J. of Design Research (6 papers in press)
Designed to support or impede energy conservation? How design characteristics influence people's energy use
by Anneli Selvefors, Jesper Knutsson, Christian Marx, Ulrike Rahe
Abstract: This paper explores how the design of domestic appliances influences people's energy use during everyday activities. Drawing on findings from an interview study with 81 informants, a variety of design characteristics were uncovered, which set preconditions for use that in different ways impede or support energy conservation. The identified characteristics concerned not only appliances' operative functions but also their interactive and communicative functions as well as people's underlying motives for using specific appliances. Addressing the full range of characteristics during the development of new appliances will highlight a variety of design opportunities and increase the possibilities for developing appliances that support people to go about their everyday activities in less energy-reliant ways.
Keywords: sustainability; energy conservation; energy use; domestic electricity consumption; product design; design characteristics; appliances; design for sustainable behaviour; DfSB.
Content model as a tool for re-designing services at transformational level: case study of education for sustainable development
by Ksenija Kuzmina, Tracy Bhamra, Rhoda Trimingham
Abstract: In order for service designers to work towards transformational change within organisations, they need to be able to envision what that change looks like at an organisational level. This paper presents a case study of a content model to represent such knowledge. The model represents education for sustainable development (ESD) as a vision of a new service provided by schools to students. It draws on empirical data collected from five schools, organisational change theory and service thinking to show the service/user relationship that needs to be developed at a school level to move schools towards the provision of ESD. The model was tested with seven service designers through in-depth interviews. The findings support understanding and usability of the model in the design process as a tool for transformation but also highlight barriers that a model as a stand-alone tool presents.
Keywords: service design; organisational change; education for sustainable development.
Pareidolia: characterising facial anthropomorphism and its implications for product design
by Andrew Wodehouse
Abstract: This work highlights the phenomenon of pareidolia the tendency to see faces in the environment, buildings and objects that surround us and establishes its relevance for design contexts. In reviewing literature on anthropomorphism and the use of faces in design embodiment, we have shown that it is a compelling and prevalent facet of how we interpret products. By surveying 2,309 images from across the internet, we provide the first systematic investigation of product types and face characteristics (size, composition, emotion) that are manifest in this phenomenon. The most common instances were shown to be in medium-sized products, where part of the product was interpreted as a face, and that conveyed a happy emotion. The effects of culture and self-congruence are identified as important aspects of our interpretation of facial emotion. It is concluded that the fundamental geometric elements of products should be considered with respect to facial morphology, whether it be the intention to use its effects or not, and set out the case for more quantified guidelines on the use of pareidolia and anthropomorphism in design.
Keywords: aesthetics; anthropomorphism; emotion; facial representation; pareidolia.
Extraction of potential dimensions for consumers' psychological
perceptions of perfume bottle form
by Hung-Yuan Chen, Hua-Cheng Chang
Abstract: To create a successful perfume bottle form before the product is launched onto the market, it is essential to fully understand the consumers' psychological perceptions regarding a perfume bottle form and to explore the potential dimensions that characterise these perceptions. Accordingly, the present study conducts a questionnaire-based investigation to examine consumers' psychological perceptions (CPPs) regarding 20 existing perfume bottle forms. Having confirmed the reliability and validity of the questionnaire tool, an exploratory factor analysis is performed to identify the potential dimensions of the CPPs. Five potential dimensions are identified, namely aesthetic evaluation, novelty and peculiarity, fashion and trend, personality suitability, and emotional association. It is shown that, by using these potential dimensions in conjunction with the questionnaire, it is possible to evaluate both the satisfactory degree of the CPP induced by a particular perfume bottle form in each dimension and the global satisfactory degree of the CPP over all the dimensions.
Keywords: potential dimensions; psychological perception; visual design; form design; perfume bottle.
Hands on design: comparing the use of sketching and gesturing in collaborative designing
by Tellervo Härkki, Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Kai Hakkarainen
Abstract: This study explored the remaining potential of gestures as creative tools for collaborative designing. We compared novice designers' use of sketching against gesturing in early ideation and rough visualisation. To preserve the kinesic character of gestures, we developed a detailed video analysis method, which revealed that the majority of sketches and gestures were complementary to speech. Sketching was important for defining complicated structures, while gesturing was frequently used for all aspects of designing. Moreover, we identified that the level of collaboration the level and immediacy of sharing ones ideas for others is an important factor. As an underrepresented phenomenon in the design literature, the meaning of collaboration unearthed here leads to unmistakable conclusions regarding the nature of gesturing, to the process of learning design, and to the use of design
tools. Most notably, gesturing offers a complementary creative dimension
kinaesthetic thinking which invites us to communicate and share instantaneously.
Keywords: collaborative design; design learning; gesture; gesturing; gestural concepts; sketching; video analysis; micro analysis; kinaesthetic thinking.
DESIGNERS AND INDIGENOUS POTTERS COLLABORATION TOWARDS INNOVATION IN POTTERY PRODUCTION
by Samuel Nortey, Edwin K. Bodjawah
Abstract: This paper touched on the boundaries between craft and design and innovations of the indigenous pottery in Ghana. It focused on expanding the frontiers of production through a collaborative effort on design thinking and skills development as a starting point to new directions; examined their response to new design thinking and new production forms which are related to their culture as well as being just novel and appealing to the current market. Two case studies in Ghana were used; female adults who have been in the art of producing pottery for over 25 years and young men who use some level of improvised machinery in producing same. Through creative thinking and skills development, indigenous potters still maintained their cultural consciousness, satisfaction and were innovative in producing products which are relevant to their present life and market.
Keywords: design thinking; creativity; pottery; production skills; cognition.