J. of Design Research (9 papers in press)
Designed to support or impede energy conservation? How design characteristics influence people's energy use
by Anneli Selvefors, Jesper Knutsson, Christian Marx, Ulrike Rahe
Abstract: This paper explores how the design of domestic appliances influences people's energy use during everyday activities. Drawing on findings from an interview study with 81 informants, a variety of design characteristics were uncovered, which set preconditions for use that in different ways impede or support energy conservation. The identified characteristics concerned not only appliances' operative functions but also their interactive and communicative functions as well as people's underlying motives for using specific appliances. Addressing the full range of characteristics during the development of new appliances will highlight a variety of design opportunities and increase the possibilities for developing appliances that support people to go about their everyday activities in less energy-reliant ways.
Keywords: sustainability; energy conservation; energy use; domestic electricity consumption; product design; design characteristics; appliances; design for sustainable behaviour; DfSB.
Designers own emotions and the practice of designing: a literature review and preliminary research agenda
by Alisa Hutchinson, Monica Tracey
Abstract: There has been growing research attention on the role that users emotions may have in design, but little work has been done on how designers own emotions may influence design cognition, action, and outcomes. This article explores the topic by first considering psychological research on emotion and creativity (which is a close correlate with design activity from a design thinking position). Available research studies on designers and their emotional states is then discussed. While there are consistencies between the two lines of inquiry, the professional design context requires original research separate from the psychological literature to understand how emotions differentially influence designers in real-world contexts. Finally, considerations for future research on designers own emotions are outlined and explored.
Keywords: design thinking; design research; designers and emotions; emotion; cognition; and creativity; emotional influences on design.
Developing 14 animated characters for non-verbal self-report of categorical emotions
by Gaël Laurans, Pieter Desmet
Abstract: Graphical self-report tools are increasingly used to collect data on users emotional responses to products, yet most of these tools have only undergone minimal validation. A systematic set of animations was developed to allow participants in design research and other fields to report their feelings without relying on the nuances of a particular languages affective lexicon. The animations were revised based on eight studies across four countries (total N = 826). The set includes well-recognised animations representing desire/love, satisfaction/approval, pride/self-esteem, hope/optimism, interest/curiosity, surprise/excitement, disgust/aversion, embarrassment/shyness, fear/shock, and boredom/dullness. Two other emotions (joy/happiness and contempt/disrespect) were recognised by about half of the participants in the final study.
Keywords: non-verbal; self-report; emotion; feelings; user experience.
Design for sustainability in companies: two case studies from Turkey
by Elif Küçüksayraç
Abstract: This study investigates how companies practise design for sustainability in Turkey, where the conditions for its practice are cited as insufficient. By studying one large and one small best practice company through in-depth case studies, this research focuses on how these companies apply design for sustainability despite inadequate legislation and market demand, how they collaborate with third parties on sustainability, and how they apply design for sustainability into the product development processes to achieve innovation. The study examines both management- and design-related factors in the new product development process.
Keywords: eco-design; design innovation; product development; industrial design; design management.
Human-centred design practice and challenges in four Finnish organisational information system development projects
by Pauliina Ikavalko, Mikko Korpela
Abstract: The objective of this study was to recognise challenges that designers face when they are applying a human-centred design approach into organisational information system development projects. Participant-observation during the years 20042013 and inductive analysis were used to gain an understanding of designers' everyday work practices and real-life obstacles. Analysis led to the four categories of human-centred design work barriers: contract limitations, contradictory expectations, technological disinterest, and isolation of designers. These barriers indicate that the designers role in development projects is still vague and unclear, which makes it harder to work productively and affect to usability related decisions.
Keywords: HCD; human-centred design; human-centred design practice; design practice; organisational information systems; development projects; design-work barriers; contract limitations; contradictory expectations; technological disinterest; isolation of designers; designer’s role; design research; Finland.
