The full text of this article


Preparation of thin-film composite polyamide reverse osmosis membranes
by Venkataraman Ramachandhran, Asim Kumar Ghosh
International Journal of Nuclear Desalination (IJND), Vol. 2, No. 2, 2006


Abstract: Thin-Film Composite (TFC) polyamide membranes in spiral wound configuration are widely used in seawater desalting plants worldwide because of their superior solute-rejecting properties and attractive water permeation rates. TFC polyamide membranes are three layered membranes, prepared in two stages wherein conventional phase separation and interfacial polymerisation techniques are combined to give an ultra-thin separation barrier deposited over a fabric-supported macroporous membrane. Preparation of composite polyamide membranes in commercial dimensions requires control of chemical, mechanical and environmental factors to insure uniform reproducible membranes of desired performance characteristics. The specification of raw materials, choice of solvents/reactive chemicals and their purity requirements, and ambient humidity during membrane preparation require careful monitoring and control. The Desalination Division of BARC is presently engaged in the scaling-up of TFC polyamide membrane preparations for reverse osmosis applications. The various critical parameters requiring attention to achieve high solute separation are outlined in this paper.

Online publication date: Tue, 20-Feb-2007


is only available to individual subscribers or to users at subscribing institutions.

Existing subscribers:
Go to Inderscience Online Journals to access the Full Text of this article.

Pay per view:
If you are not a subscriber and you just want to read the full contents of this article, buy online access here.

Complimentary Subscribers, Editors or Members of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Nuclear Desalination (IJND):
Login with your Inderscience username and password:


    Username:        Password:         

Forgotten your password?

Want to subscribe?
A subscription gives you complete access to all articles in the current issue, as well as to all articles in the previous three years (where applicable). See our Orders page to subscribe.

If you still need assistance, please email