J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development (16 papers in press)
Entrepreneurial intentions in an emerging industry: an exploratory study
by Abel Duarte Alonso
Abstract: This exploratory study examines entrepreneurial intentions in the emerging craft brewing industry from the perspective of predominantly micro and small craft brewery owners/brewing masters through the lens of the theories of universal values and planned behaviour. In doing so, the study makes a contribution to the existing academic literature on entrepreneurial intentions, micro and small businesses, and craft brewing industry. A contribution is also made by refining the adopted theoretical frameworks to study craft brewing entrepreneurship. Employing content analysis and word association revealed that passion for the craft brewing industry, turning a hobby into a professional undertaking, and professional and lifestyle changes - as compared to financial rewards - are predominant reasons for being involved in this industry. Alignments between the findings and universal values and two of the three predicting intentions were noticed, demonstrating the applicability of these theoretical frameworks in the context of the industry under examination.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial intentions; universal values model; planned behaviour theoretical model; craft brewery operators; micro; small breweries.
Leveraging corporate theory to examine the internationalisation process of family businesses
by Smit Suman
Abstract: Multiple studies have been performed to understand the influence of the founder on key aspects of a family business (FB), such as its values, culture and performance. However, the literature lacks a coherent theory or framework to analyse the role of the founder in the internationalisation of a FB. In this paper, we use corporate theory to determine how the founder shapes the internationalisation strategy of a FB. We perform a case study on IKEA by interviewing 14 of its employees to examine the role played by its founder and the corporate theory he conceived for IKEA in determining its internationalisation strategy. Moreover, we review secondary data and company documents, and interview an academic expert to validate our findings. Based on these findings, we propose our founder-centric framework that may be used by researchers and family business owners to measure the influence of the founder on the internationalisation process of family businesses.
Keywords: internationalisation; family business; corporate theory.
Socially oriented entrepreneurial goals and intentions: the role of values and knowledge
by Anna Kunttu, Kaisu Puumalainen, Katharina Fellnhofer
Abstract: Despite the notion that entrepreneurial intentions and opportunities are at the core of entrepreneurship, only limited attention has been paid to intention formation in social entrepreneurship. The goal of this paper is to examine which factors shape social entrepreneurial goals and socially oriented entrepreneurial intentions. Moreover, we compare factors that drive both socially oriented and general entrepreneurial intentions. Our results suggest that socially oriented entrepreneurial intentions are driven by work values and knowledge that differ from those driving general entrepreneurial intentions, hence implying a need to include entrepreneurial opportunities in entrepreneurial intention models. The findings contribute to the entrepreneurship literature by providing empirical evidence about the differences in key drivers between social entrepreneurial intentions and general entrepreneurial intentions.
Keywords: work values; general self-efficacy; entrepreneurial goal; entrepreneurial intentions; social entrepreneurship; specific knowledge; young adults; sustainability.
Internationalisation of Bangalore SMEs: what determines their mode of entry and speed of entry?
by M.H. Bala Subrahmanya
Abstract: This paper traces the objectives, sources, and modes of entry, as well as speed of entry, of Bangalore-based SMEs into the international market (through exports) based on primary data gathered from 85 SMEs in the engineering industry. Firm-level factors and drivers (business expansion, global market opportunities and customer needs) have led them to seek export market information from their own (MNC) customers, internet searches and visits to international exhibitions, and they chose one of the four modes of entry: MNC support, e-commerce, trade exhibitions and direct entry, though a majority preferred MNCs.
Keywords: SMEs; internationalisation; mode of entry; speed of entry; Bangalore; India.
Financial risk management and financial performance of new small business ventures: evidence from Indian survey data
by Amarjit Gill, Leo-Paul Dana, John Obradovich
Abstract: This study examines the perceived association between financial risk management and beliefs of small business owners about the financial performance of their new small business ventures in the service and manufacturing industries of India. The survey shows that the perceived valuation of financial risk management positively affects the beliefs of small business owners about the financial performance of their new small business ventures in both the service and manufacturing industries of India. Results show that financial performance is significantly higher among new small business ventures with adequate internal financing sources relative to new small business ventures without adequate internal financing sources. This study contributes to the literature on the relationship between financial risk management and financial performance of new small business ventures. The findings may be useful for financial managers, production and service firm owners, investors, consultants, and other stakeholders.
Keywords: financial risk management; financial plan; financial performance; new small business ventures; service industry; manufacturing industry.
Institutional pressures, international corporate strategy and post-M&A integration of Chinese firms in Germany
by Sue Claire Berning
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of Chinese firms post-M&A integration in Germany. It is investigated to what extent internal and external institutional pressures shape their international corporate strategies and subsequently their post-M&A integration-approach. Based on an exploratory and qualitative approach, twelve cases are analysed with the help of QRS NVivo. Both in-depth within-case and cross-case analyses are conducted. Two distinct patterns could clearly be identified. Additionally, an impact of integration-approaches on post-M&A performance was found. By introducing the need to conform to distinct institutions, the seminal post-M&A integration-model of Haspeslagh & Jemison (1991) is extended, and the level of analysis is broadened, from firm-level to host-country- and headquarters-level. Moreover, the integration-responsiveness framework is transferred to the post-M&A context.
