International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development (5 papers in press)
HOW DO RESEARCH INTENSIVE SYSTEMS EMERGE IN LESS DEVELOPED AREAS? THE CASE OF MECHATRONICS IN THE ITALIAN SOUTHERN REGION APULIA
by Stefano Clò, Massimo Florio, Julie Pellegrin, Emanuela Sirtori
Abstract: Regional innovation systems (RIS) are increasingly emerging in less developed areas. Based on the case study of the mechatronic cluster in the Italian southern region, Apulia, this paper analyzes how institutions have managed to promote the establishment of a RIS in disadvantaged areas. Through a longitudinal analysis over more than half a century, the Apulian case study shows that the creation of this RIS in less developed areas is the result of a dynamic process characterized by a multi-level governance, initially promoted by the central government through a top-down logic, and then integrated by action of local actors through a bottom-up approach. A key role is played by the regionalization of innovation policies and by the strategic action of regional public institutions to promote the interaction among enterprises and universities. Our analysis highlights that several ingredients should simultaneously occur for a regional innovation policy to be effective. Any regional innovation strategy significantly lacking one of these core pre-conditions and ingredients is risky. Policy-makers should carefully study the opportunities and challenges arising from local contexts before embarking in ambitious place-based innovation strategies
Keywords: Regional innovation system; technological cluster; less developed area; mechatronics; Italy; regionalization of innovation policy; case study.
Factors determining user satisfaction of Internet usage among public sector employees in Yemen
by Osama Isaac, Zaini Abdullah, T. Ramayah, Ahmed M. Mutahar
Abstract: Internet technology has become an essential technological tool for individuals, organizations, and nations driving growth and prosperity. However, there are countries such as Yemen which have very low internet usage rates and which see little economic, social and cultural progress as a result. Therefore, this study has developed an integrated conceptual model based the DeLone and McLean information systems success model (DMISM), the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), and task-technology fit (TTF) to predict the user satisfaction of Internet. A survey questionnaire was used to collect primary data from 530 employees in all thirty government ministry institutions in Yemen. An analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the variables of the proposed model, which includes initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) via AMOS. The results indicated that system quality, information quality, task quality, and social quality are the four key determinants of employee satisfaction related to internet usage. The theoretical and practical implications are also discussed in this study.
Keywords: Internet usage; user satisfaction; diffusion of innovation; Yemen.
Decentralization of science and innovation policies in emerging countries: Three key challenges that deserve further attention
by Jose Guimon
Abstract: Previous research analysing the decentralization of science and innovation policies has focused on the experiences of developed countries. The objective of this article is to explore the implications for emerging countries, which have decentralized innovation policies more recently than high-income countries, but face more acute shortages of critical mass and institutional capacities. Building on the notions of multilevel governance, policy mix and smart specialization, the aim of this exploratory study is to discuss three key challenges associated with the decentralization of innovation policies in emerging countries: (i) finding the right division of responsibilities between levels of government; (ii) implementing national-regional coordination mechanisms; and (iii) using regional innovation policy to reduce cross-regional income gaps. These challenges are illustrated through several examples and short case studies from different emerging countries.
Keywords: decentralization; innovation policy; multilevel governance; policy mix; smart specialization; regional innovation systems.
Knowledge organisations in less innovative regions: what factors explain the emergence and development of their links with firms? A case study in Argentina
by Carolina Pasciaroni, Silvia Gorenstein, Andrea Barbero
Abstract: This paper explores the factors that condition the links between knowledge organisations and firms in a medium-sized city in Argentina. The study is motivated by two aspects related to innovation: 1) the conceptualization of innovation as a local and urban phenomenon and 2) the growing importance of scientific knowledge generated in universities and science and technology (S&T) centres. This topic acquires special interest in Latin America based on the low innovative dynamism of firms, the high concentration of national R&D expenditure in public knowledge organisations, and the weak link between such organisations and firms. Unlike other case studies, this paper adopts the theoretical approach of the Regional Innovation Systems and employs a temporal perspective analysis. Among the main findings, the following factors condition the links at local level: i) the influence of the national institutional context, in particular the active role of the National State, ii) the catalytic action of certain local agents, and iii) the weak demand for knowledge. Based on the identification of these factors, it is expected that this paper may contribute to the formulation of policies that foster the links between knowledge organisation and firms in less innovative regions.
Keywords: knowledge organisations; universities; science and technology; links; firms; region; city; regional innovation systems; Latin America; case study; institutional configuration; National State; local agents; linkage trajectory; knowledge demand.
Value Stream Mapping in Indonesias Shoe Industry: An Alternative Tool to Map Innovation Ecosystem
by ULLY YUNITA NAFIZAH P, ADHYA RARE TIARA
Abstract: It is believed that open innovation implementation could help SMEs to compete in the global market, especially by exploring the external sourcing strategies. To do so, the mapping of innovation ecosystem is needed as the precursor to any open innovation initiatives. Previous studies show that there is a similarity between the innovation process and the value chain, in terms of their definition. The basis of this idea is that both the value chain and the innovation process use resources to deliver products to the customer, by adding value to the existing products or processes. Interestingly, there have only been a few studies that try to explore the relationship between the innovation process and the value chain. This paper attempts to map an innovation ecosystem using the value chain analysis approach. This paper, particularly, explores the use of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) as an alternative tool to comprehend the innovation ecosystem. Furthermore, this study also focuses on understanding the innovation ecosystem in the form of an industry cluster as a group of relevant businesses, mostly consisting of SMEs, that develop a persistent relationship over a period of time. Specifically, the paper tries to understand the nature of the innovation ecosystem of Cibaduyut shoe industry, which is an Indonesian industry cluster, by performing Value Stream Mapping (VSM). The VSM process produces a Current State Map (CSM) of the existing value chain, which consists of the relevant actors, the relevant flows, and the existing problems. This knowledge, further, will be used for strategizing individual open innovation initiatives and for fostering open innovation implementation through various policies.
Keywords: Industry Cluster; Innovation Ecosystem; Value Chain Analysis; Value Stream Mapping (VSM); Cibaduyut Shoe Industry.