
Keywords: cellular layout; cellular manufacturing system; machine part incidence matrix; similarity coefficient; modified flow matrix.
One size does not even fit one - Supply chain strategies in the decline phase
by Robin Von Haartman, Weihong Wang, Lars Bengtsson, Camilla Niss, Gunnar Herdin
Abstract: Given that aligning supply chain strategies with changing product characteristics across the phases of the product life cycle is increasingly important, this study investigates the changes in supply and demand uncertainty when a product enters the decline phase and how these changes in turn affect the supply chain strategies applied. Based on four case studies, the analysis reveals that the uncertainties increase in three of four cases when the product enters the decline phase, and that the type of uncertainty, as well as the related challenges, depends on the products initial uncertainty of supply and demand. This implies that companies need to redesign their supply chain strategies towards either more lean or more agile supply chains, or combinations thereof, when the products are declining.
Keywords: supply chain strategy; product life cycle; decline phase; lean; agile; demand uncertainty; supply uncertainty; product characteristics.
INVESTIGATION ON TURNING PARAMETERS ON MACHINING TIME AND VIBRATION OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED LAMINATES
by Srinivasan D, Balasundaram R, Rajkumar G
Abstract: This work proposes the investigation of machining time and vibration characteristics of machining differently oriented unidirectional Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). The carbon fibers are oriented at 0, 45, 90 degrees during stacking process of laminate. The turning experiments are carried out in Siemens-CNC Lathe to investigate best operating conditions. There are 9 experiments based on Taguchis L9 orthogonal array are performed. The machining parameters are Spindle Speed, Feed and Depth of cut and the output responses are machining time and amplitude of vibration. The predication models are developed using ANOVA. To find the best value of the regression model, a real time coded Genetic Algorithm (GA) using Turbo C++ and MATLAB tool box GA are used. The result indicated that predicted models are significant and the real time coded GA produced best value.
Keywords: Turning; Genetic Algorithm; CFRP; Orientation; Hand-lay up Process.
Optimal Design of Flux for submerged arc weld Properties based on RSM coupled with GRA and PCA
by Brijpal Singh, Zahid A. Khan, Arshad Noor Siddiquee, Sachin Maheshwari
Abstract: This paper presents an effective approach for the selection of flux for optimized mechanical properties of low carbon steel welds. The weld is mainly characterized by impact strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation and hardness. Since, the mechanical performance is measured by multiple performance characteristics, so, the grey relational analysis is used to determine the optimal combination of flux for mechanical properties. Moreover, principal component analysis has been used to evaluate the weighting values for various performance characteristics so that their relative importance can be properly considered. Fluxes were designed using RSM and were been developed through agglomeration technique. By analyzing the grey relational grade, it is found that both the impact strength and ultimate tensile strength have the same weight age. The results of confirmation test obtained using this approach show that the GRA coupled with PCA can be effectively used for optimization of flux for mechanical performance characteristics.
Keywords: Submerged arc welding; GRA; Response surface method; PCA; Tensile strength; elongation.
Prediction of effects of process parameters and thermo-mechanical simulation of GMAW process for welding of AISI 430 steel
by Avinash Kamble, R. Venkata Rao
Abstract: The present study is focused on welding of AISI 430 steel using AISI 309L wire rod using gas metal arc welding process. The welding voltage, welding speed, wire feed rate and gas flow rate are considered as input process parameters and their ranges are found out for good appearance of weld bead. The experiments are conducted using central composite design matrix and weld bead geometry parameters like bead height, bead width and bead penetration and mechanical properties like tensile strength and hardness are measured. The mathematical models for bead geometry parameters and mechanical properties are developed and the adequacy is checked using analysis of variance. The effects of process parameters on the bead geometry parameters, mechanical properties and microstructure are found out. The thermo-mechanical simulation is carried out using ANSYS simulation software to predict the temperature and stresses distribution in the weldment.
Keywords: Gas metal arc welding; central composite design; mathematical modeling; thermo-mechanical simulation.
A new mathematical Model for Production and Delivery Scheduling Problem with Common Cycle in a Supply Chain with Open-shop System
by Alireza Goli, Mahdi Alinaghian
Abstract: In order to coordinate the supply chain, reordering strategy of needed goods must be synchronized and sequence of production and replenishment cycle time must be optimized in terms of cost. Therefore, this paper studies the economic lot and delivery scheduling problem for multi-stage supply chain. The common cycle time and integer multiplier policies were adopted to accomplish the desired synchronization. In this regard, a new mathematical model has been presented where a manufacturer with open-shop system purchases raw materials from suppliers and sends them to packaging companies after converting them into the final product and then they are sold. Since this is a Non-Deterministic Polynomial-time hard (NP-HARD) problem, simulated annealing algorithms have been developed for it. For this algorithm, two different scenarios have been proposed for solving the study problem and at the end the numerical results have been applied on problems with different dimensions by the algorithm.
Keywords: Economic lot size; production scheduling; open shop system; common cycle; simulated annealing algorithm.
A Review on the Multi-objective Cell Formation Problem in Cellular Manufacturing Systems
by Barnali Chaudhuri, R.K. Jana, Pranab Dan
Abstract: With the advent of cellular manufacturing systems and consequent evolution of configuring methodologies, researchers proposed several multi-objective techniques, besides others, to handle different types of cell formation problems. This paper presents a systematic review on types of cell formation by using multi-objective techniques. It also delineates the type of objectives, production factors and data sets used for testing the efficacy of methodologies, considered by researchers along with the scope and direction of future studies.
Keywords: Cellular Manufacturing System; Cell Formation; Multi-objective Programming; Weighted Aggregate Method; Pareto-Optimality; Soft Computing.
A New Design Methodology and Performance Analysis of a Low Wind Speed Turbine
by Preetham Kumar, Iniyan Selvarasan
Abstract: A new design methodology is initiated to design a wind turbine system that can operate efficiently in low wind speed conditions. The scenario explained elaborately in this research paper have the blades designed in a manner so as to offer an efficient solution for low wind speed zones and for locations where there is no power supply from the grid. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to forecast the performance of blades at low wind velocities along with the visualization of velocity; pressure and velocity streamline distribution around the blade when the blade rotates at the proposed rpm. The aerodynamic performance of the blade coincides to the design requirements and is scrutinized for variable wind conditions. The computational result indicates that the power output is obtained at 3.4 m/s whereas the experimental power output is obtained at 4.4 m/s. The manufacturing process of the blades is also laid out
Keywords: Blade; rnAerodynamic design;rn Low wind speed turbine;rn Performance analysis; CFD.
Intelligent Control Technique for Slip Frequency Control Based Stability Improvement of Induction Motor
by Hemant Sahebrao Kulat, Anupama Pushkar Huddar
Abstract: In the paper, an intelligent control technique is developed for improving the stability of IM. An intelligent technique is the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy inference System (ANFIS) which is proposed to improve the stability and regulate the speed of the IM. Here, the proposed technique is integrated with the PLL control. The PLL is employed to provide the slip frequency control and to provide better performance characteristics of the motor. The proposed method based PLL technique provides an excellent speed, torque and slip frequency control of IM drives. In the proposed controller, the ANFIS is used to evaluate the error signal available from the actual speed and command speed signal. Based on the objective function, the control signals are generated for the IM. The ANFIS based PLL technique for IM is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink platform and their performances are compared with the existing methods such as FLC and ANN techniques.
Keywords: ANFIS; FLC; ANN; slip frequency; speed; torque; IM and PLL.
Active Acquisition System of LBS-based Logistics Freight Source Information
by Xiangnan Zhang, Chuanjian Wang, Xiaojun Yin, Chuan Ning, Qingzhan Zhao, Rongrong Li
Abstract: With the development of positioning and navigation technology, location services related industries increased rapidly, the modern logistics industry is one of the important growth points, however, which increases the transportation cost and will certainly lead to magnitude waste of social resources is that the sources of information have been monopolized by logistics intermediary under the traditional mode. Order to solve the bottleneck of logistics information exchange and meet the demand for getting freight source information in time, this paper proposes a solution of active acquisition system of logistics sources information based on LBS with Android mobile terminal as the platform. The system uses GPS / WIFI positioning technology to achieve the acquisition of the information of users current location and through wireless network, the data are further sent to the spatial-temporal database of service terminal, where the spatial data and attribute data about logistics sources information are integrated and stored. Then these data are analyzed and processed by use of the dynamic programming algorithm based on real-time logistics sources information. And finally the Baidu API is used to realize the visualization of post-processed of logistics sources information so as that the services in active acquisition of peripheral logistic information and optimal receiving route planning might be provided. Through application and practice, this system has shown the characteristics like high instantaneity, highly targeted and convenient, etc, providing effective reference for informatization of logistics information publish and acquisition mode.
Keywords: logistics freight source information; LBS; Android intelligent mobile terminal; optimal receiving route.
Effective Utilization of Cascade H Bridge Multi Level Inverter Integrate Social Spider Optimization for Reduced Total Harmonics Distortion
by Swamy S.M, Marsaline Beno M
Abstract: The significance intention of the proposed method is to eliminate Total Harmonics Distortion (THD) in solar photovoltaic cells powered cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHMLI). This purpose incorporates Newton-Raphson (NR), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Cuckoo search (CS) and Social Spider Optimization (SSO) based selective harmonic elimination technique for solving a non-linear transcendental equation to obtain optimal switching angle to achieve minimize THD. The foremost goal to reduce THD value beyond IEEE standard allowable limit is to predict optimal switching angle. This prediction is done in offline then it utilizes for online simulation process to achieve minimized THD. Amid, aforementioned techniques incorporate with CHMLI; SSO behaves literally better than all other comparative techniques to attain 3.6% of THD in line voltage from the modulation index of 0.95. This customized product development would enhance quality power flow in this power generation.
Keywords: Newton Raphson (NR); Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO); Artificial Bee Colony (ABC); Genetic Algorithm (GA); Cuckoo search (CS); Social Spider Optimization (SSO) and Total Harmonics Distortion (THD); Product development.
A Hybrid PSO-ABC Algorithm for Optimal Load Shedding and Improving Voltage Stability
by V. Tamilselvan
Abstract: In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed for reducing the amount of load shedding and voltage collapse. The hybrid method is the combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. Both algorithms equally contribute in the paper to determine the optimal load shed values for improving the voltage stability of the power system. Here, PSO is used to determine the weak buses in the system whereas ABC computes the optimal amount of load shed value to be cut for voltage stability purpose. They work on different fitness functions as per the requirements of their purpose. The appropriate buses for load shedding are selected based on the sensitivity of minimum eigen value of load flow Jacobian with respect to the load shed. The proposed method based on PSO and ABC is implemented in MATLAB working platform and its performance is tested with 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus bench mark test systems. From the simulations, the performance of the proposed method is analyzed and compared with various techniques in terms of sensitivity of minimum eigen values, voltage profile and load power. Through comparison performance, it is showed that the proposed method ensures voltage stability with minimum load shedding.
