Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management


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International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management (67 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • The Improvement of Thresher Design by Using the Integration of TRIZ and QFD Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Nilda Tri Putri, Agus Sutanto 
    Abstract: Today's business environment is forcing many SMEs to continuously improve their products, be innovative according to the customer requirements and to remain competitive. Likewise, similar condition occurred in the thresher machines which separated grains from harvested crop in developing country like Indonesia. The research described in this paper aimed to propose an integrative method by using Quality Function Development (QFD) and TRIZ approach to improve thresher design manufactured by SMEs in West Sumatra, Indonesia. The process consisted of the following stages: 1) identification of the customer needs followed by the determination of their requirements rating, 2) the preparation of QFD phase 1, 3) the creation of QFD phase 2 for technical characteristics which do not contradict with the design characteristics or the selection of alternative solutions using TRIZ for both contradictory characteristics, 4) the thresher design improvement according to the design characteristics in the final stage. The result was 10 design characteristics that would be used in re-design of the thresher by SME, in which 9 design characteristics were obtained by QFD Phase 2 and 1 characteristic was obtained from alternative solution of TRIZ method. Design characteristic which had the highest priority level was the use of screw type threshing teeth (priority value of 14%). The distinctions between the re-design threshers with the reference design were wheels to facilitate mobilization; screw type threshing teeth design on the threshing cylinder to meet the user need; and the ergonomic feeding table dimension to improve the user convenience.
    Keywords: thresher; QFD; TRIZ approach; consumer requirements; design characteristics.

  • Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Performance Measures in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process during Taper Cutting Operation   Order a copy of this article
    by Siba Sankar Mahapatra, Bijaya Bijeta Nayak 
    Abstract: Deep-cryogenic treatment brings some remarkable improvements in mechanical properties by refining the microstructure of the materials. In recent times, cryo-processing has been successfully applied to toughened and high strength to weight ratio work piece materials and tools in electrical discharge machining (EDM) and wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) for improving machining efficiency. In the present investigation, coated Bronco cut-W wire electrode and Inconel 718 work piece are subjected to deep cryogenic treatment (-1960C). The microstructure of deep cryo-treated and untreated wire electrode and work piece is observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of deep cryogenically treated wire electrode and work piece on various performance characteristics are studied during taper cutting operation in WEDM process. Taguchis experimental design has been applied to determine the optimal parameter setting considering six input parameters such as part thickness, taper angle, pulse duration, discharge current, wire speed and wire tension on various performance measures such as angular error, surface roughness and cutting speed. The study reveals that deep cryogenic treatment of both wire electrode and work piece can improve the machining performance in WEDM.
    Keywords: Angular error; Deep-cryogenic treatment; Wire electrical discharge machining; Taper cutting; Surface roughness.

  • Classification of Critical Success Factors for Reverse Logistics Implementation based on Importance-Performance Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamidreza Panjehfouladgaran, Hadi Shirouyehzad 
    Abstract: Reverse logistics (RL) is one of the manufacturing methods to recover used products, decreasing wastes and landfills. However, recovered products are competing with new products. Therefore, the identification of critical success factors (CSF) may help to intensify the strengths of the RL. In this paper, identified critical success factors in RL were analyzed by importance-performance analysis (IPA) approach. The results of questionnaire survey for identification of CSF in RL considered as the importance level. Performance level of CSFs evaluated by a checklist which is fulfilled in a RL company. The results indicate that transportation, culture, organizational strategy, top management commitment and logistics network design are critical success factors that must be concentrated for the organizational goals achievements in RL organizations.
    Keywords: Reverse Logistics (RL); Critical Success Factors (CSFs); Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA); Critical Success Factor Classification.

  • Efficiency improvement and resource estimation: a tradeoff analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Mojtaba Ghiyasi 
    Abstract: This article uses DEA as an evaluation technique of efficiency and proposes a resource (input) estimation procedure that guarantees not only unchanged but also variant efficiency levels for a given expected output level. We also deal with controllable and non-controllable input in process of input estimation. Two trade off indices are proposed to track the relationship between required resources, producible outputs and efficiency improvement percentage. Proposed models and indices provide useful information and help decision maker in process of production planning. Our models and indices are explained by provided numerical example and an empirical illustration using a real world data which also demonstrates the practical relevance and advanced future of our methods.
    Keywords: Resource estimation; Trade off index; Inverse DEA; Multi-objective programming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2018.10009555
  • The Impact of Facultys Communication Behaviors on Student's Satisfaction: The Role of Cognitive and Affective Learning and Student's Motivation   Order a copy of this article
    by Smita Kulkarni, Nikhat Afshan, Jaideep Motwani 
    Abstract: Although the benefits of faculty members communication behaviors have been examined and discussed in earlier studies, they have been mostly done in the context of traditional classrooms or online learning. This study examines the effect of faculty members communication behaviors on students motivation which further impacts students affective and cognitive learning. Further, this study also investigates the relationship between students learning (affective learning and cognitive learning) and students satisfaction in the case study method of teaching. The hypothesized relationships were tested using a sample of 265 postgraduate management students from a Business School of India. The results indicated that faculty members communication behaviors had a positive effect on students motivation and students motivation had a positive effect on the affective and cognitive learning. Further, cognitive learning and affective learning were found to have significant positive impact on students satisfaction.
    Keywords: Affective Learning; Case Study Pedagogy; Cognitive Learning; Motivation; Student's Satisfaction,.

  • Maintenance Policy Selection Using Fuzzy Failure Modes and Effective Analysis and Key Performance Indicators   Order a copy of this article
    by Nasrin Farajiparvar, Rene Mayorga 
    Abstract: Maintenance Policy Selection (MPS) plays an important role in determining a proper maintenance strategy based on the real equipment condition. This study is intended to address the concept of MPS proposing an approach to improve current maintenance selection methods. Further, an integrated three-step model is introduced for MPS using Fuzzy Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FFMEA) and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP). In the first step, a combination of FFMEA and FAHP are applied to calculate the risk of equipment. For the Risk Priority Number computation, three dimensions including Severity, Occurrence, and Detection and their identified sub-dimensions are weighted by three domain experts. The second step is aimed at evaluation of all criteria that crucially affect MPS where four Key Performance Indicators weighted by AHP are defined for equipment criticality assessment. Finally, a novel fuzzy approach is proposed to choose a proper maintenance strategy for each facility according to RPN and Criticality scores. A case study is conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
    Keywords: Maintenance Policy Selection; Failure Mode and Effects Analysis; Analytic Hierarchy Process; Fuzzy Inference Systems.

  • Quality Factors and Performance in citrus industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunil Kumar U.T., Rakesh Shrivastava, Rajasree O.P 
    Abstract: Management of citrus fruit crop like Nagpur mandarin for future use is topmost priority as the demand for the fruits is increasing tremendously. The exploratory type of study was conducted with 100 valid responses collected from citrus stake holders. In order to investigate the effect of critical success factors (CSF,s) or predictors on the performance measurement factors of citrus industry, multiple regression analysis using independent variables or input factors and dependent variables or performance measurement factors. Frame work or model of quality improvement is derived from the current study. The study revealed that Economics and quality of citrus fruits can be improved by focusing on quality management, innovation and technology management, improved relation among stake holders and also by strengthening the local citrus fruit industry.
    Keywords: post harvest; processing; quality management; CSF’s; storage; citrus; model; performance measurement; questionnaire; SPSS.

  • Analysis of the Effects of Succession Planning Implementation on Organizational Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Hasan Hosseini, Ali Shaemi Barzoki, Ali Nasr Isfahani 
    Abstract: According to most scholars, there exists no universally agreed theoretical framework regarding succession management. Present research attempts to explore the impact that succession management and its dimensions may have on organizational performance in Esfahan Steel Company. The required data based on the research model was collected from the questionnaire distributed among managers, executive officers, and superintendents of the company. The sample size was calculated using proportionate stratified sampling based on Cochran formula for finite population. 120 questionnaires were distributed. Of the total number of the returned questionnaires, 106 were usable (88% return rate) and subjected to final analysis. To examine the assumed relationship between the involved variables and test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling (path analysis) was used. Based on the findings derived from earlier qualitative research (Hosseini et al, 2017), the dimensions systemic culture building, creating context for succession planning, committed implementation with a systemic view, policy making, candidate evaluation for competence-based selection, gap analysis, and succession planning evaluation were identified as the succession planning determinants. The required data for execution of the designed model in the qualitative section and demonstration of its impact on organizational performance was obtained using questionnaire, the validity and reliability of which were already verified. rnThe results indicated that at 95 percent confidence there was a positive and significant relationship between introduction of succession management and organizational performance in the understudy company. Additionally, the seven dimensions of succession management were also positively associated with organizational performance.
    Keywords: succession management; talent management; BSC-based organizational performance.

