An experiment of institutional change in the ecosystem of entrepreneurship: easing sanctions against Iran
by Elham Kalhor; Shayegheh Ashourizadeh; Thomas Schøtt
European J. of International Management (EJIM), Vol. 13, No. 4, 2019

Abstract: The ecosystem of entrepreneurship includes institutions, notably the market with its arrangements, such as extent of the market and availability of opportunities. In Iran, extent and opportunities were limited by severe sanctions until 2015, when sanctions were eased by what is known as the nuclear agreement. This institutional change invites the hypothesis that easing sanctions entailed an expansion of entrepreneurship. This hypothesis is tested as a natural experiment, comparing entrepreneurial pursuits before and after the agreement, using the annual survey of adults and entrepreneurs in Iran conducted by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, complemented by in-depth interviews. Pre- and post-survey comparisons show increases in people's opportunity perceptions, intention to become entrepreneurs, and entry into entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs became increasingly pulled by opportunity and decreasingly pushed by necessity, increasingly export-oriented, and expectations for growth of businesses increased. These findings contribute to understanding how institutional change in the ecosystem of entrepreneurship can change entrepreneurial pursuits.

Online publication date: Thu, 18-Jul-2019

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