Keywords: Load shedding; eigen value; voltage stability; PSO; ABC; hybrid method.
Improvement of the wire compensation configuration model for improving part accuracy in cylindrical wire electrical discharge turning
by Raja Izamshah, Muhammad Akmal Mohd Zakaria, Mohd Shahir Kasim
Abstract: Demand for complex micro-sized shape components has driven the industries on the development of a new machine and fabrication technique. One of the latest techniques is by combining a sparking electrode wire with a rotating workpiece, known as cylindrical wire electrical discharge turning (CWEDT). However, owing to the uncontrolled discharge energy, the existence of dynamic run-out and valid wire positioning compensation estimations in the CWEDT process affects its capability of producing micro-sized components. This paper proposes a new compensation configuration model for the CWEDT process that aims to improve the dimensional accuracy. The developed configuration model emphasises on the way to obtain the desired diameter that can be used as the input value for positioning the electrode wire through a machine system. Sets of experimental runs were performed to confirm its validity. Analytical results shows that the developed model has improved the part accuracy up to 95% and is capable of eliminating overcut error, hence, verifying its validity.
Keywords: cylindrical wire electrical discharge turning; CWEDT; tool compensation; dimensional accuracy; microfabrication.
An Intelligence technique based control model for power system stabilizer
by Sujata Arora, Leena G.
Abstract: In the power system voltage instability is one of the important issues, and it may cause due voltage sage, voltage swell, change in load and generation of harmonics. To compensate all these problems, the transmission power system makes use of an intelligent control model to improve the stability of power system. In this paper a new adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based power system stabilizer (PSS) for the enhancement of voltage stability in power systems is proposed. A hybrid learning algorithm, which combines the least square method and the back propagation algorithm is used to train the ANFIS. The performance of the power system by using fuzzy based PSS is about 60.1% when compared to that of the conventional PSS. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique the performance of the proposed technique is compared with the results obtained by using fuzzy PSS model and its performance was analyzed. Simulation results described in the paper demonstrate that the adaptive neuro-fuzzy based PSS can give 33.43 %of improvement in voltage stability when compared to that of fuzzy based PSS. over a wide range of operating conditions.
Keywords: Adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); Fuzzy controller; Voltage stability; reactive power; power system stabilizer.
Resource Allocation in Cloud Manufacturing using Bat Algorithm
by Brintha N C, Shajulin Benedict, Winowlin Jappes J T
Abstract: Due to the advancements in information and communication technologies, growing volatility and business competitiveness, manufacturing industries have started to change their strategies of pursuing business. As a consequence of this change, cloud based manufacturing systems have emerged and one of the major challenge in such systems is optimal resource allocation to tasks in production line. However, utilizing manufacturing cloud resources for satisfying job requirements needs much more effort. In our work, we present a better assignment of resource to tasks by having a qualitative analysis of match between task and the resources through the use of adaptive search mechanism. We propose a Bat based heuristic approach, to work on improving computation time, makespan and balance in workload. Progressive experimentation was made in casting of engine block and the results show that, usage of bat algorithm supports rapid convergence. Also, Bat algorithm is used to provide optimal resource allocation among tasks. This algorithm improves workflow performance by minimizing makespan. The proposed workflow approach satisfies large scale production requirements in manufacturing environment and can achieve optimal solution by minimizing delays.
Keywords: Cloud; Manufacturing Cloud; Bat; heuristic; quantitative analysis; adaptive search; rapid convergence.
Analytical Travel Time Models for Single and Double Command of Multi-Aisle automated storage and retrieval system
by Xin Lu, Hongyuan Shi, Li Wang, Dawei Li
Abstract: In this work, we concentrate on analysing the travel time of the storage/retrieval machines in the automatic warehouse. Multi aisle automated storage and retrieval systems equivalent to multiple stocking and taking aisles served by only one storage and retrieval machine. We use the system to save the initial investment costs caused by a single channel system. The purpose of this study is to researching the travel time model of the multi-channel automated storage and retrieval system. Acceleration and deceleration of the storage and retrieval machine (SRM) is takes into account in this paper. There are corners connected between the two channels in the warehouse. This article first studied the except travel time of the SRM for single command instruction. Secondly, the except travel time of the SRM for double command instruction is studied. Finally, we give a numerical example to prove the validity of our model. The results of the analytical travel time model are satisfactory. And it could be very useful tools for designing of multi aisle automated storage and retrieval systems in real-world applications.
Keywords: Travel time; Warehouse; Automated storage and retrieval system; Logistics system; single command; double command.
Performability Evaluation of Transport Modes for Cloud-based Inbound Logistics: A Study Based on Coffee Industry
by Anderson Nascimento, Tavares Eduardo, Gabriel Junior, Erica Sousa, Bruno Nogueira
Abstract: The adoption of cloud computing in supply chains has been growing over the years due to the benefits concerning on-demand resource provisioning and cost reduction. In the context of inbound logistics, cloud computing may also provide mechanisms for information sharing that allows better decisions, for instance, for selecting the best transport mode for a given set of goods and suppliers. However, cloud computing is still new to organizations in supply chain and evaluations should be carried out to assess the tangible gains in this paradigm. This paper presents an approach based on stochastic Petri nets (SPN) for performability assessment of transport modes in cloud-based inbound logistics taking into account sustainability issues and the coffee industry as case study.
Keywords: Supply Chains; Inbound Logistic; Performance Evaluation; Stochastic Petri Nets; Sustainability; Transport Modes; Cloud Computing.
Automatic Abrasive Blasting System for Large Diameter Pipe Bends
by Longwang Yue, Kong Fah Tee
Abstract: Abrasive blasting is an important surface treatment process. Aiming at overcoming the shortage of the manual abrasive blasting process for large diameter pipe bends, T-pipes and gas collecting tubes, this paper presents the study of automatic abrasive blasting for large diameter pipe bends. According to the requirement of blasting process of large diameter pipe bend, the 5-DOF orthogonal coordinate abrasive blasting mechanism is constructed. Due to the massive dust and serious wear, the seal and protective measures of the mechanism are fully considered. In order to maintain a reliable operation of abrasive blasting system in severe environment, an automatic control system based on PLC is designed. In order to keep a specific angle between the sand-blasting gun and the workpiece surface, which can improve the working efficiency, the surface tracking control model was constructed based on the infrared distance measuring sensors. In order to improve the measurement accuracy of the sensors, the second order linear fitting method based on the least square method was used to calibrate the infrared range sensors. The experimental results indicate that the proposed automatic abrasive blasting system has significance on improving sand blasting quality, working efficiency and environment as well as reducing labor costs.
Keywords: Large Diameter Pipe; Pipe Bend; Automatic Abrasive Blasting; Attitude Adjustment Method; Surface Tracking; Least Squares Method.
An Effective Control topology for Multilevel Inverter with a Z-Source Network
by P. Satheeshkumar, Natarajan S.P., Alamelu Nachiappan, Shanthi B.
Abstract: This document is used to explain about an efficient controlling method of multi level inverter with a z-source network. The proposed method is an efficient control design for the optimization difficulty which contains maximizing or minimizing of a real operation by methodically deciding input values from within a permissible group and calculating the value of the operation. The reduction of error between the real load voltage and its reference value is optimizing the gain parameters in the projected control methodology. It contains better capability to reply quick alterations in different operating situations. The projected method is used to decrease the inrush current, harmonics, increase effectiveness and it develops the exchange effectiveness for broad range of loading situation. It also improves the guideline of the output voltage and capacitor voltage stress. The projected technique is executed in MATLAB/Simulink platform and the efficiency is compared with the predictable methods.
Keywords: GSA algorithm; THD minimization;Switching angle;Multilevel NPC Z-Source inverter.
Study of micro channel fabrications by micromilling
by Xiang Cheng, Guangming Zheng, Xianhai Yang, Rufeng Xu, Yebing Tian
Abstract: In order to bridge the gap between high quality micro channel fabrications and micromilling processes, experimental studies have been conducted. First, single-factor experimental study has been conducted to identify the reasonable ranges of key process parameters considering the size effect in microcutting. Second, Taguchi method has been applied to conduct orthogonal experiments for the optimization of micromilling process parameters. It shows that the importance order in sequence on the surface roughness is the axial depth of cut ap, the feed fz, and the radial depth of cut ae. Then, the regression equation has been introduced to predict the surface roughness according to the key process parameters. Third, three up/down micromilling modes together with two kinds of cutter entry positions have been experimentally studied. It shows the microfuidic channel is better to be micromilled by the commensurate sized micro end mills and the open-end microchannel design is preferred.
Keywords: Micromilling; Optimization; Strategy; Surface roughness; Micro channel; Taguchi method; Orthogonal experiments.
Fuzzy weighted geometric mean approach based FMEA to prioritize lean failure modes in manufacturing industries
by Bhuvanesh Kumar M, Parameshwaran R
Abstract: In the current scenario, manufacturing industries strive hard to increase their efficiency to be competitive. But Indian small and medium manufacturing enterprises still lack in the knowledge of lean manufacturing systems. Unknowingly, the time and energy spent on non-value adding activities are high. This paper presents a methodology called lean failure mode and effects analysis (LFMEA) using fuzzy weighted geometric mean for prioritizing lean failure modes. Fuzzy lean priority number (FLPN) is calculated for the prioritization of lean failure modes using factors like occurrence (O), severity (S) and detection (D) of failure modes. Fuzzy linear programming models and alpha-cut techniques are used for ranking failure modes. For defuzzification of FLPNs, alpha-level set based centroid defuzzification method is used. Based on the FLPN values, lean tools are selected for eliminating/reducing the lean failures. The proposed methodology is illustrated with two case studies from manufacturing sector. The future state implemented with selected lean tools has shown encouraging results. Lead time, cycle time and non value added time are reduced by 11.3%, 14% and 6.1% respectively for a casting industry and 47.3%, 31.3% and 67.2% respectively for an auto components manufacturing industry. The unnecessary movements, man power and inventory are reduced to greater levels. The lean implementation through this methodology confirms positive effects on productivity improvement process.
Keywords: lean manufacturing; value stream mapping; failure mode and effects analysis; lean failure mode; fuzzy logic; fuzzy weighted geometric mean; centroid defuzzification; fuzzy lean priority numbers; foundry industry; casting industry;.
