Digital financial inclusion - demand side vs. supply side approach
by Ashutosh Upadhyay; Kalluru Siva Reddy
International Journal of Electronic Finance (IJEF), Vol. 10, No. 3, 2021

Abstract: This paper explores the measurement of digital financial inclusion (DFI) in India by analysing the parameters such as per capita bank accounts, cards, retail payment systems, internet and broadband connections from both the supply side and demand side data. We observe substantial gaps in the level of DFI brought out by these two datasets, with the supply side seeming to overestimate the level of digital financial inclusion. We also propose a theoretical model for equilibrium in demand and supply sides of DFI. Supply of DFI is divided into two components of 'autonomous' and 'induced' supply. We find that demand for and (induced) supply of DFI is directly proportional to the income level of users and the incentives provided for the usage of DFI products/services. For a sustainable model of DFI, both the demand and supply sides should balance and complement each other, and supply-side infrastructure should be available and scalable, to meet a higher level of demand for DFI.

Online publication date: Tue, 15-Jun-2021

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