International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development (8 papers in press)
Knowledge transfer from Lean Startup Method to Project Management for boosting innovation projects performance
by Zornitsa Yordanova
Abstract: The paper aims at presenting the results from a study that examines the possibility, usefulness and existence of knowledge transfer of some tools and techniques from the Lean Startup Method toward Project Management. The research focuses on innovation projects and these projects need for more flexible and innovative tools and techniques so their performance to be improved. The research includes literature framework, literature analysis, comparative analysis and empirical research in two parts. The empirical research first extracts 13 tools and techniques from Lean Startup Method and then tests the usage and the effect of these techniques implementation in 167 innovation projects. The results show the existing collaboration between the Method and the project management practice as well as outline the most appropriate tools and techniques with higher positive impact on innovative projects.
Keywords: Lean Startup Method; Project Management; innovation projects; knowledge transfer; innovation management.
TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITY BUILDING IN NIGERIAN CASHEW NUT PROCESSING INDUSTRY
by Billy Oluwale, Caleb ADELOWO, Joel Ocheni, Matthew Ilori
Abstract: The study examined the technological capabilities (TC) in the cashew nut processing industry in Nigeria and how it affects the industry performance. This is with a view to shedding light on the process of TC building and suggesting appropriate policy intervention that can improve the industry performance. Data were collected from 128 staff of 20 firms purposively selected to address the study objective. A five-point Likert rating scale was adopted to assess technological capabilities, broken down into investment, production and linkage capabilities. The results of investment capability showed mean rating of 3.78, 3.5 and 3.9 indicating fair ability to carry out feasibility study, procure the right equipment and machines and good ability to negotiate contract terms respectively. Overall, there was a significant difference (F = 32.32, p< 0.05) in the factors that constituted investment capability in the cashew nut processing industry. The production capability in the industry was fairly adequate as revealed by the mean ratings of elements such as abilities to improve on production process (3.56), product quality (3.07) and in-house equipment and machines (2.83). The overall mean rating for linkage capability was good. However, linkage with knowledge institution was low (3.29). Further analysis revealed that technological capability influenced and impacted positively on industry performance, though marginally. The study concluded that there were some element of investment, production and linkage capabilities in the cashew nut processing industry, and these capabilities influenced industry performance.
Keywords: Technology; capability; cashew nut; processing; industry; Nigeria.
A Toolkit for R&D Policy Choice with an Application to Chilean Mining.
by Claudio Bravo-Ortega, Leonardo Muñoz
Abstract: Governments across all developing countries aim to improve firms productivity with a wide array of initiatives that support R&D investments, provide public goods and foster technology transfer. Decisions on implementing public policy programs are frequently guided by ad-hoc criteria on a case by case basis. However, public programs often fail or do not have the expected impacts. Therefore, the provision of a general framework that guides the implementation of initiatives is a must for academics performing research on innovation and industrial development. In this paper, we provide a theoretical framework, a toolkit, to help satisfy this need. In this article, we postulate that industrial organization of firms and their suppliers and firms corresponding economies of scale are the main aspects to be considered when analyzing policy alternatives. We apply the prescriptions of our toolkit to the case of the Chilean mining industry over its various stages of maturity during the last three decades.
Keywords: R&D Policy; Mining; Economies of scale; Chile.
Accelerating the Technological Life Cycle through Convergence: Trends from Herbal Medicine Patents and Insights from Case Studies in Asia Pacific
by Hon-Ngen Fung, Chan-Yuan Wong
Abstract: Research and innovation play a major part in affecting technological convergence, which in turn plays a key role in the advancement of the technological life cycle. In this paper, we present an evolutionary perspective of how patent keyword clusters evolve in different phases of the technological life cycle of the herbal medicine sector. We map the trajectory of the technological life cycle and correlate this with snapshots of patent cluster landscapes. Evidence of convergence of modern biotechnological methods with existing herbal medicine innovations was observed, which leads to the strengthening of patent clusters and penetration of herbal medicine into novel niches. The emergence of universities is also discussed as significant latecomers in patenting activities, which is evidence of a long incubation period for the commercialization of university research in herbal medicine. We propose this methodology as a means to gauge the trajectory and anticipate revolutions in the technology life cycle of the herbal medicine industry, in order to study innovation patterns and facilitate convergence in the long run.