An equivalent conversion method for dual-armed multi-cluster tool scheduling problems with multi-wafer types
by Zhu WANG, Bing-Hai Zhou, Zhiqiang LU, Damien TRENTESAUX, Abdelghani BEKRAR
Abstract: Due to the trend towards 450mm diameter wafers and customization, an increase in wafer diversity and transient operation are anticipated for multi-cluster tools in wafer fabrication. While most previous studies focus on steady state scheduling problem of cluster tools, research on multi-cluster tools scheduling problems with transient operations is still at early stage. This article addresses the dual-armed multi-cluster tools scheduling problem with transient operations and multiple wafer types. The problem is subject to residency constraints, and makespan is adopted as the performance metrics. A non-linear mathematical model of the problem is established. To solve this problem, a time constraint sets-based heuristic algorithm, called the TB algorithm, is proposed in this article. Based on SWAP strategy, this article proposed the conception of virtual buffer modules, thus the TB algorithm converts the dual-armed multi-cluster tool scheduling problem into single-armed multi-cluster tools scheduling problem equivalently. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient.
Keywords: scheduling; algorithm; residency constraints; multi-wafer types; semiconductor manufacturing.
Machining in high pressure coolant Environment- A strategy to improve machining performance: A review
by Hanmant Shete, Madhav Sohani
Abstract: Machining is most commonly preferred production processes. Machining with high pressure coolant, cryogenic coolant, atomized coolant spray are the latest techniques investigated by the researchers to improve the productivity. Researchers have performed the work on various aspects of machining using high pressure coolant. Researchers have investigated effect of coolant related parameters, machining parameters, tool related parameters on surface finish, dimensional accuracy, tool wear, tool life, forces, chip morphology, tool and work piece temperature, wear mechanism during machining of different materials. Researchers have performed the research with regard to coolant type, coolant pressure, flow rate, coolant concentration, coolant jet direction and came up with interesting and beneficial findings. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on high pressure coolant strategy in machining of material with respect to various aspects. The paper present important findings in this area and pinpoints the issues which should be investigated in future.
Keywords: Machining; High Pressure Coolant (HPC); Coolant pressure; Tool wear; Ultra High Pressure Coolant (UHPC); Built up Edge (BUE).
Promoting adaptive agility through modularity: a Chinese case
by Ling Ding, Jin-xi Wu, Taohua Ouyang
Abstract: Organizational agility is currently a popular topic in a dynamic and uncertain environment as to the academic and practitioner communities. This paper, taking Hisens from Chinas manufacturing as a case, aims to reveal the building process and triggers of adaptive agility through R&D and production of Chinese flat-panel TVs from the perspective of modularity. This paper opens the black box between modularity and adaptive agility. It suggests that the adaptive systems of R&D and production are built through modularity. They can bring adaptive agilities including diversified varieties, advanced features, fast time-to-market, high quality, and low cost (price) in the business ecosystem. Enterprise achieves the balance of degree and overall optimal performance price ratio.
Keywords: Modularity; Organizational agility; Case study; Adaptive system; Chinese manufacture.
Sintering temperature effects on the properties of stainless steel 316L compact fabricated by metal injection moulding
by Nur Syawanie Manam, Wan Sharuzi Wan Harun, Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Afian Omar, Muhammad Hussain Ismail
Abstract: The water atomised stainless steel (SS) 316L powder with composite binder PEG, PMMA and SA were prepared with powder loading 61 vol. %. The MIM compacts were sintered at 1100, 1200, and 1300
Keywords: SS 316L; MIM; sintering temperature; argon atmosphere; sintered density; mechanical properties; optical microstructure.
Effects of tool rotation and powder abrasive on EDM performance of H13 tool steel
by AJAY GUPTA, Anil Kumar, Naveen Beri, Anil Ghubade
Abstract: The present work reports an experimental study on the performance of rotary electro-discharge machining (REDM) on H13 tool steel using rotary copper electrode in the presence of abrasives. Machining performance was evaluated in terms of machining rate and surface roughness. Experiments were conducted with peak current, speed of electrode rotation, concentration of abrasive and pulse on time as process variables. Taguchi methodology was adopted for experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate the influence of input parameters on material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR). This work introduces a new method abrasive mixed REDM of improving machining performance viz. rotation of tool in presence of abrasives. Results indicated that giving rotation to EDM tool results in considerable improvement in MRR and SR. This method successfully removed the debris from the machining area which was one of the major challenges in the existing process and major cause of rough surface due to inactive pulses. It was confirmed experimentally that material removal rate increased by 25.53% and surface roughness decreased by 21.22%.
Keywords: Rotary electric discharge machining; Analysis of variance; Abrasives EDM; Material removal rate; Surface roughness; H13 tool steel.
A dynamic planning model based on graph theory for product platform and module
by Yong-ming Wu, Liang Hou, S.H. Huang, Rongshen Lai
Abstract: Platform and module planning results using traditional methods are usually not consistent with the actual situation in product family design. Research was conducted involving modularization theory and implementation objectives and methods for mass customization (MC) to overcome the difficulty of platform and module dynamic planning/re-design for product family design. A graph-theoretical approach was developed for platform and module planning. Firstly, the commonality of the product parts and the physical structure of the existing product variants were analyzed in a product family. Part commonality and the physical structure of similar products were then modeled using a directed and an undirected graph, respectively. According to market demands, different platform thresholds and boundary parameters of modules were set dynamically. The product platform and modules were then generated in a product family and the potential parts to be used were identified. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach was demonstrated by the dynamic planning of the working devices of small wheel loaders.
Keywords: product family; product platform; modularization; graph theory.
Characterization and modelling of Tool Electrode Wear during Planetary EDM of Titanium Grade 5 alloy
by Vishal Mathai, Harshit Dave, Keyur Desai
Abstract: Despite having a wide acceptability in the manufacturing sector, one of the most critical issues that is still being faced in Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) process is the wear of tool electrode. Since this aberration is unavoidable and heavily dependent on machining conditions and stability, in depth study regarding the effect of various process parameters on the same is essential, irrespective of the machining strategy applied. Planetary actuation of the tool electrode is a technique which is capable of reducing the occurrence of sparking instability, as it facilitates better flushing at inter electrode gap. This paper discusses a detailed experimental study carried out to investigate the effect of machining as well as tool actuation parameters on tool wear rate (TWR) during EDM of titanium grade 5 alloy with planetary tool actuation. End wear and corner wear on the tool electrode have also been studied qualitatively to understand the intensity of material erosion. Two different tool electrode materials, viz. Copper and Graphite with square shape have been used for experimentation. Further, semi empirical models has been developed by incorporating process parameters as well as physical properties of the electrode materials for predicting rate of erosion from the tool electrode. The results predicted by models developed for both copper and graphite electrodes have found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.
Keywords: Wear; EDM; Titanium; Model; Tool Wear Rate; Planetary.
Implementation of Kanban to improve efficiency of a Manufacturing System subject to bottlenecks
by D. Sudarsan, G.D. Sivakumar
Abstract: The strategy of a Kanban is to optimize the inventory level by minimizing the inventory holding cost and the back order level. The number of Kanbans determines the total inventory has been used for manufacturing. A bi-criteria objective performance consisting of weighted tardiness and weighted work-in-process has been utilized for assessment. The bottleneck is a hurdle to reaching the objective. The major role of the projected paper is evolving the model to enhance kanban system in a product manufacturing Industry by various optimization methods by considering the hurdles due to bottleneck operation. These Industrialized models can be used to enhance the system by minimizing the tardiness and work in progress cost in the flow of product at the restricted access point with kanban production scheme. From the solutions attained, the optimal kanban size with minimum tardiness and WIP cost is identified by Harmony Search (HS) optimization algorithm.
Keywords: Kanban process; bottleneck analysis; product manufacturing; industry and optimization techniques.
Revisiting sustainable EOQ model considering carbon emission
by Hui Ming Wee, Yosef Daryanto, Kuo-Hsing Wu
Abstract: From our review of sustainable EOQ inventory models, most researchers include carbon emission in the objective function or constraint. In this study, we have enriched current researches by in-cooperating sustainability criteria into inventory model. The study develops a sustainable EOQ model by considering carbon emission comes from transportation and warehouse operations; we also consider imperfect quality items and assume complete backordering. A numerical analysis has been provided and it has been shown that our model results in a higher expected total profit per unit time.rnrn
Keywords: Sustainable EOQ; Carbon emission; Imperfect quality; Complete backordering.
Power Factor Correction of the Enhanced SEPIC Converter Using a New Control Methodology
by Sivakumari Murugan, Karthika M, Renuga M
Abstract: In the paper, an enhanced single-ended primary inductance (SEPIC) converter is proposed with BLDC motor drive. The enhanced SEPIC converter is designed with the switched inductor and their control topology is analyzed with the Fractional Order proportional integral and Derivative (FOPID) controller with Ant-Lion Optimizer (ALO) algorithm. The advantage of switched inductor based converter is to provide the high gain ratio and good efficiency. The enhanced control topology of SEPIC with BLDCM is utilized to done the power factor correction and to mitigate power quality (PQ) issues. In a conventional scheme of BLDC motor, the speed is varied by controlling the duty ratio of high-frequency pulse width modulation signals, which increase the switching losses in the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDC motor. However, this paper presents a BLDC motor of which the speed is controlled by adjusting the DC bus voltage of the VSI feeding BLDC motor. Moreover, a fundamental switching frequency of VSI is employed for reduction of its switching losses by operating the BLDC motor in electronic commutation. A PFC-based SEPIC is designed for its operation in discontinuous inductor current mode such that the voltage control is achieved using a single voltage sensor with inherent PFC at AC mains; which also makes it a cost effective solution for low power applications. In the controller topology, the speed of the BLDCM is analyzed with the FOPID controller and generated the control pulses for the optimal operations. The proposed enhanced SEPIC converter based motor drive is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and developed the converter performances. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed enhanced control topology, this is compared with the existing methods, such as, without controller and PID controller topology. The proposed and existing method is tested with the various speeds of BLDCM drive system.
Keywords: SEPIC; BLDC; PFC; ALO; Efficiency; FOPID and PID controller.
Investigation of HFRC beams retrofitted using GFRP for enhancement in flexural capacity
by Vinodkumar M., Muthukannan M.
Abstract: The applications of FRP have been widely used in repair and upgrading of concrete structures. Research and design guidelines accomplished that externally bonded FRP could increase the load carrying capacity of RC elements efficiently. A study was undertaken to investigate the flexural behaviour of Hybid Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HFRC) beams, which were preloaded and retrofitted by externally bonded with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) laminate to the bottom (soffit) of the beam. The compressive, split tensile and flexural strength tests were conducted to find the optimum percentage of hybrid fibre which can be used for casting of beam specimens. Two sets each containing 3 numbers of beams were cast and tested in this study. Based on the test results, it is found that the HFRC beams retrofitted with GFRP show an improvement in load carrying capacity of about 45% and 23% than the same set of retrofitted control beams.