  • Patient satisfaction analysis using a multicriteria analysis method: The case of the NHS in Greece   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitris Drosos, Nikos Tsotsolas, Michalis Skordoulis, Miltiadis Chalikias 
    Abstract: Patient satisfaction and service quality are critical components for the strategic planning processes in a healthcare system. The aim of this paper is to measure and analyze patient satisfaction with the National Healthcare System (NHS) in Greece by using a preference disaggregation methodology. Patients satisfaction is measured using the Multicriteria Satisfaction Analysis (MUSA) method which assumes that global satisfaction depends on a set of criteria. SERVQUALs five dimensions have been selected as the patients satisfaction criteria, while the sub-criteria are based on SERVQUALs twenty two constructs which were properly adjusted to the surveys specific needs. The research results show high levels of patient satisfaction with medical and nursing services. On the other hand, lower satisfaction rates are recorded concerning the facilities and the administrative services which are connected with the funding and the efficiency of a healthcare system. Thus, a major problem concerning the Hellenic NHS is the continuous reduction of funding. As far as it is concerned, a major challenge for the Hellenic NHS is that the underfunding problem is solved while the necessary measures are taken in order that the optimal allocation of the available resources is ensured. Last but not least, the research design confirms the good adjustment of multidimensional models such as SERVQUAL in patient satisfaction measurement.
    Keywords: Patient satisfaction; customer satisfaction; service quality; healthcare quality; public health; multicriteria analysis; SERVQUAL.

  • Theoretical analysis of JIT elements for implementation in maintenance sector of Indian Industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Phogat, Anil Kumar Gupta 
    Abstract: Just in time (JIT) philosophy has grown to new heights since its evolution and has successfully been implemented in manufacturing. As it is universally accepted that manufacturing and maintenance cannot be managed as a separate function, aim of present study is to evaluate various elements of JIT to implement in maintenance sector which have high degree of importance in Indian context. It is because now maintenance is also plays an important role in optimization of business processes. Maintenance operations are much like manufacturing operations where both employ processes that add value to the basic input used to create the end product. Just in Time focuses on the processes, not the product. It can therefore be applied to any process in manufacturing or maintenance operations. For this, literature related to JIT usage and performance is reviewed. Thirty-eight elements are analyzed from twenty-two research papers of Indian context. With aid of theoretical analysis and brain storming with maintenance specialists of Just in Time elements implemented manufacturing industries, eighteen elements are selected to check implementation of JIT philosophy in maintenance sector of Indian context. Relative importance of such elements are also highlighted in the article.
    Keywords: Just in time (JIT); Maintenance; JIT elements; JIT in maintenance; JIT in manufacturing.

    by Rahul Sindhwani, Varinder Kumar Mittal, Punj Lata Singh, Vivek Kalsariya, Faizan Salroo 
    Abstract: The need now a day has arisen which has forced todays generation to sit and think about taking pains regarding energy efficiency. This huge wastage of energy and the ever-increasing cost have not only hindered the smooth economical run but also have sent huge Greenhouse gas emissions into the environment. So, it has become inescapable for us to turn a blind eye. Keeping this thing in mind, this research paper presents identification drivers of energy efficiency which helps us in making a framework which could guide industries in applying the energy efficiency in their setups. These seventeen drivers were leveled and their effect was noticed through Fuzzy Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) and Fuzzy MICMAC analysis. The results reveal that inadequate availability of energy, excessive losses, and energy audits have high driving power and low dependence power and are at the lowest level in Fuzzy ISM digraph, while government promotional benefits, management commitment, research development, and planning for future drivers have high dependence power and low driving power. The results were clear enough to suggest that which drivers we have to take in attention in order to ensure that the energy efficiency is applied in an industry.
    Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Drivers; Manufacturing Industry; Fuzzy ISM; Fuzzy MICMAC.

  • The Impact of Human Capital and Innovation on Labour Productivity of Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Rahmah Ismail 
    Abstract: Human capital theory post
    Keywords: Human capital; innovation; labour productivity; labour quality; small and médium enterprises; manufacturing firms; training; research and development; information and communication technology; employees; Malaysia.

  • Deployment of operational performance indicators (OPIs) in failure mode effect and analysis (FMEA) application: A literature review and classification   Order a copy of this article
    by CHEN FUNG LIEW, Joshua A/L Jaya Prakash, Kok Seng Ong 
    Abstract: Failure mode effect and analysis (FMEA) is a well-known methodology for improving operational performance, such as the quality, cost, and delivery time of a product, process, or system. However, the success of FMEA in operational performance cannot be quantified at present. The risk priority number (RPN), which is the only indicator of FMEA, has no relationship with operational performance. For example, a reduction in RPN may not benefit operational performance, particularly if the corrective action is to enhance detection. Thus, the capability of FMEA to improve operational performance cannot be validated unless it demonstrates quantifiable operational performance. An organization is distinct from its competitors based on its operational performance and not based on RPN. The missing operational performance measurement practice in FMEA is essential for further strengthening the FMEA methodology. This study aims to identify the most effective methodology and approach for quantifying the success of FMEA in operational performance through a systematic review and to classify FMEA articles that measured operational performance.
    Keywords: corrective action; FMEA; operational performance; operational performance indicator; RPN.

  • Development of four row paddy transplanter by applying value engineering principles   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Mohan, G. Sundararaj, S.R. Devadasan, R. Murugesh 
    Abstract: Engineers and practitioners have been developing manually operated paddy transplanters to enable farmers for achieving productivity and quality in paddy transplantation. These manually operated paddy transplanters are often difficult to be operated. The research reported in this paper was carried out to overcome these difficulties which are experienced by the farmers while operating a six row manually operated paddy transplanter. This exercise was carried out by applying the steps of value engineering job plan. While carrying out this exercise, five ideas generated by a team of experts were implemented in practice. According to one of these ideas, a four row manually operated paddy transplanter was developed from six row manually operated paddy transplanter. Though there is insignificant increase in the manufacturing cost, the developed four row manually operated paddy transplanter was found to be easier to operate than to operate the six row manually operated paddy transplanter.
    Keywords: Value engineering job plan; paddy transplanter; FAST diagram; brainstorming; idea generation.

  • Prioritization of Leader Roles in Several Phases of Innovation Process to Enhance Productivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Mojtaba Kiaei, Amir Hassan Zarei Rahro, Mona Shirkhorshidi 
    Abstract: The present research aims to prioritize leader roles in several phases of the innovation process in order to enhance productivity. For this purpose, leader roles in the innovation process were investigated from different authors viewpoints and five roles were finally extracted. According to the results obtained from the analysis of the questionnaires, in the front end phase of innovation process, the roles are ranked based on their importance as follows: technical expert, planner, communicator, team builder and champion. In the development phase, the results are: technical expert, planner, team builder, communicator, and champion, respectively. Furthermore, several activities of the front end and the development phase in the New Product Development (NPD) process were ranked based on their importance. Opportunity identification, idea generation and customer need assessment in the front end phase and development and design and production engineering, in the development phase determined as most important activities.
    Keywords: Productivity; leadership; innovation process; front end phase of innovation; development phase of innovation; new product development; technical expert; planner; team builder; communicator; champion.

