Authors: Bart Van Ark, Sean M. Dougherty, Robert Inklaar, Robert H. McGuckin
Addresses: University of Groningen and The Conference Board, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands. ' OECD, 2 Rue Andre Pascal, Paris 16th, France. ' University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands. ' [Deceased; formerly The Conference Board]
Abstract: Cross-border flows of Research and Development (R&D) expenditure have been rising in recent years, but their implications for the organisation of the R&D process and the international dispersion of R&D activities are less well-understood. This paper provides an overview of the available statistical evidence which is complemented by the results of a series of interviews with R&D managers in various countries. The interviews suggest that the drivers of internationalisation differ substantially between research, on the one hand, and development, on the other. Research activities are usually concentrated in a single location, mostly near the firm headquarters, to exploit ties with universities and maximise cooperation across activities. Development is generally tied to individual business units and is more likely to be positioned in proximity to production locations.
Keywords: research and development; business R&D; location choice; industry; cost performance; cross-border flows; R&D expenditure; internationalisation; research location; development location.
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 2008 Vol.4 No.1/2, pp.8 - 29
Available online: 28 Jan 2008 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article