The full text of this article


Testing alternative measures of subjective norms in entrepreneurial intention models
by Annamária Heuer; Francisco Liñán
International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (IJESB), Vol. 19, No. 1, 2013


Abstract: Although the theory of planned behaviour can be applied to entrepreneurship, study outcomes concerning the role of the subjective norm construct vary substantially. Using data from ten dissimilar countries, two critical topics held responsible for conflicting outcomes in research on entrepreneurial intention are investigated: 1) measurement issues; 2) possible indirect influences between the motivational antecedents of intention. On the first topic, structural equations suggest that a simple multi-item subjective-norm measure is better than the frequently-applied product of normative beliefs and motivation to comply. On the second, structural equation modelling reveals that the internal consistency and explanatory capacity of the constructs is about the same with the original model than with a modified model taking into account the indirect influences of subjective norms on attitudes and on perceived behavioural control. These results should serve as a guide for future theoretical and empirical development, and put existing study outcomes into perspective.

Online publication date: Tue, 04-Jun-2013


is only available to individual subscribers or to users at subscribing institutions.

Existing subscribers:
Go to Inderscience Online Journals to access the Full Text of this article.

Pay per view:
If you are not a subscriber and you just want to read the full contents of this article, buy online access here.

Complimentary Subscribers, Editors or Members of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (IJESB):
Login with your Inderscience username and password:


    Username:        Password:         

Forgotten your password?

Want to subscribe?
A subscription gives you complete access to all articles in the current issue, as well as to all articles in the previous three years (where applicable). See our Orders page to subscribe.

If you still need assistance, please email