  • A probabilistic model for predicting Service Level Adherence of Application Support projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Srijith Sreenivasan, Manimaran Sundaram 
    Abstract: Application support projects are those which maintain the operations of software in production environment. Service Level Adherence is a key outcome metric which monitors the contractual compliance of these projects with customers. This paper discusses an approach to develop a prediction model using process factors impacting service level adherence. These factors are derived from the processes and sub-processes having a logical relationship with the outcome. A total of 23 factors were considered initially for modelling, of which 6 were found to be statistically significant. The model, developed using regression and Monte Carlo simulation, is validated in an actual industrial project to ensure its accuracy. The model can be used in application support projects to arrive at timely decisions for suitable mid-course corrections to control service level adherence.
    Keywords: application support; software maintenance; service level adherence; prediction model; regression analysis; monte carlo simulation; model validation.

    by Jugraj Singh Randhawa, Inderpreet Singh Ahuja 
    Abstract: Customised demands having low cost, good quality of products and services in time are the major issues of the global competitive markets. Every organization resolves these issues by the implementation of different quality improvement tools effectively in order to stay competitive in the market. The literature revels that 5S implementation is most effective tool for the organization in order to resolves these issues and enhances the business performance parameters. Though 5S is a simple technique to learn, but the sustainability and success of implementation in organization needs a number of factors to be considered which later on become a Multi Criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. To resolve the MCDM problems, there are different MCDM analytical tools suggested by the literature to find the effective solution of the problem. This research paper deploys the Fuzzy Inference System (Fuzzy logic toolbox) to evaluate the success of 5S implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations on the basis of three critical elements, namely Top management to bottom level employee involvement (TM-BLEI), Basic 5S issues (BFSI) and Fifth S issues (FSI) deployed in the study. The results of fuzzy rule viewer and surface view tool of fuzzy tool box in MATLAB have highlighted that top to bottom management involvement; basic 5S Issues and fifth S (SHITSUKE) elements have emerged as significant predictor variables for the high Success of 5S implementation program in Indian industries.
    Keywords: 5S; 5S implementation; Manufacturing organization; Multi Criteria Decision Making; Fuzzy Simulation; Fuzzy Inference System(FIS); Business Performance Parameters.

  • Behavior of productivity indicators and financial resources in the field of extraction and exploitation of minerals in Colombia.   Order a copy of this article
    by Jose Morelos, Tomas Fontalvo, Efrian De La Hoz 
    Abstract: This research presents the results of the analysis of the behavior of productivity indicators and financial resources in the extractive sector of minerals in Colombia. The method used allowed the calculation of the indicators of productivity and financial, to the 31 companies that projected its financial statements in the Information System and Business Risk (SIREM) for the years 2010 and 2013. Then we used the technique of multivariate analysis of data, to explain the membership and the existence of significant differences in the group of companies in the sector, which showed a decreasing behavior from one period to another of the indicators reason net income and value added (IP3) and reason and net working capi-tal (IP6), low productive capacity presented by the indicators of productivity (IP2) and (IP5), as a result of the deficiencies in sales (IE3) and low investment that will drive growth in the cluster.
    Keywords: Productivity; financial rates; minerals; discriminant analysis; energy; efficiency; perfor-mance; measure; value added and extraction.

  • A Quality Function Deployment-based Model for Coordinate Measuring Machine Selection   Order a copy of this article
    by Shankar Chakraborty, Kanika Prasad 
    Abstract: Advanced manufacturing technologies, machines and materials have transformed the manufacturing sector to be extremely vigorous in their approach. This transformation is being observed in all aspects of manufacturing, including quality control and assurance. Automated inspection devices are capable of ensuring better quality products, while improving productivity and minimizing the overall cost of manufacturing. Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is one such important automated inspection device used to determine coordinates of points on a workpiece surface using a movable probe. Selection of a suitable CMM for a manufacturing organization is a complex task as most of the available CMMs are designed to serve a wide array of inspection requirements. Inadequate decision making skills resulting from technical acumen of the staff or time constraints and conflicting business goals may further complicate the CMM selection process. Although, the selection of automated inspection devices has been addressed in fewer past studies, most of them have not considered voice of the customers in the decision making process. Hence, this paper proposes a quality function deployment-based model which correlates customers requirements with technical specifications of the available CMMs. Furthermore, in order to ease out the entire CMM selection procedure, a user friendly software prototype in Visual BASIC 6.0 is developed. Two illustrative examples are cited to demonstrate the applicability and robustness of this model.
    Keywords: QFD technique; Decision making; CMM selection; Rank.

  • Application of Taguchi and RSM Techniques for Optimizing the Parameters of Pressure Die Casting Process   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Most of the automotive and allied components in todays world are produced by metal casting processes. However, the casting process industries suffer from poor quality of castings due to involvement of large number of process parameters. The primary intent of this paper is to enhance the quality of aluminium die casting products using optimization techniques such as Taguchi and Response surface methodology.In this study, some of the factors that have reasonable influence on blow holes defect are identified. Each factor is considered with three levels and Taguchi technique is employed. Analysis of Variance table is generated to determine the statistical significance of the parameters. Response graphs are plotted to determine the preferred level for each parameter. By using the Minitab soft tool, Response surface methodology is carried out. The regression model, surface and contour plots are developed to identify the most contributing process parameter. Among the selected process parameters, the degassing frequency is noted as greatest influencing factor up to 47% on response, next influencing factor as metal temperature with 45% contribution on response.The highest level of metal temperature and lowest level of degassing frequency are found as optimum level to decrease the blowhole defect.
    Keywords: Automotive; Metal Casting; Poor Quality; Process Parameters; Aluminium Die Casting; Taguchi; Response Surface Methodology; Pareto Analysis; Ishikawa Diagram; Orthogonal Array; Analysis of Variance.

  • Service Providers Rationalization for the Performance Improvement of the Organization: a Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhaskar Gardas, Rakesh Raut, Annasaheb H. Jagtap, Pradeep Yadav 
    Abstract: In the highly competitive environment organizations want to select an experienced service provider (SP) for improving their supply chains performance. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the selection criteria identified through literature review and expert opinions, peculiar to the oilfield services for the selection of (surface equipment) service providers in the Indian context by employing an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach. The results of the study revealed that cost and preventive maintenance measures are the top two significant criteria, and the service provider 1 is the best amongst fifteen shortlisted SPs. The developed hierarchical model is intended to guide the decision and policy makers in understanding the evaluation process, and for formulating the strategies & policies for the same.
    Keywords: Service providers’ rationalization; performance improvement; evaluation; selection; AHP; oilfield services.

  • Prioritizing Post Sales Service Quality Items in Light Commercial Vehicles using TOPSIS Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Santosh Kumar Yadav 
    Abstract: Post sales service quality is the most essential viewpoint to measure customer satisfaction in light commercial vehicles. A post sales service is required after the sales of a vehicle. Customer satisfaction checks whether after getting services, customers feel happy or not. This research paper attempts to identify post sales service quality items that lead to customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. A Questionnaire was developed about post sales service quality in which the customer was asked to rate the importance of these items. The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method was applied to rank the post sales service quality items based on their importance in light commercial vehicles. From the results, it is found that the having a consistent standard for accepting and returning vehicles for service and promptness of service were the two most important post sales service quality items. The accessibility to the service station and the availability of advanced facilities in the service station were also found to be of significant importance. Service station managers may give these items priority in order to increase post sales service quality.
    Keywords: Post Sales Service Quality; Light Commercial Vehicle; TOPSIS.

  • Business Research Productivity and Barriers   Order a copy of this article
    by Omar Khalil 
    Abstract: Knowing why some faculty members are more scholarly productive than others and what factors influence research productivity in an institution is essential to guiding research productivity improvement efforts. This study explored the research productivity and perceived research barriers to conducting research by the Business faculty members at Kuwait University (KU) as well as the influence of their individual characteristics on the reported productivity and barriers. The reported Business research productivity tends to be low. Barriers related to research efficacy, physical and information resources, fiscal resources, and time reportedly challenge research productivity. However, the individual characteristics of gender, age, nationality, academic rank, experience at HE, time spent on research, and time spent on teaching variably influence the reported research productivity and perceived research barriers. These findings as well as their implications and limitations are further discussed in the paper.
    Keywords: Business Research; Productivity; Barriers; Individual Characteristics; Kuwait University (KU).

  • Evaluating the Efficiency of the Commercial Banks Admired in Fortune 500 List; Using Data Envelopment Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Saljoughian, Hadi Shirouyehzad, Elaheh Khajeh, Reza Dabestani 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach for identifying the relatively most efficient Banks in Future 500 list. The second purpose of this paper is to suggest benchmarks for the banks that were not considered efficient. In this paper, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to discriminate efficient banks from the inefficient ones. To do so, each bank was considered as a decision Making Unit (DMU). Then, experts assigned inputs and outputs to the model. They suggested Assets as the input and Revenue, Profit, and Total Stockholders Equity as the output. Having discriminated the DMUs, we ranked them and ran a sensitivity analysis on the data. Necessary data were acquired from the Fortune 500 list. The results, findings, implications, and suggestions are presented in the paper. DEA results can serve as a benchmark for the inefficient DMUs. That is, each inefficient bank can find its benchmark and set proper policies to achieve the efficiency with least wastage of budget and time.
    Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Efficiency; Commercial Banks; Ranking; Sensitivity Analysis.

