Title: Alternative fuels and sustainable mobility: is the future road paved by biofuels, electricity or hydrogen?

Authors: Karl G. Hoyer, Erling Holden

Addresses: Oslo University College, Norway. ' Western Norway Research Institute, P.O. Box 163, N-6851 Sogndal, Norway

Abstract: This paper compares 16 alternative energy chains in a Well-to-Wheel analysis including three indicators: energy use, emissions of climate gases and emissions of local/regional pollutants. The analysis includes a private car which uses natural gas, biological fuels, electricity and hydrogen, respectively. The analysis shows that an alternative which scores favourably on one indicator often scores unfavourably on other indicators. Sustainable mobility, however, requires favourable scores on all indicators. Thus, sustainable mobility must combine three different approaches: the efficiency approach – which includes the use of alternative energy – the substitution approach and the reduction approach.

Keywords: alternative energy; transport fuels; environmental impacts; well-to-wheel analysis; WTW; sustainable mobility; alternative fuels; biofuels; electricity; hydrogen; energy use; pollution emissions; greenhouse gases; pollutants; natural gas; vehicle emissions; efficiency; substitution; reduction.

DOI: 10.1504/IJAP.2007.013329

International Journal of Alternative Propulsion, 2007 Vol.1 No.4, pp.352 - 368

Published online: 20 Apr 2007 *

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