The full text of this article


Emerging differently: an examination of entrepreneurial optimism in emerging economies
by Shouming Chen; Arpita Joardar; Sibin Wu
International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets (IJBEM), Vol. 9, No. 4, 2017


Abstract: This paper examines how entrepreneurial optimism and performance are related in two emerging economies, Laos and Kenya, by exploring the relationship between optimism and performance. The moderating effects of education and motive (opportunity vs. necessity) on the stated relationship are tested. By analysing a sample of 380 entrepreneurs in the two countries, we found that, unlike in Western countries where optimism generally leads to negative outcomes, optimistic entrepreneurs in emerging economies tend to perform better. Our results also suggest that when optimism is held constant, entrepreneurs motivated by opportunity outperform those who are motivated by necessity. However, education appears to have negative effect on entrepreneurial performance. Additionally, the above effects were found to be stronger for entrepreneurs from Laos than those from Kenya, which could be attributed to different religious beliefs. Findings, implications and limitations are discussed.

Online publication date: Mon, 30-Oct-2017


is only available to individual subscribers or to users at subscribing institutions.

Existing subscribers:
Go to Inderscience Online Journals to access the Full Text of this article.

Pay per view:
If you are not a subscriber and you just want to read the full contents of this article, buy online access here.

Complimentary Subscribers, Editors or Members of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets (IJBEM):
Login with your Inderscience username and password:


    Username:        Password:         

Forgotten your password?

Want to subscribe?
A subscription gives you complete access to all articles in the current issue, as well as to all articles in the previous three years (where applicable). See our Orders page to subscribe.

If you still need assistance, please email