  • Monitoring of an Ingot making facility via Principal Component Analysis and its variants   Order a copy of this article
    by Swarnambuj Suman, Anupam Das 
    Abstract: The ingots are a key intermediate product manufactured in the steel making industries. The article delves into the monitoring of the ingot manufacturing facility by making use of the multivariate process monitoring techniques. In order to deal with the various scenarios arising during the production of ingots, different variants viz multi-block principal component analysis and multiway principal component analysis are also employed to monitor the process and feed stock characteristics. A comparative analysis of the merits and demerits of the employed variants is also presented in the article based on the case study. On the basis of the findings it may be concluded that the decision regarding the methodology to be adopted depends upon a trade-off between the scope of application of the methodology and the ease of development.
    Keywords: Ingot manufacturing; Steel Manufacturing Facility; Principal Component analysis; Multi-Block PCA; Multiway PCA. Statistical Process Monitoring.

  • An empirical investigation of the relationship between TQM practices, quality performance, and customer satisfaction level.   Order a copy of this article
    by A.N.U. P ANIL, SATISH K P 
    Abstract: Although much has been written about TQM, little attention has been paid to determine the effect of TQM practices on organizations performance measures, particularly in Indian manufacturing context. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the significant impact of TQM practices on quality performance and customer satisfaction level of an organization through an empirical approach. This paper also extends the research on exploring the mediating effect of quality performance on the relationship between TQM practices and customer satisfaction level. The empirical data was collected from a survey of 260 manufacturing organizations in India using a self-administrated questionnaire. After confirming the reliability and validity of latent variables with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling technique. The findings support the proposed hypotheses that there is a positive and significant relationship between TQM practices and quality performance as well as customer satisfaction level simultaneously. The results of the study also support the hypothesis that quality performance partially mediates the relationship between TQM practices and customer satisfaction level.
    Keywords: Total quality management; Quality performance; Customer satisfaction level; Structural equation modeling.

  • A Study of Correlation for Reverse Logistics Barriers to Solutions Using Structural Equation Modeling   Order a copy of this article
    by Pornwasin Sirisawat, Tossapol Kiatcharoenpol 
    Abstract: Reverse logistics (RL) plays an important role in many industries especially in the electronics industry and helps sustainability businesses while also reducing environmental impacts from various business processes. The electronics industry is one of the most rapidly growth industries in Thailand. It plays an important role in the countrys economy. Many companies adopted RL for their business process but still enforce some barriers that make it unsuccessful. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relationship of RL barriers and solutions then examines the relationship between these factors. A conceptual model was developed by proposing four hypotheses in which structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the proposed model. For data collection, 417 questionnaires were distributed to Thai electronics companies from which 67 questionnaires were included in the final sample with a 16.07 % response rate. The main results of this study presented that there are statistics significant of the proposed hypothesis which can be explained such that RL barriers have a directly negative relationship with overall solutions for reverse logistics practices. And RL barriers have also indirect negative relationships to the group of management & organization solutions, the group of technology and collaboration solutions and the group of legal and infrastructural solutions. In conclusion, the proposed model could fit with the empirical data by using SEM. The proposed results could reconfirm that there are statistics significant of the relationship between RL barriers and solutions of RL practices implementation in Thailand electronics industry. Hence, the results of the proposed model provide valuable information for decision makers and top management to create policy and strategy by choosing an appropriate solution to overcome RL barriers implementation and increase competitive strength of their companies. Furthermore, it could be a guideline for additional by both researchers and practitioners in the electronics industry and other related industries.
    Keywords: structural equation modeling; correlation; reverse logistics; electronics industry.

  • Evaluation of HealthCare Service Quality Management in an Iranian Hospital by using Fuzzy Logi   Order a copy of this article
    by Farzad Firouzi Jahantigh 
    Abstract: Service quality Management is a requirement for survival and development of organizations inrntoday's competitive environment. Good service quality can lead to customer satisfaction andrnloyalty which any organization needs to be successful. Measuring service quality is complicatedrnand developing suitable instruments for this purpose is essential for active healthcare planners.rnThus, the present study is aimed to introduce a framework to determine the service quality gaprnbetween expectations and perceptions of customers in healthcare, using Fuzzy logic ThernWilcoxon Mann-Whitney fuzzy test was utilized to measure the main outcome of the studyrnwhich was the service quality gap between expectations and perceptions of customers inrnhealthcare. This gap was measured with the SERVQUAL instrument. Considering the aboverncases, it is necessary to provide a simple model based on fuzzy logic for dealing withrnuncertainties. It is important to note that studies conducted in foreign and domestic articlesrnhavent focused on assessing the quality of medical care services with a fuzzy approach. In thisrnregard, according to the research objectives, the hypotheses of the study were tested .In thisrnstudy, fuzzy linguistic analysis is introduced into the gap theory and SERVQUAL assessmentsrnthat makes possible more internal consistency and shown Wilcoxon test hypotheses that only inrnthe tangible dimension, the hospital was able to meet patients 'expectations and their officialsrnshould put much more effort to improve service quality in other dimensions such as empathy,rnresponsiveness, security and safety .The proposed framework enables hospital managers tornunderstand how patients evaluate the quality of healthcare provided in respect of everyrndimension. Utilizing this framework, the hospitals can discover the crucial service qualityrnattributes and make a value to improve or enhance.rn
    Keywords: Healthcare system; Fuzzy logic; Evaluation; Quality Management of health care.

  • Evaluating the Factors Considered for Procurement of Raw Material in Food Supply Chain using Delphi-AHP Methodology- A Case Study of Potato Chips Processing Company in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Sachin Kamble, Rakesh Raut 
    Abstract: Procurement of raw material plays a very critical role in a supply chain. In the era where, the organizations are searching for cost saving innovative ideas due to the increasing cost pressures procurement function provides an opportunity to these organizations to remain competitive. Procurement of raw materials in a food supply chain has to face the problems like shortage of raw material, quality, lack of continuous supply of seasonal raw material, inadequate trained labor force, costly imported packing material, infrastructure and technological deficiencies. This demands that the food industry need to manage the risk/cost trade-off without disregarding freshness, sustainability and corporate social responsibility issues. This paper presents a case study of a food processing plant in India manufacturing potato chips, with potato as the main raw material. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the important criteria that are considered while procuring the raw material in a food supply chain. Delphi technique and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) were used for exploring and ranking the criteria. Quality of the raw material, supplying capacity of the supplier-quantity and price were identified as the most important purchasing criteria.
    Keywords: Procurement of raw material; Analytical Hierarchical Process; Supplier; Supply Chain Management; Delphi Technique.

  • Reducing Variation in Tensile Impact Testing of Plastics   Order a copy of this article
    by Hari Prasad, Narayana Rao, Prasanta Prasanta Mukhopadhyay 
    Abstract: Polymeric materials are characterised using various analytical techniques, the interest in this work emanates from mechanical testing, more specifically tensile impact studies. Tensile impact properties has been a critical factor in evaluating polymeric material brittleness or ductility changes (ASTM D1822/ ISO 8256). High variation of this test leads to difficulty in formulation optimization efforts during material development targeted for applications demanding mechanical designs and integrity. The objective of this study is to understand the different factors affecting the variation in the test results. A systematic statistical analysis to increase robustness of the testing instrument design was undertaken. This study of multiple samples showed that specimen alignment issue in the test fixture was a major source of error. Modification to the test fixture were carried out to address this issue. Statistical treatment to the data was done using a variety of analysis methods, namely, defect per million opportunities (DPMO), Z-score around process capability, homogeneity of variance (HOV), 2-sample T-test. HOV analysis indicated that the spread was significantly reduced and 2-sample t test indicated that the sample mean was not shifted post machine modification. Product benchmark report estimated process capability increase in the Z value from 0.843 to 2.192, post-instrument modification. This was reflected as improved sigma capability of the process, with reduction in DPMO from 7,44,444 to 2,44,444 (67% improvement in process capability).
    Keywords: Variation,Statistical Process Control (SPC); Risk Priority Number (RPN); Failure Mode Effective Analysis (FMEA); Standard deviation; Homogeneity of Variance etc.

  • Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) measurement of TPM manager model machines in flexible manufacturing environment: A case study of automobile sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Sharma 
    Abstract: Total productive maintenance (TPM) has provided a quantitative metric tool which is known as overall equipment effectiveness (OEE). OEE provides an efficient and effective way of measuring and analyzing the efficiency of a single machine cell or an integrated manufacturing system. The objective of this paper is to highlight the OEE measurement in flexible manufacturing system of selected automobile manufacturing plant by enhancing the equipment and plant reliability by eliminating all the losses incurred. In this study, a methodology is presented for analysis of OEE of TPM manager model machines in a selected semi-automated cell. In this paper, an approach is developed to identify and address the losses and failures which are responsible for lowering the OEE. The results have shown that there was a significant improvement in OEE measurement of TPM manager model machines in a semi-automated cell of selected automobile plant by addressing the six big losses. The findings of the research determine a significant contribution due to OEE measurement and assessment of losses and therefore were quite useful for the organization to initiate TPM improvement activities to enhance the overall plant efficiency.
    Keywords: Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE); Total productive maintenance (TPM); six big losses; Efficiency; Availability; Autonomous maintenance; flexible manufacturing environment.

  • The effect of combining knowledge-based practices and healthcare policies on healthcare quality   Order a copy of this article
    by Milad Kolagar, Seyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini 
    Abstract: Purpose: Nowadays, quality promotion of health care services has become one of the most important and challenging goals of health care systems all over the world. Health care quality, due to the specific characteristics of this field, always has a sensitivity and high priority. Accordingly, this research aimed to determine the effect of combining knowledge-based practices and health care policies on health care quality in three training hospitals of Tehran, Iran. Design: In this study, a model has been proposed for health care quality improvement. In the proposed model, the relationship between knowledge-based practices, which contains knowledge and organizational learning, and health care policies, which contains patient safety culture and clinical governance, has been investigated and the interactions between these variables and their impact on the healthcare quality, have been examined. Findings: The results and findings of the research have confirmed all of the hypotheses which means the t-value on each path is higher than 2.58 at a significance level of 0.01 in a bootstrapping process. This means that the proposed framework could help the healthcare organizations to promote their service quality in order to have healthier people, healthier families, healthier lifestyles and healthier world. Originality: One of the most important factors affecting the orientation and implementation of health care policies in any country, is managing and controlling knowledge and learning of healthcare systems. Given the specificity of the model presented in this study and by using it, the effect of combining knowledge-based practices with health care policies on promotion and improvement of health care policies in Tehran hospitals is being investigated. The novelty of this research lies in the inclusion of knowledge-based practices (knowledge and organizational learning) while implemented on patient safety culture as a basis for the dominance of hospitals clinical governance in order to improve the quality of healthcare services.
    Keywords: patient safety culture; knowledge ; organizational learning; clinical governance; healthcare quality.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2019.10010839
  • Using System Dynamics to better understand quality management in the construction industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Anna Hulda Olafsdottir, Harald Sverdrup, Gunnar Stefansson, Helgi Ingason 
    Abstract: System dynamics was applied to evaluate the use of quality management in the construction industry. Results were reached with the following: 1) a background study, 2) group model building, 3) a case study of a construction project 4) a simulation model. The main objective of the study is to assist in minimizing the total quality cost for a construction project with the holistic approach system dynamics offer. The model offers a unique contribution to the possibility to be adapted to other projects. It can then be used to minimize cost with suggested dynamic policies. To the best of the authors knowledge, the current study is the first to offer a system dynamics approach to evaluate the cost of quality in a construction project. The results give a link to the literature with a comparison between simulation outputs and Jurans (1988) graphical representation of the total cost of quality.
    Keywords: System Dynamics; Construction Industry; Case Study; Quality Management; Project Management.

  • Assessing the challenging factors towards green initiatives in Indian Electronic industries: A framework and evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    by Kaliyan Mathiyazhagan, Shivani Sehrawat, Bhumika Sharma, K. Elangovan 
    Abstract: Globally industries are under pressure to incorporate environmental consideration in traditional activities based on demand from customers and government regulations. But industries are facing a lot of problems in analyzing and identifying the influential challenging factors for adopting eco-friendly and green practices in traditional activities. This paper reviews the scenario of green supply chain management (GSCM) in India as well electronics industry perspective based on extensive literature review. Also, this study focuses on identifying the most influential challenging factors for adoption of green in traditional practices with the help of decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) approach. A total of 35 challenging factors was identified based on literature and discussion with industry experts. Than considered 20 challenging factors for further analysis. This study involved 30 electronics SMEs in and around the Delhi - National Capital Region (NCR) of India and more than 15 academicians were also consulted.
    Keywords: Green initiatives; GSCM; Electronics industries; Challenging factors; DEMATEL.

    by Inderpreet Singh Ahuja, Harwinder Singh 
    Abstract: In the contemporary scenario, manufacturing environment and changing customer demands call for quality of products and services. This product quality and attributes increasingly depends upon the organizations competencies regarding infrastructural adequacies and abilities of organization to manage its equipment and facilitate in proper manner. The present study involves investigation of 5S implementation in Indian manufacturing industries. A questionnaire survey has been conducted to evaluate the contribution of 5S in Indian manufacturing industries. The analysis have been conducted on forty-one manufacturing industries. This study develops an understanding of contribution of 5S initiatives toward accruing manufacturing performance enhancements in Indian manufacturing industries. This study reveals that the overall organization achievements are interconnected with achieving the results through 2S and quality improvements have strong linkage with adoption of 5S initiatives. The study highlights that various 5S implementation issues and achievements are closely related with each other.
    Keywords: 5S implementation; Lean Manufacturing; Manufacturing Industry; Manufacturing Performance Achievements.

  • Selection of material for Electric Arc Spraying using hierarchical Entropy-TOPSIS approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Rakesh Kumar Phanden, Rahul Sindhwani, Faizan Iqbal, Vivek Kalsariya 
    Abstract: Electric Arc Spray (EAS) is a process used to solidify the molten metal on the substrate surface. The desired material is first melted due to current and voltage applied to the ends of two electrically conductive metal wires and then propelled on the desired surface. The present work suggests possible material alternatives that could enhance the properties of the EAS process. Entropy approach is used to give the weightage to the factors on which materials will be prioritized. TOPSIS method is applied to determine the ranking of each of the material which could happen to be a best feasible alternative. It is found that Tin, Zirconium and Titanium are top ranked best feasible metals while as Cadmium and Calcium are the least priority. Thus, the results yield a platform to choose the best possible material as an alternative. The future scope of the work lies in the fact that an ideal solution as an alternative would help in increasing the quality of the capacitors besides saving the cost. The motive of every manufacturer is to achieve the right quality at the right price which is met by using these alternate materials during manufacturing.
    Keywords: Electric Arc Spray; Entropy method; TOPSIS method; alternative material.

  • Measuring productivity in multi-stage, multi-product environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Shlomo Globerson, Gad Vitner 
    Abstract: Productivity is defined as the ratio of output to the resources required to produce it. The objective of this study is to present a model aimed at measuring the productivity of producing different products, each consisting of a few work stations, in a service and manufacturing environment. Since organizational profit, or other financial indicators used for evaluating organizational success, cannot be measured at the time of the operation, the presented model can be used as a fast and valid indicator of expected future profit. Calculating productivity requires measuring both output and resources. This study focuses on the measurement of the outputs and offers methodologies to quantify the following two concepts: 1.Calculating total output for each product, taking into consideration the value of items in process by summing up partial items into an equivalent number of complete items. 2.Developing a method to sum up the outputs of various products by assigning the relative weight of each product, according to the level of usage of the most intensively used resource.
    Keywords: productivity; performance management; multi-stage; multi-product.

  • Cost and benefit analysis of Implementing TFMEA in Tea Industry: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Angeline Geetha.M, Suresh Premil Kumar.R, S.R. Devadasan, A. Pal Pandi 
    Abstract: Tea is an aromatic drink commonly consumed by the people worldwide. Tea manufacturers face a serious threat in controlling the failures in its manufacturing process. Failures in the manufacturing process affect the quality of the tea produced. The cost of the tea varies with the quality of the tea. The tea manufacturers are more concerned about the internal failure cost incurred in its manufacturing process as it determines the cost and quality of the tea. In this background a new approach namely Cost based Total Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (CTFMEA) was applied in the research reported in this paper. In this research, a maiden attempt is made to implement this new approach by conducting a case study in tea manufacturing company. After implementing TFMEA technique its cost benefit analysis was conducted. The outcome of this research indicated that through the application of CTFMEA, the quality of the tea could be improved by reducing the failures thereby assuring cost benefits to the tea manufacturers.
    Keywords: Tea manufacturing; Internal failure cost; Continuous quality improvement; TQM; FTA; FMEA; CTFMEA; Cost benefits.