Keywords: institutional theory; Chinese MNCs; post-M&A integration; international corporate strategy.
Lets generate ideas: a review of web-based crowd-sourcing tools for the basis of entrepreneurship
by Katharina Fellnhofer, Wolfgang Pree
Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to review web-based tools designed for generating and documenting business ideas. The paper first reviews related literature and then discusses useful instruments relevant for creative entrepreneurial tasks. These tools can be helpful in the initial phase of entrepreneurial activities. While several factors are crucial for successful ideas and their implementation, the discussed web-based idea generation tools might assist in creating, evaluating and selecting entrepreneurial ideas. The aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview of such tools so that scholars and practitioners can select a tool that is appropriate for their purpose. As future work we plan an in-depth empirical investigation of these tools.
Keywords: web-based crowd-sourcing tools; entrepreneurship; idea generation.
Conceptualising entrepreneurial orientation dimensions and female business performance in developing economies
by Murat Erogul, Fanny Quagrainie
Abstract: There is little understanding of factors that inform Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions (EOD) with business performance in the context of developing economies. In an effort to determine how this association is manifested among Women Entrepreneurs in Developing Economies (WEDE), the paper examines the existing literature, and provides the current state in how these women create and sustain their businesses. In order to analyse the effectiveness of EODs among WEDEs, a five-EOD model is examined through the findings from the extant literature. The examination of EODs and business performance indicators is done within the context of developing economies. The review of the literature has led to the identification of ethics as an additional EOD associated with business performance. The emergence of a new EOD provides value towards understanding the different cultural settings within which women entrepreneurs operate, and demonstrates the multi-dimensional nature and value of entrepreneurship.
Keywords: female entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial orientation dimensions; business performance; developing economies.
Franchisee actions trigger franchisor power strategy alterations
by Muhammad Rahatullah Khan, Robert Raeside
Abstract: This paper provides insight on how conflicts in hybrid business organisations can arise effecting the performance of the organisation. To investigate this, a study of the relationship between franchisors and franchisees is presented where franchisors views are given. The study shows that it indeed is both art and science of the strategy of the franchisers to keep the b2b relationship sustaining and flourishing. The study included responses of 124 franchisors from the United Kingdom and validation interviews from eight academics, franchisors and practitioners. We suggest that the relationship between franchisor and franchisee is the ultimate expression of hybrid relationships. The results show that the franchisor strategy on power greatly depends on franchisee behaviour, and the exercise of the power by the stronger party may vary accordingly. The results also show that the size and age of the franchise system greatly affect the use of power strategy. The prevalence of conflicts between the two partners also negatively impacts the whole franchise system. Conflicts also trigger change in the future plans of the franchisor, and these may be related to numerous areas of the business. It is also evident that the accruing strategy is different and dynamic at each stage of the life cycle and according to the size of the firm.
Keywords: franchisor; franchisee; relationships strategy; power strategy changes.
Entrepreneurial leadership and performance of small and medium sized enterprises: a structural equation modelling approach
by Lawan Shamsu Abubakar, Fakhrul Anwar Zainol, Wan Norhayate Wan Daud
Abstract: Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), if fully developed, are beneficial in alleviating poverty through wealth and job creation. Thus, developments of SMEs serve as a panacea to unemployment. In a developing country such as Nigeria, there are several socio-economic conditions impeding meaningful development despite many interventions and policy strategies. However, in Nigeria, SMEs face numerous problems associated with leadership and entrepreneurship. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the significant impact of vision, innovation, proactiveness, risk-taking on SMEs' performance in Kano, Nigeria. A descriptive survey research design was used in the study. SPSS 19 and AMOS software were employed to analyse the data. Structural equation modelling (SEM) version 20 was used to arrive at the results of the study. The findings of the research show that there is positive and highly significant impact of vision on SMEs' performance, and positive and significant impact of innovation on SMEs' performance. Lastly, the results also show negative and highly significant impact of risk-taking on SMEs' performance. The study indicates that for SMEs' organisation to succeed they must have a clear vision, innovative capacity and ability to take and manage risk.
Keywords: entrepreneurial leadership; small and medium sized enterprises; structural equation modelling; Nigeria.
Special Issue on: Green Marketing Policies and Entrepreneurship The Keys to International Sustainable Tourism Development
E-commerce and e-customer satisfaction during the economic crisis
by Michalis Skordoulis, Ioanna Kaskouta, Miltiadis Chalikias, Dimitris Drosos
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to analyse e-customer satisfaction, the factors affecting it and the impact of the economic crisis on it. The research examines 350 e-commerce websites users satisfaction. The research results indicate that -customer satisfaction determinants are the purchasing process, the safety provided by the website, the brand name of the e-commerce firm, the possibility of interaction and communication with the website and other consumers and, the products delivery process. Regarding the utilitarian features of products, e-customers pay more attention to quality than to quantity and price.
