Globalisation, Technology and Sustainable Development Book Series
BUSINESS EXCELLENCE AND COMPETITIVENESS IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

Allam Ahmed

Achieving business excellence and competitiveness in the MENA region
Allam Ahmed
SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research
The Freeman Centre
University of Sussex
Brighton BN1 9QE, UK
E-mail: allam.ahmed@sussex.ac.uk

1 Introduction

The objective of this introductory chapter is to outline key factors that are influencing and influenced by the business environment in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. These key factors such as economy, infrastructure, development, education, technology, etc. are essential for achieving business excellence and competitiveness in the region. The performance of the different countries in the region will be assessed against each other and the rest of the world using different international indicators and measurements. However, it is important to note that understanding the nature of problems, challenges and opportunities in the region is a very difficult task for many people outside its territories. Equally important to mention the fact that it is not possible to have contributions from important countries in the region such as Iraq and Palestine due to the current situation is both countries.

2 Understanding the MENA region

Defining the territories of the MENA region is the first obstacle that most researchers will face when examining any affairs within the region. The World Bank for example defines the MENA region as Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), West bank and Gaza and Yemen. Many other international institutions define MENA as extending from Morocco to Turkey along the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean and as far east as Iran and south to the Sudan, Saudi Arabia and Yemen...
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