    by Gnanasekaran Sakthivel, Bernard W. Ikua 
    Abstract: The present study develops the evaluation model based on FMEA and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with GRA (Gray Relational Analysis) - VIKOR (Vlse Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) under fuzzy environment to evaluate the greatest risk for processes in the production of dust cap assembly in the propeller shaft manufacturing industry. Three risk factors S, O, D and their weights are treated as fuzzy triangular linguistic variables to eliminate the risk for production. FAHP is used to compute the weights of Severity (S), Occurrence (O) and Detection (D), whereas GRA-VIKOR is used to obtain the final ranking of a risk alternative. Here, the risk factors and their weights are treated as fuzzy triangular linguistic variables for eliminating the risk of subjective quantification and similarity of Risk Priority Number (RPN). The ranking of the failures depends upon the VIKOR index of nine failures. The ranking order of nine failure modes based on VIKOR index is F2 (Drawing dimension failure)-0.210 < F1(Blanking of blank failure)-0.5< F4(Window cutting failure)-0.504 < F7(Packing- short excess quantity)-0.786 < F6(Final Inspection of dimension failure )-0.795 < F8(Packing -damage in pack)-0.822 < F3(Hole size failure)-0.965 < F9(Dispatch failure)-0.97< F5(Plating failure)-1. Drawing dimension failure (F2) and Blanking of blank failure (F1) is obtained as the most serious failure mode using Fuzzy GRA VIKOR.
    Keywords: Risk assessment; FMEA; FAHP; GRA VIKOR.

    by Leonardo Sfreddo, Guilherme B.B. Vieira, Gabriel Vidor, Roque Zin 
    Abstract: This paper presents a systematic literature review of ISO 9001 and process management from 1990 to 2015. In order to investigate the studies published in English on these topics, the keywords ISO 9001 and process management were searched in Science Direct database. These terms should be mentioned in papers title, abstract or keywords as an inclusion criterion. Studies which were redundant due to search criterion or which were published in a language other than English were excluded. Three rounds of analysis were conducted, including quantitative analysis of search results, bibliometric analyses, qualitative analysis, and in-depth reading of the selected studies. By carrying out the review, it was possible to identify an opportunity to deepen the studies that correlate ISO 9001 and process management, which is justified by the small number of papers published with this specific approach. In addition, the papers which were analyzed in this systematic review did not address some important aspects in the relationship between ISO 9001 and process management, such as evidence of improved operational efficiency of processes, and cultural changes noticed in organizations after the implementation of ISO 9001.
    Keywords: ISO 9001; Process Management; systematic literature review.

  • The relationship between human resource management practices and manufacturing flexibility: Empirical evidence from manufacturing companies in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Anh Nguyen, Dinh Phuong Trieu, Chi Anh Phan, Yoshiki MATSUI 
    Abstract: Manufacturing flexibility has been widely considered as an aid to greater productivity, meanwhile, multi-functional employees has been viewed as a great potential source of productivity improvement by avoiding bottlenecks. This study aims to investigate the relationship between human resource management practices and manufacturing flexibility in Vietnamese manufacturing companies. Data were collected from 25 Vietnamese companies belonging to three industries: electronics/electrical, machinery and automobile in 2014. Correlation and regression analyses are applied to explore the relationships among research variables. The results indicate not only a significant linkage between multi-functional employees and manufacturing flexibility but also a positive relationship between management breadth of experience, task-related training for employees and multi-functional employees. The paper enriches the literature of manufacturing flexibility by providing empirical evidence from developing countries, and by providing insights into how Vietnamese manufacturers use internal resources, i.e. human resources, to achieve a higher level of manufacturing flexibility.
    Keywords: manufacturing flexibility; human resource management; competitive performance; empirical study; Vietnamese manufacturing companies.

  • Association of interacting Quality Initiatives and Quality Awards with performance; the effect of context   Order a copy of this article
    by GURURAJ UPADHYAYA, Subrahmanya Bhat. K 
    Abstract: Even though Quality Initiatives (QI) and Quality Award (QA) models have found a significant place in continuous improvement (CI) journey of organizations, a great concern has been shown in the recent past on their indifferent performance implications, given the resources that they consume. This paper discusses the effect of contextual attributes such as size, type and sector of organization on the correlation between interacting QI/ QA models and performance during different time spans of CI journey. The results of the study show that such a correlation existed between some performance measures (PM) and interacting QI/QA models only in case of large scale and public sector Indian organizations during the time spans before winning the QA.
    Keywords: Quality Initiatives; Quality Awards; Mutual Influence; Correlation; Performance.

  • Using fuzzy-based association rule mining to improve production systems for chemical product development   Order a copy of this article
    by C.K.H. Lee, C.C. Luk, K.L. Choy, H.Y. Lam, C.K.M. Lee, Y.P. Tsang, G.T.S. Ho 
    Abstract: In chemical product development, challenges lie in the determination of appropriate ingredients and parameter settings that leads to the desired product attributes. This relies heavily on the past knowledge and experience of the domain experts to generate feasible product candidates for verification. In this paper, a fuzzy-based association rule mining model (FbARM) is developed to provide knowledge support for the determination of the parameters to be used during chemical product development. Fuzzy-based association rule mining is applied to discover the relationship between parameters and the product quality, followed by the use of fuzzy logic to generate recommendations on parameter settings. The feasibility of the FbARM is verified by means of a case study in a personal care products manufacturing company. The results demonstrate the practical viability of the FbARM to improve chemical product development. The FbARM can discover hidden relationships between the parameters and the resultant product quality, and retain relevant knowledge for chemical product development within the company. In addition, the learning ability of the FbARM allows a continuous improvement of the fuzzy rules, which is of paramount importance in responding to the changing requirements of the chemical industry.
    Keywords: Knowledge management; Product development; Chemical products; Fuzzy association rule mining; Fuzzy logic.

  • Analyzing the Performance of Lean Manufacturing Implementation with Chronological Execution of Lean Elements using Spread Sheet features: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Sundar R, A.N. Balaji, Satheeshkumar R.M 
    Abstract: Globalization influences the manufacturing sector to practice the best manufacturing system to sustain in competing business environment. The outcome of this article elucidate the effect of transition from traditional manufacturing practice to lean manufacturing system in a paint brush company located in South India. The existing practice utilizes push system where the large batches of raw material are routed from one operation to another along a production line. In this case study, a lean manufacturing system along with sequential implementation of lean elements such as Value stream mapping, Group technology, Cellular manufacturing, U-line manufacturing, etc., is premeditated for reducing the cycle time to relax the Takt Time and stabilizing the production process. The implemented lean manufacturing system increases the productivity, reduces work-in-process and lead time. The performance measure of lean system such as bottleneck cycle time, production capacity, lead time and work-in-process inventory are evaluated by instant part transfer rate through spread sheet model.
    Keywords: Value stream mapping; Group technology; Cellular manufacturing; U-line manufacturing; Push system; Pull system.

  • Study of 5S Lean Technique: - A Review Paper   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhavesh Chandrayan, Ankit Kumar Solanki, Richa Sharma 
    Abstract: 5S is a housekeeping technique used by various organization derived from Five Japanese words Seiri (Sort), Seiton (Set in Order), Seiso (Shine), (Seiketsu (Standardize) and Shitsuke (Sustain). This technique improves efficiency, productivity and quality by making the workplace orderly, pleasant and organized. The objective of the paper is to examine the 5S implementation process across all the different manufacturing scenarios and to emphasize the significant positive results of 5S. The paper is based on systematic literature review that monitors the 5S implementation technique in various organizations and categorizes the published literature in three distinguished categories based on conciseness and systematic approach to analyse and review the methodology. The paper reviews preponderance of the findings by numerous researchers and highlights the suggestions and improvisations for ensuring efficient and effective 5S implementation in any organization. The results exhibit the effectiveness of the 5S tool to improve the performance and to uplift the organization to achieve continuous improvement and higher performance.
    Keywords: 5S; Productivity; Lean Manufacturing; Housekeeping; Waste Elimination; Literature Review; Japanese Tool; Productivity; Quality Management.