Keywords: Hybid Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HFRC); Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) laminate; Steel; Glass and Polypropylene fibres; non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) ANSYS.
Modeling and Analysis on Influential Machining Parameters of 38MnSiVS5 Micro alloyed Steel by D-Optimal Design
by MUNIRAJ Subramaniyam, Nambi Muthukrishnan
Abstract: This article presents the experimentally comparison on machining of Micro Alloyed Steel (MAS) of cylindrical rods with 80 mm diameter and length of 350 mm using the medium-duty lathe of 7.5 kW spindle power at 1600 rpm to set the guide lines and to understand the machining behaviour of MAS using K20 uncoated, single layer (TiN) coated and multi-coated (TiN-TiCN-Al2O3-ZrCN) carbide insert. The mathematical modeling and optimum cutting parameters have been identified by Response Surface Method (RSM) based D-Optimal Design technique. Significant contribution of parameters can then be determined by Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA). Experimental results have shown that surface roughness performance can be improved effectively through this approach. . The results shown the relation between the machining parameters such as cutting speed, depth of cut and federate on surface quality and also the role of cutting parameters on cutting force. It is concluded that, the experimental values are in reasonable concord with the proposed model values. The proposed model and analysis is very effectual in the turning operation of micro alloy steel.
Keywords: ANOVA,Cutting Force,Responsesurface Method-D-Optimal method,surface roughness; Turning.
Prediction of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel Microexplosion Process in C.I Engine by Utilizing NN-IABC Approach
by Selvaraj Manickam, Sentilkumar P.
Abstract: The world is getting modernized and industrialized step by step. Utilization of traditional diesel fuel causes a difficult issue of air contamination and consequences for the earth prompting impact like nursery, a few considers diesel fuel brings about high discharge in diesel motor. In this paper propose a Jatropha bio-diesel, which can be utilized as an option diesel fuel, is produced using inexhaustible natural sources, for example, vegetable oil and creature fats. The principle destinations of this paper are to examine the execution and discharges qualities of a Compression Ignition (CI) Engine keep running with biodiesel under miniaturized scale blast handle with different loads and weight. The test consequences of SFC, SEC, TFC, BP, BTE and fumes temperature and additionally CO2, O2, NOx, CO and HC outflows were displayed and talked about by the assistance of NN improvement with IABC calculation. In view of the exploratory outcomes NN performs preferred outcome over ordinary calculations. The improvement calculations foresee the parameters viably and executed in MATLAB programming.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Compression Ignition engine; microexplosion; NN; IABC.
Design of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller for Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit
by Brijet Z, Bharathi N
Abstract: Modeling and controlling of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) is a challenging problem since it is a highly nonlinear and interacting process. Model of FCCU that describes the dynamic behavior of reactor and regenerator has been developed by considering energy and material balance equations. Fuzzy logic control technique in the field of intelligent control has been used in this paper, since it handles uncertainty very well. In this work, centralized mamdani types T1FLC and T2FLC have been designed for FCCU to control the reactor and regenerator temperature. The closed loop simulation study for servo and servo with regulatory performance has been carried out for the two controllers and the performances have been analyzed. The comparative study of these two control schemes reveals that the Type2FLC gives better performance than Type1FLC.
Keywords: fuzzy logic; intelligent control; reactor; regenerator; fluid catalytic cracking unit.
Dual-Network Embeddedness, Absorptive Capacity, and Enterprise Innovation Performance: Evidence from the Chinese Hi-Tech Manufacturing Industry
by Qian Sun, Renyong Hou, Gebremichael Hailekiros
Abstract: Embedded innovation represents a new innovation mode. However, the relationships among network embeddedness, absorptive capacity and enterprise innovation performance remain unclear. This paper develops a conceptual framework of value chain and knowledge chain embeddedness, absorptive capacity and enterprise innovation performance to reveal the mechanism of dual-network embeddedness in enterprise innovation performance from an absorptive capacity perspective. Structural equation modelling and survey data from the hi-tech manufacturing industry in China are used. The results reveal that (1) both value chain embeddedness and knowledge chain embeddedness enhance enterprise innovation performance, but (2) they promote enterprise innovation performance in different ways. Knowledge chain embeddedness promotes enterprise innovation performance through assimilation capacity, while value chain embeddedness promotes enterprise innovation performance through search and acquisition capacity. Suggestions are presented on how to enhance enterprise innovation performance from the network embeddedness and absorptive capacity perspectives.
Keywords: Network Embeddedness; Enterprise Innovation Performance; Absorptive Capacity; Value Chain; Knowledge Chain; Hi-Tech Manufacturing Industry.
QUANTIZATION OF DRIVING ENABLERS ENABLING TRANSITION FROM TRADITIONAL TO FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
by PRABHU DUBEY, Prashant Chauhan, Prashant Shekhar, Prakhar Agrawal, Paras Sharma
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to empirically test a conceptual framework based upon three constructs, i.e.: 1) top level management (TLM); 2) clear vision (CV); 3) support from government(SFG). TLM is measured in terms of: 1) qualification of employees; 2) behaviour with subordinates; 3) strategic planning; 4) long- term goals. CV is measured in terms of: 1) willingness of employees to change; 2) long- term planning; 3) core competency; 4) scheduling. Availability of SFG is measured in terms of: 1) infrastructure facility; 2) availability of loans; 3) adequate supply of energy; 4) feasibility of trading; 5) approval of project; 6) governments cooperation. Various statistical techniques were used to verify, validate and test the reliability of the hypothesis and their sub- dimensions. Results of structural modeling (SEM) revealed that TLM dimension has a direct and significant impact towards CV (0.83) and SFG (0.62). Also, CV dimension shows a direct, positive impact on SFG (0.70).
Keywords: top level management; clear vision; support from government; structural equation modeling.
Microstructural Comparison and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel 316L Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting and Metal Injection Moulding Processes
by Mohd Faizul Farhan Ahmad Hamidi, Wan Sharuzi Wan Harun, Nur Zalikha Khalil, Mahendran Samykano
Abstract: Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process is one of an additive manufacturing technology that has the capabilities of fabricating complex geometries with an excellent accuracy and resolution. Compared to conventional powder metallurgy techniques Metal Injection Moulding (MIM), SLM has several advantages such as low production cost for small batch fabrication, high degrees of geometrical freedom and customization, and short cycle time. The present work analyses and compares the tensile properties and metallography differences of the stainless steel 316L compacts fabricated by two powder-based manufacturing processes; SLM and MIM, respectively. The SLM compact was built at 0-degree building orientation by SLM 125 HL machine with default optimum processing parameters for stainless steel 316L powder. On the other hand, MIM process produced similar dimension of tensile-shaped compacts differently that by sintered at three different sintering conditions in highly pure argon flow atmosphere. The tensile testing revealed that SLM tensile compact was higher in tensile strength (29 % more) and elongation (62 % more) at fracture as compared to MIM compact. From microstructure observation, the MIM compact showed the presence of significant amount of porosity which led to moderate mechanical properties compared to SLM compact performances.
Keywords: Selective laser melting; metal injection moulding; mechanical properties; microstructure.
Grey- Relational Analysis of Fluid Assisted Blank Holding System in Deep Drawing Process for Al Alloy 1050 by Using a Numerical Simulation
by Nitin Kamble, Bhagwan Sonawane, B.B. Ahuja, Sandeep Sarnobat
Abstract: The objectives of this work is to develop a fluid assisted blank holding (FAB) system for deep drawing process and to study the effect of process parameters on thickness distribution, wrinkling and strain rate for Al 1050 through experiments. Deep drawing method have been investigated on Al alloy 1050 material, which is one of the lightest material for manufacturing parts. Limiting Drawing Ratio (LDR) has been improved compared to the conventional constant force mechanical blank holding system. Experiments were carried out by considering input parameters as punch force and blank holding force. The responses were measured using a modern photogrammetric measurement system named ARGUS. Multi objective optimization technique Grey Relational analysis have been used to find out optimum process parameters for the present conditions. The experimental results reveal that the quality of the resultant cup has been enhanced in terms of thickness distribution, strain rate and surface finish. The effectiveness of the FAB process has also been verified through simulation tools such as LS Dyna and FEA. These results were compared with the experimental results.
Keywords: Fluid assisted Blank Holding system (FAB); Al 1050 Alloy; Argus Mehod; Grey Relational Analysis; FEA Simulation Ls Dyna.
ABRASIVE WATER JET MACHINING PROCESS PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION FOR MACHINING OF COMPLEX PROFILED COMPONENT FROM INCONEL 718 SUPER ALLOYS
by Vishnu M, Saleeshya P.G
Abstract: The demands for machining complex profile from difficult-to-machine materials find wide applications in various industries, that has been triggered the neck for development of advanced machining technologies, specifically non-conventional processes and associated optimization of machining parameter. Keeping in view the applications of Inconel-718 material for Aerospace applications, it has been selected as the specimen material for machining complex profiled component on KMT Steam line SL-V50 Water jet five axes CNC Abrasive Water Jet Machine at the research organisation. In the present work AWJM (Abrasive water jet machine) process parameters are optimized by Taguchi- Grey relational method on dimensions, geometries and surface roughness of complex curved contours. Additionally, the Pareto ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) of grey relational grade is also applied to find the most significant process parameter. Traverse speed is found to be the most significant process parameter for profile cutting in AWJM, also Confirmation experiments were conducted to validate the results. The experiment was done for a specified profile for cross sectional thickness of 6.6 mm and 18 sets of experiments were conducted based on stark‟s L18 orthogonal array.
Keywords: Grey relational analysis; AWJM; complex profile cutting; Inconel 718; Pareto ANOVA.
An Adaptive method for improving the Dynamic Performance of Two Area Power System using CS based neural network
by Jeha Jacob, Raja S
Abstract: An adaptive method is estimated for emerging the energetic performance of the two region power system with the help of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) gadget in this article. An adaptive method is the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm between neural networks (NN) is burdened to enhance the steadiness of the summarized two region power scheme illustration and assessed the power producer reactance and inactivity in the transmission demonstration. The CS algorithm is enhanced the energetic constraint and the NN is enlarging the probing activities of the anticipated algorithm. The anticipated technique is involved in assessing the energetic performance of the general apparatus for all regions setting the voltage and current constraint at the transactional end of the transmission demonstration. The originality of the predictable system is to assess and reservation the inter region energetic constraint of radial, two apparatus shortened apparatus power system illustration with the help of transactional energetic voltage and current constraint regulator. At this time the voltage regulator alike to TCSC device is engaged to accomplish the voltage constraint and feat the bus voltage phasor information at many buses along with the voltage manage bus and the demonstration currents on the power transmission demonstration. The anticipated method is midpoint on the transmission demonstrations which is affianced with the help of the TCSC for comforting the voltage and disrespects the blooper signal in the system, the three step blunder signal is beneficial in the two region power system. Subsequently, the energetic performance of the summarized two apparatus power system is envisioned with the help of the anticipated method and enhanced the energetic fortification. The anticipated procedure is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink functioning platform and also the productivity performance is assessed and compared with the prevailing methods like deficient of FACTS devices, with FACTS devices, three phase blunder condition, GA together with TCSC and ABC with TCSC congruently.
