Title: Physicochemical and microbiological characterisation for drinking water quality assessment in Southeast Coahuila, Mexico

Authors: Fabián Fernández-Luqueño; Prócoro Gamero-Melo; Fernando López-Valdez; Elsa Nadia Aguilera-González; María del Socorro García-Guillermo; Gildardo Hernández-Martínez; Oscar Fernández-Fernández; Manuel Antonio Álvarez-Garza; Ixchel Rubí Pérez-Velázquez

Addresses: Sustainability of Natural Resources and Energy Program, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Saltillo-Ramos Arizpe, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, C.P. 25900, Mexico ' Sustainability of Natural Resources and Energy Program, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Saltillo-Ramos Arizpe, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, C.P. 25900, Mexico ' Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA-IPN, Ex-Hacienda San Juan Molino, Carretera Estatal Tecuexcomac-Tepetitla km 1.5 s/n, Tlaxcala, C.P. 90700, Mexico ' Mexican Corporation of Materials Investigations, Ciencia y Tecnología 790, Saltillo 400, Saltillo, Coahuila, C.P. 25290, Mexico ' Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Saltillo-Ramos Arizpe, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, C.P. 25900, Mexico ' National Institute of Statistics and Geography, Emiliano Zapata 316, Reforma, Oaxaca, C.P. 68050, Mexico ' Department of Soil Science, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco km 38.5, Chapingo, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 56230, Mexico ' Mexican Corporation of Materials Investigations, Ciencia y Tecnología 790, Saltillo 400, Saltillo, Coahuila, C.P. 25290, Mexico ' Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Saltillo-Ramos Arizpe, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, C.P. 25900, Mexico

Abstract: Ten wells in northern Mexico were analysed for 47 water quality constituents to determine the seasonal drinking water quality variations and their suitability for human consumption. Parameters examined include 25 major/trace elements analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Total dissolved solids, sodium and sulphate concentrations were above the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values in 30% of wells during the first and/or the second sampling season. Additionally, only 30% of drinking water samples were found biologically unfit for drinking purpose because total and fecal coliforms were above the guideline values. The drinking water quality index of this area ranked from 'good' to 'excellent'. However, considering that some parameters are above the WHO guideline values, we recommended a monitoring program for biological and chemical pollution of drinking water in order to reach a possible solution knowing the human and ecological risks involved.

Keywords: heavy metals; groundwater; aquifers; water quality; water pollution; water supply; diseases; physicochemical characterisation; microbiological characterisation; drinking water; Mexico; wells; total dissolved solids; sodium; sulphate; fecal coliforms; biological pollution; chemical pollution; pollution monitoring.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2016.078065

International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2016 Vol.59 No.1, pp.78 - 92

Available online: 26 Jul 2016 *

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