  • Developing a Model for Classifying Employee Behavior based on Job Satisfaction and Loyalty Using Gap Analysis and Loyalty Matrix - With a Case Study in the Gas Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Afshin Jahanbazi Goujani, Arash Shahin, Ali Nasr Isfahani, Ali Safari 
    Abstract: The main aim of this study is to identify the dimensions of employee job satisfaction and loyalty and to classify employees based on these two factors using the concepts and approaches of customer satisfaction and loyalty. For this purpose, a mixed research method has been conducted by which, the senior managers of Isfahan Province Gas Company have been interviewed and a thematic analysis has been performed. A questionnaire has been developed and used for data collection. Quantitative analysis has been done and research hypotheses have been tested using SPSS 21 software. Findings imply that the gap between expectations and perceptions regarding job satisfaction dimensions is significant and the level of job satisfaction is lower than the average. Moreover, given the high level of employee loyalty, it is determined that most of the employees are classified in the hostage category.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction; Employee loyalty; Gap analysis; Loyalty matrix; Isfahan Province Gas Company.

    by Sean Goffnett 
    Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) have gained attention in business in recent years. Drones have demonstrated potential use in logistics operations, such as surveillance, inventory counting, order picking, and last-mile delivery. Given the proliferation in potential uses of drones, it is no surprise companies are testing drone capabilities. This article presents a theoretical business case describing the Six Sigma DMAIC model applied in a logistics context involving drone capacity and reliability. Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control are presented. This article builds on earlier studies on structuring Six Sigma projects. This service-related business case can be used for training and education purposes.
    Keywords: Distribution; Drone; DMAIC; DOE; e-commerce; FMEA; fulfillment; gage R & R; logistics; repeatability; reproducibility; Six Sigma; unmanned aerial vehicle; warehousing.

  • Evaluation of forming parameters affecting the grooving process for automotive connecting rod: an experimental and statistical approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Harshal Chavan, Vijay Wani 
    Abstract: Forming industries are trying to reduce the cost of product without affecting its quality by minimizing the defects to get-up the globalization, competition and increase demand in the manufacturing domain. Present investigation is focused on identifying and minimising the various defects occur in the grooving operation for connecting rod used to connect recliners of automobile seat. The cumulative approach of Pareto, AHP and Taguchi analysis has been applied to overcome the defects and to improve the productivity. Pareto analysis is used to find out the major intensity of defects, AHP techniques is applied for selection of most appropriate operational parameters. Finally, Taguchi analysis is carried out for optimisation of process parameters and selection of the best range of each parameter. From ANOVA the optimised value of each process parameter for minimization of defects are evaluated and validated by conducting experiments in the industrial unit and found huge reduction in the percent rejection of component.
    Keywords: Metal forming; defects; quality; Pareto analysis; AHP; DOE; ANOVA; forming parameters; optimisation; productivity improvement.

  • Identification of Critical Success Factors for Implementation of MIS in Project-Based Organizations and Classification Using Kano Model   Order a copy of this article
    by Marzieh Barkhordar, Hadi Shirouyehzad 
    Abstract: The problem is that, in spite of the effective role of Management Information Systems (MIS) in improving decision-making and increasing the productivity of organizations, the implementation of these systems are faced challenges. This problem is especially susceptible to project-based organizations due to their nature and uncertainty. In addition, a number of critical success factors in implementing these systems require a good way to categorize. Therefore, due to the gap in previous researches and as an innovation in this research, the Kano method was used. So, firstly, the success factors of the implementation of information systems were collected using records and then they were analyzed through questionnaires and by academic experts. Then these factors were filtered using Binomial test and the final critical factors were classified using the Kano method. The results show that these critical factors can be included in the first priority, including the fundamental features, the most important of which are "the support of senior management and organizations before and after implementation," and the "users participation in all phases of feasibility and implementation" and then the One-dimensional or functional factors are secondary. According to the definition of Kano, it can be said that the success of the MIS implementation in the project-based organizations is realized when the basic characteristics of the first category are met, the functional characteristics are increased and, as far as possible, attractive features can be achieved.
    Keywords: critical success factors; management information system; project-based organizations; Kano’s model.

  • Methodology with multivariate calculation to define and evaluate financial productivity profiles of the chemical sector in Colombia   Order a copy of this article
    by Jose Morelos, Tomas Fontalvo, Efrain De La Hoz 
    Abstract: This research presents a methodology to evaluate the financial productivity profiles of the companies in the chemical sector in Colombia. A rational empirical analysis was carried out, supported by the information of 320 companies in the sector reported in the governmental entity SIREM, Business Reporting Information System. The theoretical foundation was based on the theories of multivariate calculus associated with cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. Also the theories associated with financial productivity indicators were used. This research contributed with a methodology to define and evaluate financial productivity profiles of the chemical sector in Colombia. With the analysis of conglomerates, business profiles were defined, as well as the evaluation of the productive indicators of the companies object of this research. The discriminant analysis allowed analyzing the membership of the business productivity profiles with a 95.4% confidence.
    Keywords: Productivity; business profiles; Conglomerate Analysis; Discriminant Analysis.

  • Phase II monitoring of the nominal logistic regression profiles based on Wald and Rao score test statistics (A case study in health-care: Diabetic patients)   Order a copy of this article
    by Kasra Jahani, Hamidreza Feili, Fereydon Ohadi 
    Abstract: In many statistical process monitoring (SPM), quality of process or product describes by a relationship between one or more predictor variable(s) and a nominal response variable called nominal logistic regression profile (NLRP). In this paper, we develop two control charts including Wald and Rao score test (RST) to monitor NLRP in Phase II. In addition, to evaluate the parameter estimation effect on the control charts performance, maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is developed in Phase I. Performance of the proposed control charts are evaluated using some simulation studies and results show that Wald control chart has better performance than RST chart under different shifts in NLRP parameters. Furthermore, to show the efficiency of the proposed approaches in real application, a case study in health-care is applied. Real case results is also showed that Wald control chart has better performance in faster detecting the out-of-control condition.
    Keywords: Nominal logistic regression profile; control chart; Phase II; statistical process monitoring; health-care systems.

  • Modeling HSLA Steel Product Quality under Multi-Stage Manufacturing Set Up using Multi-Block Partial Least Square Regression   Order a copy of this article
    by Prasun Das, Susanta Kumar Gauri, Anupam Das, Debolina Chatterjee 
    Abstract: In order to have an understanding about the quality of steel product, involving multiple stages of manufacturing process, adequate assessment about the input-output relationship is necessary to ensure high-quality product. In this study, a high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel product quality, comprising of two stages of manufacturing, is modeled using partial least square regression (PLSR) and multi-block PLSR (MBPLSR) approaches. The alloy chemistry and rolling parameters are considered here as input variables along with strength and ductility of the finished steel as responses. Hotellings T2 statistic is used for diagnosis of faults in batches of heat along with developing fault detection system through significant input variables. Both the modeling approaches are found to be useful for this purpose. However, the MBPLSR-based modeling approach is preferable since it helps to locate the source of the problem quicker at appropriate stages of operation with the help of input variables.
    Keywords: multi-stage manufacturing; PLSR; MBPLSR; steel making; variable contribution; alloy chemistry; rolling parameters; strength; ductility; sensitivity.

  • Maintenance optimization through quality management: A case study in Alzinc Plant in Algeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Elias Fouad MAMI, Abdelmadjid CHEIKH, Mohammed KADI, Karim LABADI 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to apply the maintenance optimization through quality management for a real-life industrial plant in Algeria, Alzinc that have obtained various certifications (ISO 9001, ISO 14001) and is moving towards a new integrated management. The purpose consists of maintaining production activities without reducing the equipment efficiency as well as the quality of the products, the workers safety and the environment protection. In our study, maintenance optimization combines two innovative and strategic methods, taking into account the social and cultural local background. In this case, it becomes crucial to identify indigenous culture specificities that could be integrated to universal strategic methods and techniques. Thus, our methodology relies upon the combination between Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), using the four first pillars with the aim of achieving a maximal efficiency of the production system (axis n
    Keywords: Total Productive Maintenance; RCM; Optimization; OEE; Performance; Quality management; Sociocultural dimension; Industrial systemrn.