Keywords: Two machine reduced model; Dynamic parameters; Voltage and current parameters; TCSC; CS algorithm; NN technique and Reactance and Inertias.
Deterring Independent Remanufacturers by Strategic Inventory
by Zhongkai Xiong, Nian Guo
Abstract: In many industries independent remanufacturers (IRs) abound and their remanufactured products impose an external threat on the new products of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). To cope with the threat, conventional wisdom suggests OEMs involve in the remanufacturing process. However, in reality there are still many OEMs who are unwilling to adopt the remanufacturing strategy worrying their own remanufactured products would cause an internal competition and cannibalize with their new products. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for OEMs to deal with the dilemma. Specifically, we use a two-period model to show by building up strategic inventory in the first period, OEMs can successfully deter the entrance of IRs. The strategic inventory strategy works because it can be used as a commitment device to convey a credible information that there will be enough new products in the second period and entering the market will be rendered unprofitable for IRs.
Keywords: strategic inventory; entry-deterrence; closed-loop supply chain; remanufacturing.
Collaboration between Universities, Government, and Industries ~applying the Triple Helix relationship model to Indonesian education improvement ~
by Mingchang Wu, Ibnu Siswanto
Abstract: Triple helix model is a dynamic interaction approach to facilitate the government, industry, and academia for continuously generating innovative products to encounter the globally knowledge-based economic trend. This article firstly reviews and analyses the purposes, operations, and effects of the three sectors collaboration at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Empire state development division of science, technology and innovation, Medicon Valley, and BioStar. Three supporting factors are identified, human resources quality, competitive supporting system, and entrepreneurship, as the key factors for the successful trilateral collaboration. The second part of the article presents a conceptual framework to implement the mutual collaboration model in Indonesia. Finally, this paper suggests the three institutions in Indonesia to actively reconstruct their roles in society to create new innovative product and/or innovative area creation in order to speed up the growth of knowledge-based economy, which in turn provide well-being and comfort for the individual and society.
Keywords: university; government; industry; Triple Helix model; Indonesia.
Cellular layout cell assignment in cellular manufacturing system layout using colonel selection algorithm with considering entry and exit position of the parts to be processed in the layout
by V. Anbumalar, R. Mayandy, M. Shunmugasundaram
Abstract: Cell formation and facility layout formation are the two important steps in a cellular manufacturing system. The cell formation is a combination of part families identification and machine cell formation. The facility layout formation is defined as the determination of the relative locations for allocating the workstations in the available space. In this paper, the cells are assigned optimally in the cellular manufacturing system layout with an objective of minimize the traveling score for a planning horizon using colonel selection algorithm with considering the entry and exit point of the parts to be processed in the cell in addition to sequence of operation and demand required for a planning horizon. The results obtained by the proposed colonel selection algorithm are compared with few heuristic and Meta-heuristic algorithms available in the literature and shows it gives better results.
Keywords: cellular layout; cellular manufacturing system; clonical selection algorithm; fixed entry and exit point; total traveling score.
A Review on Application of Genetic Algorithms in Cellular Manufacturing Systems
by Barnali Chaudhuri, R.K. Jana, Manojit Chattopadhyay, Pranab Dan
Abstract: This study provides a systematic and integrated review of articles, puts up perspective into conceptualization and various critical parameters for research on the application of genetic algorithms to cell design of cellular manufacturing systems during the period 1992 to 2015. Taxonomy of genetic algorithms applications in cellular manufacturing systems is suggested by identifying 10 objectives/criteria, 33 production factors, and 10 performance measures. Considering the heterogeneity of parameters and operators applied by researchers, a metrics for genetic algorithms is developed. The objective of this study is to identify the research trends, chronological progress, the continuous development and the changing pattern of implementation of genetic algorithms in cellular manufacturing systems.
Keywords: Cell Formation; Cellular Manufacturing Systems; Genetic Algorithms; Hybrid Genetic Algorithms; Review.
Effect of Machining Parameters in Drilling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite with Modified AJM Process.
by Basanta Kumar Nanda, Debabrata Dhupal
Abstract: Conventional drilling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite produces delamination effect due to peel-up and pull out of the layers. This research work represents drilling of GFRP rectangular workpieces with fluidized bed abrasive jet machining (FB-AJM) process using silicon carbide (SiC) abrasives. Experiments were conducted according to Box-Behnken design matrix to measure the four responses, namely, material removal rate (W), surface roughness (Ra), depth of cut (h), and taper angle (TA) by utilizing bed pressure (P), nozzle tip distance (Z) and abrasive grain size (G) as input parameters. Desirability based particle swarm optimization (PSO) was performed for the multi-objective optimization to find the optimal input parameters P, Z and G of 6 kgf/cm2, 7 mm, 260μm respectively. A single experiment was performed at the predicted optimal conditions to validate the model with minimum error. The SEM analysis of the machined composite surface revealed the initiation and propagation of cracks along with embedment of erodent particle.
Keywords: Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP); fluidized bed abrasive jet machining (FB-AJM); silicon carbide (SiC); response surface methodology (RSM); Desirability-Function; particle swarm optimization (PSO).
Robust Design Optimization of Constituent Mix and WEDM Electrical Parameters of AA6063/SiC Composites
by Iyyadurai Balasubramanian, Rathinam Maheswaran
Abstract: This paper addresses robust design and development of aluminium based composite materials with ceramic silicon carbide reinforcement with minimum sensitivity subjected to uncontrollable material factor constituent mix of the composite and Wire Electric Discharge Machining (WEDM) electrical machine setting parameters. The robust design reduces the variation in machinability performance of composite caused variations due to the unforeseen input parameters. In manufacturing sectors, the variation in performance is a major problem during the development of material for a process or product. The popular Taguchi parametric design approach is implemented in this work, to identify the best optimum parameter setting towards the single characteristic optimization of machinability performance measures like surface roughness, material removal rate and cutting width, by machining AA6063/SiC composites with different constituent mix through different levels of Electronica Sprintcut WEDM electrical machine setting parameters like pulse on time, pulse off time and peak current.
Keywords: Constituent mix; Wire Electric Discharge Machining; Surface Roughness; Material Removal Rate; Cutting Width; Pulse on time; Pulse off time; Peak current.
How does justice matter in developing supply chain trust and improving information sharing An empirical study in Pakistan
by Sahar Erfanian, Muhammad Ziaullah, Muhammad Abubakar Tahir
Abstract: In supply chain management information sharing has become a major driver of competitive advantage. Because organizations are an essential part of globalized competitive economies which are characterized by the network of intra and inter-firms relationships. Information sharing is an important prerequisite of supply chain integration. This article proposes to examine the association between supply chain justice, trust and information sharing. It presents a conceptual framework in which supply chain justice can affect information sharing through the development of trust between trade channel partners. The conceptual model comprises four hypotheses. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory factor analysis to test the validity and reliability of the model. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling on data collected from 170 firms of Pakistan. The study results indicate the importance for firms to promote supply chain justice in the whole supply chain for the development of partners trust, which can improve the high level of information sharing. Finally, implications for practice, limitations, and guidelines for future research are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: information sharing; supply chain integration; justice; trust; Pakistan.
On process analysis and optimisation of Nd: YAG laser cutting characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using RSM and NSGA-II
by D. Rajamani
Abstract: In recent years, titanium alloys has find diversified applications in aerospace, manufacturing and processing industries due to its unique characteristics. Ti alloys are difficult to cut by conventional machining techniques due to their uneven temperature distribution and high tool wear rate. The present study investigates the influence of major pulsed Nd: YAG laser process variables (i.e., pulse width, pulse energy, cutting speed, and gas pressure) on different performance measures (kerf deviation (KD) and metal removal rate (MRR)) during cutting of Ti-6Al-4V superalloy sheet. The experiments are designed and carried out based on RSM based Box-Behnken statistical design and the adequacy of developed mathematical model was analysed through ANOVA technique. Then, the optimal settings of operating conditions were predicted using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA II). The microstructures of laser cut surfaces were investigated and correlated using scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Keywords: Ti-6Al-4V; laser cutting; optimisation; ANOVA; RSM; NSGA II; kerf deviation; material removal rate; microstructure.
Solution for Multi-Objective Single Row Facility Layout Problem using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
by Lenin N
Abstract: Facility layout design is an important area of research. An optimized layout helps to ensure a high level of machine usability, in addition to achieving common engineering objectives such as reducing cost and increasing performance. However, facility layout is a multi-objective design optimization problem and, as such, it is difficult to solve. The aim of this original research work is to design an optimal linear machine sequence that minimizes the following parameters: the total investment cost of machines; the total number of machines in the final sequence; the total flow time of the products; and the total flow distance of the products. Particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to determine the optimal layout. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by solving a number of typical layout design problems taken from literature as well as several randomly-generated problems. Compared with previous approaches, the proposed algorithm generates good results in most of the problems. Maximum of 19.1% reduction in total flow distance of products, 12.8% reduction in total investment cost of machines, 28.4% reduction in total flow time of products and reduction of 2 numbers of machines in the final sequence are achieved by proposed method compared with the previous approaches.
Keywords: Linear machine sequence; Particle swarm optimization algorithm; Investment cost of machines; Flow time; Flow distance.
Speed Control of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) by Genetic Algorithm Based Optimal H-infinity Control Approach
by A. Rajendran, S. Padma
Abstract: In classical H- Infinity control technique, the uncertainties have parameters namely model error and variation outer disorder. But, the H-infinity control technique is an external control technique. The weight of the transfer function matrix is changed at different system state. Therefore, an optimal control weight is needed to make the system robust. The process of finding optimal control weight is complex because the H-infinity control process is a closed loop controller. To overcome these difficulties, in this paper, an optimal H-infinity control concept is proposed. In the proposed control procedure, the optimal transfer function matrix weight is obtained by genetic algorithm (GA) which is an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method is implemented in MATLAB and the speed of the SRM is controlled. Then the weight noise setting is obtained for every time instant. The optimal weight noise setting can be attained by H- infinity optimal control using GA approach.