A design-driven innovation process for the exploration of organisational scenarios: action research conducted in a manufacturing company
by Carlo Franzato, Flaviano Celaschi
Abstract: Design is essential to any organisation. As a method of innovation, it can significantly contribute to many areas of commercial activity, and not only in the development of new products. This paper analyses and discusses design-driven innovation processes that explore organisational scenarios, allow for an evolving understanding of a company and foster organisational learning. In these processes, broad networks of designers and collaborators are developed across various departments, thus integrating organisations both horizontally and vertically and often connecting them to external actors. This paper presents an action research study conducted in a security door company that focused on scenario building and the generation of concepts. This study reveals how design contributes to innovation and strategy development in companies. A deeper consideration of this experience results in proposing design as a special form of reasoning that is helpful in exploring a variety of possible scenarios and outcomes.
Keywords: design-driven innovation; strategic design; design process; scenarios; concept generation; exploration; design networks; organisational learning; new product development.
Design for alternative ways of doing explorations in the context of thermal comfort
by Sara Renström, Helena Strömberg, Ulrike Rahe
Abstract: To address seemingly non-negotiable resource-reliant behaviours where feedback is ineffective, we explored the possibility of enabling alternative ways of doing through design solutions and investigated how people engage with them. Focusing on residents need for thermal comfort, a technology probe with alternative tools for staying warm was assembled. How people engaged with these tools was then evaluated in-situ with 18 households. In follow-up interviews, most of the participants who used the tools with some regularity reported that they had increased their awareness, developed new heating strategies and/or carried out some kind of action concerning the heating system. The findings suggest that offering new ways of interacting with a
system, such as a heating system, can lead to people changing the ways in which they fulfil everyday needs.
Keywords: design for sustainable behaviour; DfSB; design research; district heating; energy feedback; everyday needs; heating; non-negotiable behaviours; sustainability; thermal comfort.
EmotionPrism: a design tool that communicates 25
pleasurable human-product interactions
by JungKyoon Yoon, Anna E. Pohlmeyer, Pieter M.A. Desmet
Abstract: The range of positive emotions experienced in human-product interactions is multifarious. Differentiating positive emotions (e.g., joy, love, hope, and interest) and having an awareness of associated expressive interaction qualities (e.g., playful, careful, persistent and focused interaction) can support designers to influence users interactions in a favourable way. This paper introduces the development and application of EmotionPrism, a tool for designers to gain a better understanding specific positive emotions and related expressive interaction qualities. EmotionPrism is a collection of movie-sets that represents 25 different positive emotions in dynamic hand-object interactions, combined with theoretical descriptions of the emotions. Designers can use the tool to envision and discuss what kinds of interactions would be appropriate or desirable to incite and to select a set of relevant positive emotions accordingly by referring to the set of information as a repertoire to choose from. The paper first describes characteristics of positive emotions with a focus on expressive behaviour and then discusses considerations for the tool development. The second section reports the process of developing the tool. Thirdly, we present the results of a design workshop in which the tool was used and evaluated.
Keywords: design for emotions; positive emotions; user-centered design; user experience; design tool.
A process for developing an e-health standards selection method artefact using design science research
by Funmi Adebesin, Paula Kotzé
Abstract: The use of design science research (DSR) as a paradigm of choice among information systems (IS) researchers is growing. While there is an apparent increase in the number of DSR artefacts of the method form, very few research publications provide details of the process followed to create such method artefacts in and of itself. Even rarer is the use of the DSR paradigm in e-health research. In this paper, we present the process followed to develop a DSR method artefact, called the standards selection method for e-health interoperability (SMeHI). SMeHI is a generic method that guides the selection of e-health standards to support interoperability between healthcare IS. The development of the method was motivated by the World Health Organisation's (WHO's) call in 2014 for guidance to lower and middle income countries, many of which are African countries, on how to decide on standards to adopt at national level.
Keywords: artefacts; design science research; e-health; interoperability; method; standards.