International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development (8 papers in press)
A conceptual analysis of conditions for innovation in the process industries and a guiding framework for industry collaboration and further research
by Thomas Lager
Abstract: The process industries span multiple industrial sectors and constitute a substantial part of the entire manufacturing industry. In a review of the extant literature related to process-industrial production and innovation characteristics, the process industries construct has been analysed and redefined. It was concluded that the discriminant validity of the process-industrial production system characteristics from those of other manufacturing industries motivate studying this group of industries as a separate entity. However, in spite of its importance for theory building for industrial production and innovation, but also for the importance of the world economy at large, the area is surprisingly under-researched. The strong coupling between raw materials, production systems and products constitutes unique contextual innovation conditions that should be considered more in industrial innovation. Furthermore, the process-industrial inherent innovation conditions underscore the shared idiosyncrasies of this family of industries. The strong convergent validity of innovation characteristics suggests that cross-sectoral collaboration and technological learning opportunities between companies within this industrial cluster are substantial. Since the process industries are a large part of the LMT industries and of significant importance for late-industrialized countries and also constitute a considerable part of the most R&D investment-intensive companies worldwide, it is advocated that studying innovation in this cluster of industries in a cross-sectoral approach is an interesting avenue to follow. It was concluded that operations and innovation management in this family of industries will benefit from methods, tools and best practices more adapted to the process industry-specific context. As a consequence of these findings, a framework aiming at guiding and invigorating further process-industrial research was introduced together with policy implications.
Keywords: process industries, innovation, manufacturing, product development, process development.
China's commercial jet aircraft business - competition concerns
by Sören Eriksson
Abstract: The aircraft industry has in recent decades frequently been used as a target and tool in many emerging economies as means for economic and industrial development. For a number of years China has tried to foster a modern commercial aircraft industry and has benefited from the increasing participation in joint-projects with the worlds leading aerospace firms. Chinas own domestic aircraft projects are facing major challenges in the coming years due to the pace of technology change and limited capability in crucial areas such as management and compliance to international rules and regulations of airworthiness. The fierce competition poses great dilemmas for those who have ambitions to enter global market in an industry with such high and complicated entry barriers.
Keywords: China's aircraft industry; entry barriers aerospace; commercial aircraft business; competition aircraft industry; high-tech industry barriers.
Investigating the relationship between Information Technology and Innovation capability of economies: Towards a Virtual National Innovation System
by Amir Mohtarami
Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between information technology (IT) and innovation at the national level. For this aim, a statistical test is used to show the correlation between the IT and the Innovation capability of economies, based on data-sets of about 130 countries from global ranking of countries in IT and innovation. The results show that there is a strong correlation between IT and Innovation capability of economies. This is true for both developed and developing countries with a bit difference in intensity of correlation. Moreover, efforts are made to explain the potential of IT to improve National Innovation Systems (NIS), wherein the concept of Virtual NIS (V-NIS) is introduced. My conclusion is that the IT can be used, not only as an improving tool, but also as a transforming platform that could provide more cost effective and more flexible way to enhance NIS, especially in developing countries.
Keywords: Information Technology (IT); Innovation; National Innovation System (NIS); NIS Functions; Virtual National Innovation System (V-NIS); Innovation Index; Network Readiness Index.
Crafting knowing-sensitivity as an intercultural innovation skill: a practical knowledge and knowing approach
by Patricia Souto
Abstract: The current conceptual work explores the crafting and refining of a foundational non-technical skill for intercultural innovation efforts, through a practice-based approach: the knowing-sensitivity. Knowing-sensitivity is a refined situational perception and judgment that enables us to see more and see differently in a situation configuration, to perceive its potential and propensity, deeper insights and hidden meanings, getting a maximum understanding of it and opening up for new forms of intelligibility and new possibilities for action. It involves a unique and deep awareness and a refined ability to see and make connections that others do not or cannot, which is central to innovation efforts. The purpose is to explain and propose a practice-based approach to crafting knowing-sensitivity. Such approach is important because outstanding and innovative products can only be produced with clarity of perception, if we are able to clearly see reality for what it is without the interference of our concepts, presuppositions, abstractions, and clich
Keywords: Tacit knowledge; knowing; practical knowledge; awareness; innovation; perception; attention; skills.