Keywords: switched reluctance motor; Speed Control Technique; Optimal H-infinity Control; Robustness and genetic algorithm.
SIMULATED ANNEALING ALGORITHM FOR MINIMIZING ASSEMBLY VARIATION IN NONLINEAR ASSEMBLY
by R. Sivasubramanian, G. Venkatesan, M. Sivakumar, R. Sivasankar
Abstract: Precision assemblies need close tolerance components. A close tolerance component requires secondary operations, which increase the manufacturing cost considerably. A good number of methods like uniform grouping, equal probability, uniform tolerance etc., were discussed in literature focused generally on reducing surplus parts or minimizing clearance variation in selective assembly (SA) on the linear assembly. Moreover, existing techniques have used components tolerance for obtaining the best bin combinations rather than using the components dimension. The present work aims to obtain maximum number of products with closer assembly specification from wider tolerance sub components of a non-linear assembly by mating their components dimension based on the best bin combinations. Overrunning clutch assembly (OCA) is considered as an example problem, in which the sub components are manufactured with wide tolerance and partitioned into three to ten bins. A combination of best bins is obtained for the various assembly specifications by implementing Simulating Annealing Algorithm (SAA). The proposed method is proved its effectiveness through showing 24.9% of cost saving in making OCA.
Keywords: Tolerance; Clearance Variation; Non-Linear Assembly; Over Running Clutch Assembly and Simulated Annealing Algorithm.
Experimental Investigations on the Electrodeposition of Ni on Copper Substrate
by Aniket Das, Surekha B, Srinivasa Sai V
Abstract: In the present investigation, an attempt is made to study the electrodeposition of Ni coatings on the copper substrate. It is important to note that the addition of nickel on the copper surface improves the strength and corrosion resistance by allowing the alloy base substrate remain ductile. In this research, Watts bath has been used to perform the electrodeposition of Ni layer on copper substrate. During experimentation, the variables, such as current, solution concentration and electroplating time are considered as the input process parameters and metal deposition rate and micro hardness of the coating are treated as the responses. The number of experiments conducted to study the electrodeposition process has been decided based on the central composite design of experiments. It has been observed that the metal deposition rate and micro hardness of the coating is increased with the increase in the operating range of the input process parameters
Keywords: Electrodeposition; Ni coating; copper substrate; central composite design of experiments.
Modified Firefly Algorithm and Fuzzy based FOPID controller for Load Frequency Control of a power system
by Naresh Kumari, Nitin Malik, A.N. Jha
Abstract: In this paper, Fractional Order Proportional Integral Derivative (FOPID) controller is proposed for load frequency control (LFC) in an interconnected power system. For proper tuning of the FOPID controller parameters, modified firefly algorithm (modified FA) with Fuzzy Logic control (FLC) technique is used. It is a new evolutionary algorithm with proved efficiency. A modified FA is investigated with the help of genetic algorithm (GA). The aim of the proposed method is to minimize the deviation in frequency of the integrated system. Random movement factor of firefly algorithm is improved by hybridizing the GA with classical firefly algorithm. In firefly algorithm, the next movement of firefly depends on the movement factor which is determined randomly so the best movement of firefly has possibility to fail by the distribution of random number. Thus, the optimal tuning of FOPID controller parameters can never able to recognize accurately. So, in this paper, a GA based optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal random movement factor of fireflies. Thus, the optimal tuning and load frequency is determined efficiently when compared to traditional fire fly algorithm. Moreover, FLC is added to get the optimal performances of the power system. The output of the modified FA is applied to the input of FLC. Here, simulation investigations are carried out on an interconnected power system that the integration of different energy resources like offshore wind, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage elements like flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS) are considered. The proposed controller is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink platform and the load frequency control responses are evaluated. The performances of proposed controller are compared with PID controller; Fuzzy based FOPID controller and FA-FOPID controller.
Keywords: FOPID controller; modified firefly algorithm; GA; fuzzy logic controller; load frequency; wind turbine and PV system.
Optimized Fault Tolerant Core based ASIC Design for SRAM
by T. Suresh, Z. Brijet
Abstract: SRAMs are suitable to the applications of space and other radiation environment. Unfortunately, SRAMs are vulnerable to Single Event Upsets (SEUs) induced by radiation environments particles. So, the designer needs to validate an efficiency of the developed designs to detect and correct the errors. In this paper, an error-detection Hamming code which can be used to detect single and multiple bit errors and correct these errors in SRAMs has been proposed. It is a novel self-repairing approach for fast fault recovery with an optimized design which requires less number of resources, which can be easily applied to real time complex digital applications. The fault tolerant core is verified using Hamming code and synthesized using Xilinx ISE 14.5 and Cadence RTL compiler targeted to UMC90nm CMOS technology. After the successful synthesis the physical design using the CADENCE ENCOUNTER has been created. The physical design involves the floor planning, routing and generating a GDS II file. The total optimized area is about 3512mm
Keywords: Fault tolerance; SRAMs; Hamming code; Single-event-upset (SEU).
FPGA Implementation of Gate Level Modified Adaptive Filter Architecture for Noise Cancellation Application
by Gomathi Swaminathan, Murugesan G
Abstract: This paper provides an approach for the implementation of modifications in the gate level in the adaptive filter architecture. An adaptive filter is appreciable when processing real time data and under the conditions when the signal statistics are not known a priori. Filtering data in real time needs a dedicated hardware. The resources available for implementing an efficient digital filtering algorithm are present in Field Programmable Gate Array. To design a dedicated hardware with low computational complexity, an approach of gate level modifications is incorporated in the EX-OR gate and the modified EX-OR gate is implemented in the coefficient decimation method. The proposed modified coefficient decimation method is applied in the adaptive algorithms such as Recursive Least Square, Affine Projection, and Kalman algorithm. The designed structures are experimented with the ECG and speech signal and implemented in the Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. Simulation and implementation results infer area reduction is achieved up to 50% and delay reduction of 10% is obtained in the proposed structures.
Keywords: Field Programmable Gate Array; EX-OR; ECG; hardware; XILINX System Generator; full adder; half adder.
The International Location Decision: A Study of Manufacturing Firms
by Ebou Touray, Andreas Schmidt, Zaza Hansen
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to build a broader understanding of the international location decision (ILD) of manufacturing by investigating and mapping Danish manufacturing firms related activities and underlying processes. Using an exploratory survey approach on 17 Danish firms, the study shows there is less emphasis on cost than in past studies and a large unstructured human influence. A framework containing six categories of ILD factors cost, labor and social characteristics, infrastructure, politics and regulations, economics, and markets and resources and an assessment of their respective single factors are presented. Lastly, the paper identifies five major shortcomings in the current practice: unstructured processes, noninvolvement of the operational level of the organization, static perspective of dynamic factors, uneven balance between quantitative and qualitative factors, and no organizational learning.
Keywords: The International Location Decision; manufacturing firms; framework; shortcomings.
A modified column generation heuristic for hybrid flow shop multiple orders per job scheduling problem
by Bing-Hai Zhou, Wen-Long Liu
Abstract: With a comprehensive consideration of multiple product types, sequence-dependent setup time constraints and two different processing modes in wafer fabrication process, a scheduling model of multiple orders per job in a hybrid flow shop with an objective function of minimizing total completion time of the system is developed. On the basis of the description, a new column generation algorithm based on a three-level (job-product-machine) disjunctive network flow is put forward. Furthermore, in order to improve degradation effects of the algorithm, a Lagrangian relaxation with sub-gradient optimization is integrated into a frame of the column generation algorithm. Therefore, a modified column generation algorithm as a combination of Lagrangian approach and column generation algorithm is proposed. Finally, theory analysis and simulation experiments demonstrate that the presented algorithm is valid and feasible.
Keywords: multiple product types; sequence-dependent setup time; disjunctive network flow; modified column generation algorithm.
Estimating and Developing the Dynamic Parameters of Two Area Power System Using BAT Algorithm
by Jeha J, S. Charles Raja
Abstract: In this paper, a half breed procedure is proposed for building up the dynamic execution of the two region power framework with Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) gadget. The cross breed procedure is consolidated with the BAT algorithm (BA) and artificial neural network (ANN) to exploitation the solidness of the lessened two range power framework demonstrate and evaluated the force generator reactance and inertias in the exchange way. The BA is evaluating the dynamic parameters and the NN is improving the looking conduct of the BA for creating higher execution of the framework. The proposed strategy is spotlight on the decreased model force framework which is utilized the TCSC for settling the parameters and synchronizing the two range framework. The execution of the proposed strategy is contrasted and the parameters and arranged taking into account the TCSC associated existing procedures like GA, ABC, PSO and CS.
Keywords: Two machine reduced model; Dynamic parameters; Voltage and current parameters; TCSC; Reactance; Inertias; BA and NN.
Simplified Full Precision Offset Estimation for timing and frequency Synchronization using factorized FFT processor
by Janakiraman V, Kannan M
Abstract: This paper presents a design methodology for highly reliable timing and frequency synchronization through scaled floating point arithmetic based factorized FFT processor. Radix factorization is the main technique for achieving high energy efficiency, followed by errorless floating point arithmetic computation will increase the performance of the coarse timing and frequency synchronization. Here representation of error propagation model for training sequence used for synchronization process with fixed point arithmetic is derived to analyze the rounding effect. The effect of quantization loss due to the fixed point arithmetic errors and in overall OFDM system performance with decimation-in-frequency (DIF) FFT configuration is analyzed and compared with full precision floating arithmetic through simulation. Based on the results, a simple bit size optimization is proposed to yield full precision accuracy with fewer bits. Finally radix-22 algorithm is proposed to compensate the area overhead due to inclusion of precision arithmetic in FFT computation.
Keywords: Full Precision Offset Estimation; Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM); carrier frequency offset (CFO); Fast Fourier transform (FFT); discrete in time (DIT),timing and frequency Synchronization.
Investigation on the Effect of Support Structure Space in Determining Optimal Part Orientation Using a Generic Algorithm
by S. Malligarjunan, Chandrasekaran M, G.B. Bhaskar
Abstract: Prominence on support structure in limiting the build time of Rapid Prototyping (RP) processes got the least allure from researchers. Likewise, the Support Structure Space (3S) was not utilized yet to prolong the investigation in this arena. This paper proposes a critical thinking approach that limits build time to a lesser value, for part building in RP processes using a generic algorithm. Build time reduction leads to lower fabrication cost of the part. Construction of the bounding box, computation of the 3S volume and orientation of the part are discussed in the development phase of the algorithm. The verification and validation of sample-fabricated parts on FDM system have been done by comparing the outcomes obtained against the numerically estimated values.
