Authors: S.M. Usman Hashmi; Muntazir Hussain; Fahad Bin Muslim; Kashif Inayat; Seong Oun Hwang
Addresses: Electronics Engineering Department, Iqra University, Islamabad, Pakistan ' Electronics Engineering Department, Iqra University, Islamabad, Pakistan ' Electronics Engineering Department, Iqra University, Islamabad, Pakistan ' Department Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong, South Korea ' Department of Computer Engineering, Gachon University, South Korea
Abstract: Time synchronisation in any distributed network can be achieved by using application layer protocols for time correction. Time synchronisation method proposed in this article uses symbol timing recovery at the physical layer to correct the application layer clock. This cross layer methodology diminishes the quantity of message trades needed by the application layer for time synchronisation thus resulting in energy saving. Precision of skew estimate can be increased by using multiple message exchanges. Examination of the cross layer strategy including the simulation results, the experimentation outcomes and mathematical analysis demonstrates that clock skew at physical layer is the same as of application layer, which is actually the skew of hardware clock within the node.
Keywords: time synchronisation; symbol timing recovery; energy constrained distributed networks; energy efficient clock skew estimation; frequency offset estimation; sensor networks; Bayesian estimation.
International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, 2021 Vol.11 No.3, pp.241 - 268
Received: 16 Jun 2019
Accepted: 06 Jan 2020
Published online: 12 May 2021 *