Title: Determinants of academic performance of left-behind children in rural Nigeria: quantile evidence from Niger State

Authors: Muktar Bala; Mohd Razani B. Mohd Jali; Nor Azam Abdul Razak

Addresses: Department of Economics, IBB University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria ' Department of Economics and Agribusiness, School of Economics, Finance and Banking, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia ' Department of Economics and Agribusiness, School of Economics, Finance and Banking, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Abstract: Recently, scholars have expressed concern about the potential effects on academic performance when migrant parents leave their children behind, but little is known about the determinants of the academic performance of these children. Using survey data from Niger State, Nigeria (N = 1,140), and applying quantile regression, this study shows that the quality of parental involvement that left-behind children (LBC) receive in the absence of parents, their physical and mental health, the type of school they attend and their birth order affect their academic performance. These effects are, however, specific to the children in the lower and upper tails of the performance distribution. Therefore, policies that ensure the proper care of the children and those policies that enhance school quality would promote the academic performance of the children, particularly if targeted at the children who are in the lower and upper quantiles of the performance distribution.

Keywords: rural-urban migration; left-behind children; LBC; academic performance; quantile regression; parental involvement; physical health; mental health; birth order; Nigeria.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEED.2019.102746

International Journal of Education Economics and Development, 2019 Vol.10 No.4, pp.371 - 397

Received: 01 Jun 2018
Accepted: 27 Jan 2019

Published online: 10 Jul 2019 *

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