Keywords: rapid prototyping; additive manufacturing; part orientation; build time; support structure; FDM; fused deposition modeling.
An empirical investigation of statistical divergence of the areas of linkage between lean and sustainability in Indian Manufacturing SMEs
by Sajan M.P
Abstract: The small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide have extensively adopted lean manufacturing system intending their sustainable development. In most of the developing nations, the government policies on SMEs promote the lean manufacturing schemes and thus the sustainable growth of SMEs. The exploratory study in this paper list out the main areas of linkage between lean and sustainability in manufacturing SMEs and the sustainability benefits deriving from lean implementation. The paper explores the statistical divergence of areas of linkage between lean and sustainability, and the sustainability benefits of lean implementation among the different manufacturing processes and at the different levels of investment in Indian SMEs. The work contributes to the policy and decision makers on the requirement of integration of lean manufacturing practices with sustainability performances.
Keywords: Lean Manufacturing; Sustainability; Small and Medium Enterprises; India; Sustainability benefits; Survey.
Modeling bead width and bead hardness in submerged arc welding using dimensional analysis
by Abhijit Saha, Subhas Chandra Mondal
Abstract: The Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) process finds wide industrial application due to its easy applicability, high current density and ability to deposit a large amount of weld metal using more than one wire at the same time. This paper presents the application of two techniques, namely, Rayleighs dimensional analysis for modeling and Grey relational analysis (GRA) for multi-objective optimization for bead width and bead hardness in SAW based on welding parameters such as, welding current, arc voltage, welding speed and electrode stick out respectively. Based on the experimental result, it was concluded that Grey relational analysis is suitable for the optimization of multi-response problem. The best-fitting curves were obtained for experimentally observed values of both bead width and bead hardness on the basis of the Rayleighs model. The comparison with experimental results will also served as further validation of model. The proposed methodology can be applied to other manufacturing processes dealing multivariate data.
Keywords: Submerged arc welding (SAW); Rayleigh’s theorem; Dimensional analysis; Grey relational analysis (GRA); Bead width; Bead hardness.
Fault Ride-Through of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Connected to the Grid using Optimization Technique
by Gunalan Kumariah, Sharmeela C.
Abstract: Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) is one of the most dominant grid connection requirements to be met by Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). In presence of grid voltage dips, a difference is produced between the generated active power and the reactive power delivered to the grid. This paper analyzes the standard interconnection of wind generator during the fault condition with help of optimization techniques. Wind energy power generation Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is used to connect the power network as fully controlled by using ROC and GSC. The generator is controlled to obtain maximum power from the incident wind with maximum efficiency under different load conditions. As per LVRT requirement, a part of the captured wind energy during grid faults is stored temporarily as the rotors inertia energy and the remaining energy is available to the grid through the DC-link voltage. During the fault condition, the stability of the system is maintained by optimizing the power from the converter using optimized PID controller with the help of Cuckoo Search (CS) optimization technique. After grid fault clearance, the control strategy ensures the soft release of the rotors excessive inertia energy into the grid. From the simulation results, the minimum fault clearance time and the stability of power system are analyzed.
Keywords: wind energy system; Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG); low voltage ride through (LVRT); power system fault; optimization technique.
Modified firefly algorithm based quasi Z-source cascaded multilevel inverter (QZS- CMI) in power system
by G. Prem Sunder, Shanthi B., Alamelu Nachiappan, Natarajan S.P.
Abstract: In this paper, an intelligent technique is proposed to control the three-phase QZS-CMI-based grid-tie PV power system. The proposed system can achieve the constant dc-link peak voltage control, distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and grid-tie power control with reduced harmonics. The proposed technique is the modified Firefly Algorithm (FA) among Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The input of the proposed algorithm is the actual and desired PV voltage which is used to analyze the each modules by means of PV power, dc-link voltage, and grid-injected power with unity power factor. The intention of the task is to reduce the deviation of PV panel voltage for to engender their equivalent current and pulses. The PSO algorithm is utilized to improve the performance of t FA which is based on their randomized factor. Therefore, the optimal results are accomplished for to enhancing the performance of qZ-CMI. The main objective of the paper is described the total PV panel voltage control and grid-tie current control by using proposed technique. The proposed technique is implemented in Matlab/Simulink platform and their performances are contrasted by means of the existing methods such as PSO and base controller.
Keywords: quasi ZS-CMI; firefly algorithm PSO algorithm; PV; grid; module and dc link voltage.
GROUPING AND SEQUENCING OF MACHINING OPERATIONS FOR HIGH-VOLUME TRANSFER LINES
by Soumitra Bhale, Ahmed Azab, Fazle Baki
Abstract: Transfer lines are employed for the mass production of fixed products or a very narrow range of product variants. This paper considers a simple transfer line balancing problem (TLBP) with a focus on process planning and line configuration. The design features of the product are grouped and machining operations are sequenced in an optimal manner. The objective is to minimize the handling time fraction of the cycle time consisting mainly of the orientation change time and the tool change time. A new Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model is proposed to solve the problem with the aforementioned objectives while respecting a set of constraints, which include cutting tool allocation, tool magazine limit, tool life limit, takt time limit and precedence, and inclusion and exclusion constraints. Problem-specific Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) are developed. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the functionality of the MILP model and heuristic algorithms with respect to optimality and the computation time.
Keywords: Transfer line balancing; Feature grouping; Operation sequencing; MILP; Simulated Annealing; Genetic Algorithms.
High speed milling of soda lime using uncoated carbide tool -a thermal softening approach
by Mst. Nasima Bagum, Mohamed Konneh, A.K.M. Nurul Amin, Tasnim Firdaus Bt. Mohamed Ariff, Mohammad Yeakub Ali
Abstract: Ductile regime end milling of soda-lime glass is an emerging field of research, which can be applied in a wide range of applications such as in the manufacture of lab-on chips and DNA arrays. Researchers have tried glass milling operation on high precision machine using coated tool at low speed. However, material removal was low due to small feed and depth of cut which were necessary to achieve fracture free surface. This paper reports the results of high-speed milling using uncoated carbide tool to exploit the temperature sensitive properties of soda-lime glass, in order to achieve enhanced ductility through thermal softening. The effects of cutting parameters on the machined surface texture such as surface roughness Ra, are investigated. Regression models of roughness are generated and the process parameters are optimized using the Central Composite Design (CCD). The relationships between the roughness Ra and Material Removal Rate (MRR), and roughness and temperature are examined to make a clear understanding of adiabatic heating effects on ductile machining.
Keywords: Soda-lime glass; Surface roughness; Thermal softening; Roughness-MRR and Roughness-temperature relations; Glass transition temperature.
TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SMEs IN THE MANUFACTURING SUB-SECTORS BY FUZZY AHP, VIKOR AND TOPSIS APPROACHES
by Ufuk BOLUKBAS, Ali Fuat GUNERI
Abstract: Technology management, technological skills and technological competencies are critical factors that play a considerable role in firms ability to achieve competitive advantages associated with technology. It is quite surprising that studies on the relationship between technology competency and technology management skills are still rather scarce. This paper aims to fill this gap and offers an evaluation framework to examine dimensions of technology competency based on the management and technology capabilities; process management, product competitiveness, information and communication technologies (ICT), marketing strategies, innovation & entrepreneurship and research & development (R&D). In this study, multi criteria decision making approaches as fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), VIKOR and TOPSIS methods are used to measure the performances of manufacturing enterprises from machine, metal, electric-electronic and textile sectors in Istanbul, Turkey. This study highlights the different aspects of technology competency issues which provide high-performances for enterprises from the manufacturing sub-sectors.
Keywords: technology management; technology competency; technology assessment; innovation management; multi criteria decision making; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; performance measurement; strategic decision making; manufacturing industry.
Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing Systems: Current State, Parameters Optimization, Materials, Research Gap, Challenges and Future Potential
by Narendra Kumar, Prashant K. Jain
Abstract: In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) has seen tremendous growth due to its capability of fabricating parts directly from CAD model with high geometric complexities. Among all available AM systems, the extrusion-based systems are popular than others due to their low-cost and simple design. Different variants of extrusion-based AM systems have been developed worldwide. The current article reviews the research trends in extrusion-based AM systems on process parameter optimisation, material development, system variants and their limitations. This review also highlights the present scenario, research gap, challenges and future possibilities of these techniques.
Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; layered manufacturing; extrusion; optimisation; materials; pellet; filament.
Dimensions of organization performance: A Review
by NICKSON ODONGO, Daoping Wang, Shaldon Suntu, Obadia Bishoge
Abstract: This article reviews works in an endeavour to distinctly determine the aspects that affect organizational performance. The pertinent articles are retrieved and scrutinized for relevancy after which the next action is to objectively appraise the writings to ascertain methodological quality. The literature review describes the significant aspects that influence organizational performance specifically leadership approach, organizational culture, organizational systems and structures, organizational environment, resources and expertise, and organizational adaptation. These dimensions develop an environment that enables performance at personal, group and organizational stages. Organizations to a great extent, strive to obtain better performance and take advantage of the gains from superior performance, and embrace the sustainability of circumstances that boost performance around their operational environments as a lasting process. This outcomes help scholars and practitioners to embrace technical approaches for the identification of management actions that enhance performance and human resource development activities in organizations.
Keywords: Organizational performance; organizational culture; leadership approach; organizational adaptation; Human resource development.
Special Issue on: LISS16-OPMSC Optimisation Problems in Manufacturing and Supply Chains
CORRELATION ANALYSIS AND PRIORITIZED ABC FSN MATRIX FOR PHARMACY INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
by Manivel Palanisamy
The aim of the study was to identify the pitfalls in the existing supply chain of private and hospital pharmacies, identify the variables that influencing more in the efficiency of the pharmacy, select the appropriate inventory analysis and suggest the prioritized inventory matrix to meet customer requirement in efficient manner.
The qualitative and quantitative data has been collected through questionnaire and interview of the pharmacy personnel. Through SPSS, the normal distribution and correlation analysis to be carried out on sample data. The pitfalls were solved by the selection of appropriate inventory analysis and suggesting the prioritized inventory matrix to narrowed down the drugs for monitoring and control strategies of pharmacy drugs.
The normal distribution and correlation analysis results shows that the variables collected through questionnaire are normally distributed and the variables that most influence the efficiency of the pharmacy supply chain. The implementation of Prioritized ABC FSN matrix in pharmacy will helps to provide high-quality service to the customer and there will be an adequate supply of the items in the pharmacies. The future work also to be discussed.
The prioritized ABC FSN matrix to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock and over stock situations in the hospital and private pharmacy.
