Nonlinear association between controlling shareholders and leverage: evidence from Jordan Online publication date: Wed, 24-Apr-2019
by Buthiena Kharabsheh; Mishiel Said Suwaidan; Ramadan Elfaitouri
Afro-Asian J. of Finance and Accounting (AAJFA), Vol. 9, No. 2, 2019
Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between controlling shareholders' ownership, identity and financial leverage. A sample of 60 industrial firms listed on Amman Stock Exchange over the period of 2010 to 2015 is empirically tested. Using a dynamic estimator to control for all endogeneity types, our results support an inverted U-shape relationship between controlling shareholders and financial leverage. Controlling shareholders rely more on debt at low levels of ownership to maintain control. However, they rely less on debt, which is found in this study to be 53%, to avoid financial distress. These results provide support for the trade-off theory. Our findings also reveal that family firms have higher leverage ratios than non-family firms. Further, institutional shareholders negatively affect financial leverage, thus assuming a substitution role.
Online publication date: Wed, 24-Apr-2019
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