Keywords: E-commerce; e-marketing; e-customer; customer satisfaction; economic crisis.
The role of environmental responsibility in tourism
by Dimitris Drosos, Michalis Skordoulis
Abstract: Tourism development is deeply connected with the environmental conditions in several aspects. This connection has significant environmental outputs and may affect the environment either favorably or unfavorably. Most environmental problems caused by tourism development are of local importance, and in most of the cases can be treated with the appropriate infrastructure, or an appropriate design. Both local and international authorities have taken measures and defined methods for minimising negative effects of tourism in the environment. The purpose of this study is to present a theoretical approach on the role of environmental responsibility in tourism industry. The determining parameters of the need and the ways for achieving environmental responsibility will be analysed. A critical insight on how the principles of environmental responsibility have been incorporated in tourism industry operations will be provided, through the presentation of indicative case studies.
Keywords: tourism; environment; sustainable tourism; environmental responsibility; sustainable development.
Exploring entrepreneurship, innovation and tourism development from a sustainable perspective: evidence from Greece
by Eleni Triantafillidou, Stefanos Tsiaras
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the concepts of entrepreneurship, innovation and tourism development from a sustainable development perspective. Sustainable innovation leads to sustainable entrepreneurship, and consequently to sustainable tourism development. The paper examines several case studies from Greece and attempts to summarise the most interesting findings in the field of sustainable tourism development. Despite the lack of data regarding sustainable tourism in Greece since the early '00s, recent papers have established the relationship among sustainable tourism, innovation and entrepreneurship. Tourism is the most prominent sector of Greek economy and its contribution is continually rising, despite the economic crisis that has seriously affected Greece in recent years. The factor that seems to affect most the promotion of sustainable tourism practices is the age of the entrepreneurs. Finally the role of local community is also crucial since every tourist destination should rely on all dimensions of sustainability in order to be competitive.
Keywords: sustainable development; entrepreneurship; innovation; tourism development; Greece.
Exploring educational needs of young farmers in precision agriculture in Serres, Greece, and the perspective of innovative agricultural educational programmes
by Georgios Kountios, Thomas Bournaris, George Papadavid, Anastasios Michailidis, Afroditi Papadaki-Klavdianou
Abstract: This study attempts to seek the main educational needs of young farmers regarding the use of precision agriculture in Serres, Greece. The main methodological analysis includes a descriptive analysis of frequencies, a categorical principal components analysis (CaPCA) and a categorical regression (CatReg). The most interesting results of this research is the fact that young farmers in Serres are well informed about precision agriculture. On the other hand, the respondents showed an increased level of educational needs and a clear desire to receive further agricultural education related to precision agriculture. Plus, the desired education seems to be influenced by their different social and agricultural characteristics, which can lead to the configuration of suitable educational programs, adapted to the particularities of each category. This ascertainment can lead to the creation of appropriate educational programmes adapted to particularities of each category, in order to confront the multifarious demands related to information and training issues.
Keywords: educational needs; agricultural education; young farmers; precision agriculture.
Sustainable development and green tourism: new practices for excellence in the digital era
by Rosa Misso, Zacharoula Andreopoulou, Gian Paolo Cesaretti, Safwat Shakir Hanna, Ioakeim Tzoulis
Abstract: Sustainable development is a questioned philosophy, with theories shaped by people's and organisations' different worldviews, which in turn affect how issues are formulated and actions proposed. It is generally offered as the connection between environment, society and economy, which are considered to be discrete although associated units. Next, we will present Green Sustainable Tourism, which includes some principles and policy prescriptions, in order to have development and environmental protection simultaneously, and we deliver some definitions. Finally, we deliver digital practices of innovative ICT systems and network tools, which in general improve the relationship between marketers and clients.
Keywords: sustainable development; green tourism; ICT; green marketing; digital practices.
Strategic development and business process automation networks in Greek tele-companies
by Nikolaos Katsonis, Michael Sfakianakis, Barbara Myloni
Abstract: Strategic development consists of a basis of operations for every organisation and illustrates the way that each organisation operates and competes in the market place. The multiple strategic options and their evaluation are part of the management process of a telecommunication company, and they aim to maximise the effectiveness of the organisation and improve its competitive position. The different perspectives of higher and middle management employees regarding the use and the usefulness of such strategies have to be taken into account, and an extra effort should be made in order to align those perspectives and increase the consistency of the organisational practices. The current study aims to detect any possible gaps and issues on the perceptions of higher and middle management employees and suggest possible and necessary actions that can ensure the effectiveness of the application of management strategies and their effect on strategic development.
Keywords: strategic development; management; marketing; marketing operations; business management; business process automation; telecommunications industry.