Int. J. of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development   »   2013 Vol.6, No.3



Title: Science and innovation policy in Southeast Europe: brain drain as brain gain


Authors: Mirjana Stankovic; Biljana Angelova; Verica Janeska; Bratislav Stankovic


Ministry of Education and Science, Sv. Kiril i Metodij 54, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
Institute of Economics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Prolet 1, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
Institute of Economics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Prolet 1, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
University for Information Science and Technology 'St. Paul the Apostle', Partizanska bb, 6000 Ohrid, Macedonia


Abstract: Over the past 20 years, the number of researchers and scientists in the countries of Southeast Europe (SEE) has seriously decreased. Many highly educated Southeast Europeans leave their countries in search of a better life. They are attracted to career opportunities, higher salaries, and better overall conditions abroad. This paper gives an overview of the main theories underpinning brain drain and brain circulation in developing countries. It also provides an analytical snapshot of the brain drain trends in the SEE, focusing on Macedonia, the brain drain leader in the region. In the end, it proposes public policy mechanisms for intellectual mobilisation of the SEE highly educated Diaspora by envisioning the creation of a brain circulation network that will foster a regular set of interactions, collaborations, joint grant proposals, joint research projects, co-authorships, visitor exchange, joint ventures and alike, between the highly educated Diaspora and their counterparts in the countries of origin. This will provide expatriates with the opportunity to transfer their expertise and skills to the country of origin, without necessarily returning home permanently. In this way, the SEE countries will have access to the knowledge and expertise of the expatriates, and to the knowledge networks that they form in the host countries.


Keywords: human capital; brain circulation; brain drain; brain gain; diaspora; innovation policy; economic growth; science policy; technology transfer; Southeast Europe; developing countries; career opportunities; higher salaries; better conditions; Macedonia; public policy; expatriates; expatriate collaboration; country of origin; knowledge networks.


DOI: 10.1504/IJTLID.2013.056341


Int. J. of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development, 2013 Vol.6, No.3, pp.262 - 282


Submission date: 18 Oct 2012
Date of acceptance: 12 Apr 2013
Available online: 10 Sep 2013



Editors Full text accessAccess for SubscribersPurchase this articleComment on this article