Int. J. of Transitions and Innovation Systems   »   2011 Vol.1, No.2



Title: Origins and dynamics of university spin-offs: the case of Hong Kong


Author: Ming Chu Leung, John A. Mathews


Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia.
Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania 32, 00197 Roma, Italy


Abstract: This paper reviews the experience of Hong Kong's university-based spin-offs and start-up enterprises established by five universities over the past decade and a half. It focuses on their development at both the early and later stages. A principal finding is a relatively high survival rate of 73% for the first five years of their operation. It compares the Hong Kong experience with those found outside the Asia-Pacific region. The paper focuses on the technology transfer processes, practices and obstacles faced by the enterprises. The strength of this study and its conclusions are based on its analysis of primary data collected from the total university-based spin-offs and start-up enterprises population spun off in the period 1991 to 2004 (with some partial updating to 2008). We discuss the pattern of spin-offs pursued by the universities of HK and our conclusions as to which model seems to work best.


Keywords: Hong Kong; innovation; university spin-offs; USOs; technology transfer offices; TTOs; entrepreneurship; start-ups; universities.


DOI: 10.1504/IJTIS.2011.039624


Int. J. of Transitions and Innovation Systems, 2011 Vol.1, No.2, pp.175 - 201


Available online: 11 Apr 2011



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