Keywords: convergence; technological life cycle; herbal medicine; patents; innovation.
Obstacles to Innovation in Selected Indian Manufacturing Firms
by Seenaiah K, Badri Narayan Rath
Abstract: This paper examines various factors that hamper the innovation activities in selected Indian manufacturing firms. To achieve this, we collect data from 190 manufacturing firms located in Hyderabad and Bengaluru cities through a primary survey. Our results based on field survey reveal that factors such as uncertain outcomes from the future innovations, cost of innovation, lack of qualified labor, and lack of appropriate source of finance were largely attributed to slow down the innovation activities in Indian firms. Further empirical results based on probit regression convey that the firms entering into export markets are able to overcome the obstacles. The overall findings of the study is a wake up call for the policy makers for making strategies to strengthen the innovative/ R&D projects that provides the greater avenues to stimulate the manufacturing performance. Apart from the R&D constraints and lack of skilled labor, financial sources cannot be ignored which has a greater impact in shaping the national innovation systems.
Keywords: Manufacturing; Innovation; Obstacles; Probit Model.
HOW DO RESEARCH INTENSIVE SYSTEMS EMERGE IN LESS DEVELOPED AREAS? THE CASE OF MECHATRONICS IN THE ITALIAN SOUTHERN REGION APULIA
by Stefano Clò, Massimo Florio, Julie Pellegrin, Emanuela Sirtori
Abstract: Regional innovation systems (RIS) are increasingly emerging in less developed areas. Based on the case study of the mechatronic cluster in the Italian southern region, Apulia, this paper analyzes how institutions have managed to promote the establishment of a RIS in disadvantaged areas. Through a longitudinal analysis over more than half a century, the Apulian case study shows that the creation of this RIS in less developed areas is the result of a dynamic process characterized by a multi-level governance, initially promoted by the central government through a top-down logic, and then integrated by action of local actors through a bottom-up approach. A key role is played by the regionalization of innovation policies and by the strategic action of regional public institutions to promote the interaction among enterprises and universities. Our analysis highlights that several ingredients should simultaneously occur for a regional innovation policy to be effective. Any regional innovation strategy significantly lacking one of these core pre-conditions and ingredients is risky. Policy-makers should carefully study the opportunities and challenges arising from local contexts before embarking in ambitious place-based innovation strategies
Keywords: Regional innovation system; technological cluster; less developed area; mechatronics; Italy; regionalization of innovation policy; case study.
Factors determining user satisfaction of Internet usage among public sector employees in Yemen
by Osama Isaac, Zaini Abdullah, T. Ramayah, Ahmed M. Mutahar
Abstract: Internet technology has become an essential technological tool for individuals, organizations, and nations driving growth and prosperity. However, there are countries such as Yemen which have very low internet usage rates and which see little economic, social and cultural progress as a result. Therefore, this study has developed an integrated conceptual model based the DeLone and McLean information systems success model (DMISM), the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), and task-technology fit (TTF) to predict the user satisfaction of Internet. A survey questionnaire was used to collect primary data from 530 employees in all thirty government ministry institutions in Yemen. An analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between the variables of the proposed model, which includes initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation modeling (SEM) via AMOS. The results indicated that system quality, information quality, task quality, and social quality are the four key determinants of employee satisfaction related to internet usage. The theoretical and practical implications are also discussed in this study.
Keywords: Internet usage; user satisfaction; diffusion of innovation; Yemen.
Decentralization of science and innovation policies in emerging countries: Three key challenges that deserve further attention
by Jose Guimon
Abstract: Previous research analysing the decentralization of science and innovation policies has focused on the experiences of developed countries. The objective of this article is to explore the implications for emerging countries, which have decentralized innovation policies more recently than high-income countries, but face more acute shortages of critical mass and institutional capacities. Building on the notions of multilevel governance, policy mix and smart specialization, the aim of this exploratory study is to discuss three key challenges associated with the decentralization of innovation policies in emerging countries: (i) finding the right division of responsibilities between levels of government; (ii) implementing national-regional coordination mechanisms; and (iii) using regional innovation policy to reduce cross-regional income gaps. These challenges are illustrated through several examples and short case studies from different emerging countries.
Keywords: decentralization; innovation policy; multilevel governance; policy mix; smart specialization; regional innovation systems.