'Mode 3' and 'Quadruple Helix': toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem Online publication date: Fri, 20-Feb-2009
by Elias G. Carayannis, David F.J. Campbell
International Journal of Technology Management (IJTM), Vol. 46, No. 3/4, 2009
Abstract: 'Mode 3' allows and emphasises the co-existence and co-evolution of different knowledge and innovation paradigms: the competitiveness and superiority of a knowledge system is highly determined by its adaptive capacity to combine and integrate different knowledge and innovation modes via co-evolution, co-specialisation and co-opetition knowledge stock and flow dynamics. The 'Quadruple Helix' emphasises the importance of also integrating the perspective of the media-based and culture-based public. What results is an emerging fractal knowledge and innovation ecosystem, well-configured for the knowledge economy and society.
Online publication date: Fri, 20-Feb-2009
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