Openness of innovation systems through global innovation networks: a comparative analysis of firms in developed and emerging economies
by Cristina Chaminade, Helena Barnard
Abstract: In the last decade we have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the globalization of innovation activities and more specifically, of global innovation networks (GINs) extending into middle-income countries. However, hitherto most of the literature is either theoretical or based on a handful of cases. We do not know what are the different forms of openness through networks in which firms participate, whether in terms of the various degrees of global scope, innovativeness and network scope, or other key characteristics. This exploratory paper provides empirical evidence of the different forms of openness through global innovation networks used by firms located in mature and emerging innovation systems. The paper relies on survey-based firm-level data collected in five European countries plus Brazil, South Africa, India and China.
Keywords: Open innovation systems; globalization; innovation networks; Europe; South Africa; Brazil; China; India.
Knowledge transfer from Lean Startup Method to Project Management for boosting innovation projects performance
by Zornitsa Yordanova
Abstract: The paper aims at presenting the results from a study that examines the possibility, usefulness and existence of knowledge transfer of some tools and techniques from the Lean Startup Method toward Project Management. The research focuses on innovation projects and these projects need for more flexible and innovative tools and techniques so their performance to be improved. The research includes literature framework, literature analysis, comparative analysis and empirical research in two parts. The empirical research first extracts 13 tools and techniques from Lean Startup Method and then tests the usage and the effect of these techniques implementation in 167 innovation projects. The results show the existing collaboration between the Method and the project management practice as well as outline the most appropriate tools and techniques with higher positive impact on innovative projects.
Keywords: Lean Startup Method; Project Management; innovation projects; knowledge transfer; innovation management.
TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITY BUILDING IN NIGERIAN CASHEW NUT PROCESSING INDUSTRY
by Billy Oluwale, Caleb ADELOWO, Joel Ocheni, Matthew Ilori
Abstract: The study examined the technological capabilities (TC) in the cashew nut processing industry in Nigeria and how it affects the industry performance. This is with a view to shedding light on the process of TC building and suggesting appropriate policy intervention that can improve the industry performance. Data were collected from 128 staff of 20 firms purposively selected to address the study objective. A five-point Likert rating scale was adopted to assess technological capabilities, broken down into investment, production and linkage capabilities. The results of investment capability showed mean rating of 3.78, 3.5 and 3.9 indicating fair ability to carry out feasibility study, procure the right equipment and machines and good ability to negotiate contract terms respectively. Overall, there was a significant difference (F = 32.32, p< 0.05) in the factors that constituted investment capability in the cashew nut processing industry. The production capability in the industry was fairly adequate as revealed by the mean ratings of elements such as abilities to improve on production process (3.56), product quality (3.07) and in-house equipment and machines (2.83). The overall mean rating for linkage capability was good. However, linkage with knowledge institution was low (3.29). Further analysis revealed that technological capability influenced and impacted positively on industry performance, though marginally. The study concluded that there were some element of investment, production and linkage capabilities in the cashew nut processing industry, and these capabilities influenced industry performance.
Keywords: Technology; capability; cashew nut; processing; industry; Nigeria.
A Toolkit for R&D Policy Choice with an Application to Chilean Mining.
by Claudio Bravo-Ortega, Leonardo Muñoz
Abstract: Governments across all developing countries aim to improve firms productivity with a wide array of initiatives that support R&D investments, provide public goods and foster technology transfer. Decisions on implementing public policy programs are frequently guided by ad-hoc criteria on a case by case basis. However, public programs often fail or do not have the expected impacts. Therefore, the provision of a general framework that guides the implementation of initiatives is a must for academics performing research on innovation and industrial development. In this paper, we provide a theoretical framework, a toolkit, to help satisfy this need. In this article, we postulate that industrial organization of firms and their suppliers and firms corresponding economies of scale are the main aspects to be considered when analyzing policy alternatives. We apply the prescriptions of our toolkit to the case of the Chilean mining industry over its various stages of maturity during the last three decades.
Keywords: R&D Policy; Mining; Economies of scale; Chile.