Keywords: Pharmacy Supply Chain; Inventory Management System; Stock Outs; Overstock; IT Support in Pharmacy; correlation analysis; Inventory analysis.
Special Issue on: Creativity Management and Engineering
Advantageous and Disadvantageous Inequality Fairness concerns: The Impact on the Single-vendor Single-buyer Production-inventory System
by Kaifang Fu, Zhixiang Chen, Hui-ming Wee
Abstract: Behavior diversities and preferences have affected decision making in business. This paper studies the behavioral operations effect in a production inventory system of one vendor and one buyer. Two types of fairness concerns behavior (advantageous and disadvantageous inequality fairness concerns) of the buyer are taken into account in the decision model. We analyze how these two fairness concerns impact the optimal decision and channel coordination. The result shows several implications. Firstly, the buyers optimal ordering quantity and expected utility show opposing trend when the buyer has fairness concerns. Secondly, the stronger bargaining power of the vendor results in an increasing buyers optimal ordering quantity under the advantageous inequality case, but decreasing under the disadvantageous inequality case. Thirdly, the single-vendor single-buyer production-inventory is coordinated under the advantageous inequality case. From our literature search, no study has been done on the field of behavioral operations management from the perspective of this paper. Our study can offer managerial insights for the optimization of the production-inventory system.
Keywords: Fairness concerns; production-inventory system; advantageous inequality; disadvantageous inequality; coordination.
Creating and sharing knowledge during the unfolding of innovation streams: A social network perspective
by Fanny Simon, Albéric Tellier
Abstract: This research aims to acquire a deeper understanding of how team membership can be orchestrated and how social relationships can evolve to enable both knowledge creation and sharing during the unfolding of innovation streams. Innovation streams are defined as patterns of innovation involving both explorative and exploitative projects.
We collected data on an innovation stream in the semiconductor industry and performed both a qualitative analysis using the Event Structure Analysis method and a social network analysis. The innovation stream included launches of six different products.
This research shows that social structures need to evolve to address the successive development of explorative and exploitative innovations. First, whereas new relationships with clients are enhancing disruptive innovation at the beginning of the project, it is established relationships that enable exploitative innovations. Next, the renewal of peripheral members enables the generation of new innovations. Similarly, a high network centrality damages the exploration of new technologies and markets.
Keywords: innovation stream; knowledge creation; knowledge sharing; product development; R&D; semiconductors; social network.
The fuzzy front end of manufacturing technology development
by Mats Ahlskog, Jessica Bruch, Mats Jackson
Abstract: The fuzzy front end of product development has been studied extensively in previous research, while the fuzzy front end of manufacturing technology development has been largely neglected despite its importance. Only a few empirical studies that examine the fuzzy front end of manufacturing technology development can be found, which have been primarily carried out in the process industry. Therefore, the overall purpose of this paper is to explore the fuzzy front end of manufacturing technology development. Based on three case studies carried out in the manufacturing industry, the findings of the current research highlight key activities in the fuzzy front end of manufacturing technology development and suggest that the fuzzy front end has four sub-phases with overlapping development activities.
Keywords: fuzzy front end; readiness level; assessment; manufacturing industry; case study; technology management.
Special Issue on: LISS 2017 Intelligent Logistics and Supply Chain Systems
The state subdivision of public traffic vehicles based on K-means algorithm
by Xiangping Wang, Jing Li, Xiaoshui Shang
Abstract: With the rapid development of public transportation, the operating intensity of public transport vehicles has been continuously increasing, and various kinds of sudden problems have appeared in high-intensity and overloaded buses. This article aims at the problem of bus group vehicle fault status, analyzes the vehicle maintenance and repair data, and combines the weather data to statistically analyze the fault information. From the viewpoint of vehicle value, the value of nearness, frequency, and time are selected as indicators of vehicle state breakdown. The cluster analysis of bus vehicles is performed using the K-means clustering method, which is divided into high fault cars and low fault cars. Three different groups of general fault car labels, and the use of the profile coefficient to verify the results of cluster analysis, it is proved that the classification results have better incremental self-learning ability and level of cognitive ability, help to find and solve problems in advance. Different maintenance strategies are formulated to reduce the number of bus breakdowns and reduce rescue costs.
Keywords: public transportation; bus fault; K-means clustering.
Dual commitment and subjective well-being: a report from Chinese manufacturing industry
by Xiangrong Xu, Enhua Hu
Abstract: Companies and trade unions are two important forces in Chinas labor relations, both of which have significant impact on employees subjective well-being. From the perspective of multi-target multi-mindset commitment, a person-centered approach is applied in this study to explore the influence of dual commitment to the company and union on employees subjective well-being. Nine-hundred and fifty-nine union members were surveyed and the data was analyzed via latent profile analysis. Six profiles of commitment were identified. Employees of high affective commitment demonstrated higher subjective well-being than employees of other profiles. There were significant differences in positive affect and life satisfaction between employees of Profile 3 and those of Profile 6, however, there was no significant difference in negative affect between these two profiles. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: company commitment; union commitment; dual commitment; subjective well-being; life satisfaction; positive affect; negative affect; latent profile analysis; person-centered approach.
Profit Allocation in Agricultural Supply Chain Considering Risk Factors
by Haifeng Yao, Xiaoxi Ran
Abstract: For agricultural products, Agricultural Super-Docking is the best way to connect farmers and consumers in agricultural supply chain, the major factor of the implementation of Agricultural Super-Docking is a reasonable profit allocation. In this paper, based on traditional Shapley profit allocation method, a modified profit allocation method is proposed considering risk factors for participants in agricultural supply chain. It is more reasonable for profit allocation because there are different risks for different participants in actual agricultural supply chain system. Compared to traditional Shapley profit allocation method, the obtained profits for farmers by using the proposed profit allocation method increase because of his higher risk than cooperatives and supermarkets. More reasonable profit allocation is helpful to heighten the enthusiasm of farmers to join Agricultural Super-Docking and maintain long-term stability of Agricultural Super-Docking
Keywords: Shapley; farming-supermarket direct purchase; supply chain.
Technological Innovation as a moderating role in the relationship between managerial incentives and tax avoidance in IT and software industry of China
by Noheed Khan, Songsheng Chen, Danish Khan
Abstract: This study identified the innovation as moderating effect on the relationship between managerial incentives and tax avoidance.IT and software industry has been selected for this investigation. The Random effect model is used for the time period of 2007-2015. The findings revealed that managerial equity incentives have a positive effect on tax avoidance in IT and software industry of China. The findings support the innovation has moderating effect in the association between managerial incentives and tax avoidance. Innovative firms pay more managerial incentives for tax avoidance.
Keywords: Tax avoidance,managerial incentives; software industry.
Social Capital and its Influence on the Internationalisation Strategy and Process of Chinese SME from the Manufacturing Industry
by Jens Mathis Rieckmann, Hui Wan, Fanchen Meng
Abstract: Big enterprises but also SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) are driven by the idea of entering and performing on foreign markets. For small and big companies the globalisation plays an important role. Based on its size and its financial strength, each company has access to a certain amount of resources. SMEs are one step behind in terms of their more limited resources. This disadvantage influences, inter alia, the internalisation strategy and the internationalisation process of SMEs. Social capital in terms of networks and ties to key institutions can compensate disadvantages, and plays a significant role for SMEs and their internationalisation strategy and process. The research work of the past has its main focus on the effect of networks during the pre-phase of internationalisation and the first foreign market entry, but does not pay a lot of attention to the continuous internationalisation progress including all company-relevant phases. This study focuses on the whole internationalisation process to clarify the influence of social capital including the generation, and the use of knowledge and experience for further market entries. The article considers also the influence of knowledge that is additionally created during the internationalisation on the internationalisation strategy of Chinese SMEs from the manufacturing industry. Theoretical fundamentals of this study are the network and social capital theory, and the multiple case-study method. These approaches help to explore the influence of social capital on the internationalisation process and strategy as well as the knowledge creation resulting from this process. The results of this study present the significance of social capital for the internationalisation process as well as the limited awareness of SMEs' network resources and the hidden use of these resources. In addition a theoretical summary and framework for further research work is presented.
Keywords: Social Capital; Internationalisation; SME; China; Strategy; Manufacturing Industry.
Business Model of Service-Driven Manufacturing from S-G Logic Perspective
by Xiaoyan Liu, Zhaoquan Jian, Kwanho Thomas Yeung, Jeff Yeung
Abstract: This research aims to contribute knowledge of value creation in service-driven manufacturing based on S-D logic rather than G-D logic. By using case study methodology to gather primary and secondary data, we have addressed four key research questions and identified significant findings which enable managerial discussion. Several research highlights include: (1) A set of synergistic managerial practices, including establishing interactive platforms, defining participating rules and building incentive mechanism, can achieve better use of operant resources of multiple actors; (2) Managing the interactive platform and tools is a vital condition for value co-creation with multiple actors; (3) The use-value of customer is determined by means of personalized service based on customers context; (4) A service ecosystem is built according to the shared institutional logic and clear rules of action. This study will promote the development of the manufacturing servitization theory towards the S-D logic paradigm.
Keywords: Service-dominant Logic (S-D Logic); Service-Driven Manufacturing; Business Model; Value Co-creating; Service Ecosystem.
Agile Aproach in Multicriterial Decision Making
by Lukas Kralik
Abstract: This paper present initial work to propose an innovation of MoSCoW prioritization technique. The most probable tools for innovation is provided by Multicriterial decision making methods. These methods may extend the MoSCoW technique by control mechanism. This may lower the chance of possible reprioritization and save time.
Keywords: Agile management; multicriterial decision making; criteria preferences; MCDM; MoSCoW.
An empirical analysis on the forming mechanism of the innovation capability of service-oriented manufacturing enterprises
by Qi Wu, Weicai Wang
Abstract: The research objects of this study are Chinese manufacturing enterprises that are transitioning to service-oriented manufacturing enterprises. This paper aims to reveal how external factors (technical, policy, and market environments) and internal factors (technical, service, organisational, and marketing innovations) influence the formation of the innovation capability of these companies. This paper considers both the above mentioned factors and builds a model for the formation of the innovation capability. The results confirm that service and organisational innovations do not directly affect innovation capability but indirectly affect it by acting on technical and market innovation. This study hypothesises that the market environment has an indirect influence; however, the results show that it directly affects innovation capability. While most studies examine the effects of external or internal factors (often separately) on innovation capability, this paper develops a unified model to investigate the combined effect of these factors on the formation of innovation capability.
Keywords: innovation capability; external factors; internal factors; technical environment; service-oriented manufacturing enterprise; policy environment; market environment; technical innovation; service innovation; organisational innovation; marketing innovation.