  • A framework model for lean tools selection for improving material flow using Fuzzy TOPSIS   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Muthu Baskaran, A.R. Lakshmanan 
    Abstract: Lean Manufacturing is a world class manufacturing paradigm applied by the manufacturers to achieve manufacturing goals to attract and retain their customers. Application of lean manufacturing lies in following the lean principles and lean tools selection. Lean implementation becomes a tedious process for the lean teams due to difficulty lies in selecting the lean tools. So, it is the need of the hour to develop a method which works well for the proper selection of lean tools based on its point of implementation. In this research work, lean tools are categorized with the help of a framework model for material flow. The developed framework model enlists place, man, machine, process and material as their factors which affect the material flow. The 25 lean tools were selected and ranked within its category under three criteria namely value creation, sustain flow and waste elimination. The three criteria follow the principles of lean manufacturing. Though ranking of lean tools was carried out by several researchers, the lean teams find it hard to implement them in the right places. So, the classified form of lean ranking shown in this research works well in lean tools selection. Among the various ranking tools, Fuzzy TOPSIS, a Multi-Criteria Decision Making method was employed to rank the lean tools individually within its category, with the help of experts opinion. This method would help the implementation team in applying lean tools according to their classification. The results of Sensitivity Analysis were found to be good.
    Keywords: Lean tools; Lean Criteria; Material flow; MCDM; Fuzzy logic; Fuzzy TOPSIS.

    by Muthukannan Rajkumar, John Martin 
    Abstract: Total quality tolerance (TQT) has been widely recognised as a strategic weapon for improving manufacturing performance. The evaluation of quality tolerance efficiency can assist factories in improving their operations across a variety of dimensions. Effective benchmark of high performance in tolerance design, dimension analysis, machinability and assemblability are identified for improving the quality tolerance in manufacturing units. In this paper, drive shaft assembly is considered which is adopted from literature and finding the overall quality tolerance through neuro-fuzzy flow diagram method for different level with minimum inputs are analysed in different fuzzification range values to get optimisation in overall quality tolerance. The characteristics of neuro-fuzzy, multi-stage evaluation and decision making in concurrent product design process are also analysed and a decision support system for tolerance design in concurrent engineering is presented.
    Keywords: Tolerance design; Dimension Analysis; Machinability; Assemblability and Weighted binary range method.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2019.10014999
  • Fuzzy multi-objective economic-statistical design of X-bar control chart   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Nowadays manufacturing organizations are aiming towards producing higher quality outputs at lower cost of production to keep stride with the competition. The control charts are the most popular and widely used statistical process control tools that can be used for monitoring the unevenness in quality characteristics of a production process. The economic-statistical design of control chart selects three parameters, namely sample size n, sampling interval h and control limit width k to achieve the lowest cost with desirable statistical properties. However, the cost function and statistical properties are interrelated. Hence, minimizing the cost as the only objective is not an efficient method of designing control charts. In this paper, a multi-objective model for the economic-statistical design of X-bar control chart has been proposed with three objectives i.e., to minimize mean hourly cost, maximize in-control average run length and maximize the power of detecting process shift. A multi-objective evolutionary genetic algorithm is used to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution for this design which are then ranked by fuzzy performance importance index. The performance of the proposed method is compared through a numerical example and observed to be superior to that reported in the literature.
    Keywords: Economic-statistical design; Fuzzy logic; Multi-objective genetic algorithm; Taguchi method; X-bar control chart.

  • The Impact of Foreign Labour on Average Real Wages of Residents: Evidence from Malaysias Construction Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Atif Awad, Ishak Yussof 
    Abstract: In this study, instead of examining the impact of migrant workers on the real wages of natives, which has already been extensively addressed, we have estimated the impact of migrant workers on the average real wages of residents (both natives and earlier immigrants). We examine whether the impact of migrant workers on the average real wages of residents varies over time as well as varying across occupations. We employ the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) technique on panel data for four Malaysian construction subsectors during the period 1990 to 2010. The results show that over time all foreign labour as well as unskilled migrant workers have considerable and positive impacts on the real wages of all resident workers. However, in the adjustment period, in the short-run, only the wages of unskilled workers respond positively and significantly to foreign workers. Given both the unfavorable work conditions for natives as well as the significance of this sector to the overall economy, policymakers should facilitate the flow of migrant workers to this sector
    Keywords: foreign labor; wages; working condition; demand and supply of labor.

    by Ahmed Mohammed Abdelalim 
    Abstract: This research aims to identify and investigate factors affecting productivity in building construction sites. In addition, the importance of these factors has been studied extensively through a widely spread questionnaire among 183 participants. The research area covers the MENA region, especially Egypt and Saudi Arabia as the main markets there and diversity of mega construction projects and abundance of affecting parameters, in addition to the availability of running direct interviewing and validation. The investments between both countries need a good understanding of the factors affecting the projects productivity and progress of work in each country. The comparison of factors importance will help in making right investment decisions and better understanding of the nature of building construction sites, as well as it applies to a boarder construction environment as most of working construction companies there are international companies coming from different countries all over the world. Among the large number of factors affecting productivity, 49 factors were carefully selected throughout carrying out extensive search and factor frequency of similar reaerches , these factors were categorized into seven groups to cover the most frequent elements of measuring and enhancing productivity. A structured questionnaire survey was utilized for data gathering from construction sites. The target population is represented by a random representative sample of practitioners related to the Egyptian and Saudi construction sites. This research also intends to provide simple and comprehensive recommendations and suggested method of determining loss in productivity that can be adopted by construction managers for an effective management of construction sites and higher productivity.
    Keywords: : Productivity; Construction sites; effectiveness; importance index; Motivation; Human Factors; Variance and Statistical Analysis.

  • Performance evaluation of multi-state degraded industrial production system and selection of performance measure using PSO: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ajay Kumar 
    Abstract: In this paper a model is developed for evaluating the availability, the production rate of multi-state degraded systems subjected to minimal repairs and imperfect preventive maintenance. With the help of mathematical and structural modelling, the transition diagrams are drawn which further helped in the mathematically formulation of the availability states based on the Markov process. This repair action brings the system to its previous operational state without affecting its failure rate (i.e., minimal repair). The main objective of the present research is to examine the performance evaluation of various subsystems of cylinder plant. The steady state availability as well as transient state availability of the subsystem has been analysed and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) is used for finding optimal availability of the system. Based on various availability values obtained in availability matrices and graphs of failures, repair rates of different subsystems, maintenance priorities are decided for all subsystems.
    Keywords: multi-state systems; MSS; degradation; performance measures; particle swarm optimisation; PSO; selection of failure and repair rates.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2018.10015179
  • Six Sigma framework methodology for deep drawing process improvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Nader A. Al Theeb, Mohammed T. Hayajneh 
    Abstract: Deep drawing is one of the common sheet metal forming processes, its products are suffering from many defects, where avoiding such defects can be achieved by many methods. The objective of this work is to provide a framework methodology of using Six Sigma approach to avoid deep drawing defects and improve the process. The product under consideration is an aluminium cooker suffers from five types of defects; flange wrinkling, wall wrinkling, tearing, earing, and scratches. Six Sigma project is used for random data to reduce the defective rate through the DMAIC procedures. Product and its defects are defined in the define phase. The current situation is measured in the measure phase. Four factors are considered to construct a design of experiment in the analysis phase, there factors are: holding force, lubricant, punch speed, and clearness. Improvement procedure is suggested by adopting the best factorial level that is found in the analysis phase. Finally, a set of procedures is suggested to maintain the improved conditions in the control phase.
    Keywords: deep drawing; Six Sigma; DMAIC; quality improvement framework.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2018.10013916
  • Identifying critical factors for various maintenance policies: a study on Indian manufacturing sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Nishit Kumar Srivastava, Sandeep Mondal, Namrata Chatterjee, Shwetank Parihar 
    Abstract: Maintenance is inevitable and each machine requires maintenance after certain interval of time. There are several maintenance policies catering to maintenance needs of manufacturing organisations. The bottom line is that, several issues together govern the selection of a particular maintenance policy. So, in order to understand the factors responsible for selection of particular maintenance policy an empirical study is carried out. In this research paper thirty six issues in maintenance are identified using available literatures and questionnaire survey conducted on industry practitioners and is analysed using t-test, factor analysis and Friedman's test. Factor analysis is carried out to summarise the large number variable into set of few comprehensible factors and then Friedman's test is performed to rank those factors according to the various identified maintenance policy in order to identify the critical factors playing important role in selection of a particular maintenance policy. The study is carried out in the Indian manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: corrective maintenance; preventive maintenance; predictive maintenance; t-test; Chisquare; analysis; factor analysis; Friedman's test; manufacturing sector; Indian.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2018.10015180
  • Evolution of obstacles restraining productivity improvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Tero Rantala, Sanna Pekkola, Hannu Rantanen, Mika Hannula 
    Abstract: One of the most important elements in the overall competitiveness of companies is continuous improvement in productivity. Improvements in productivity have been recognised as having a significant influence on many social and economic phenomena such as economic growth, increased well-being and inflation control. Although continuous improvement in productivity is a well-known issue for companies, there are some factors that restrain such development work. These factors can be called obstacles restraining productivity improvement. The main aim of this study is to explore the changes in the obstacles restraining productivity improvement of Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises from 1997 to 2014. The study also aims to discover the most important obstacles restraining productivity improvement. In addition to discovering the evolution of obstacles restraining productivity improvement, the study increases the understanding of the differences amongst obstacles between manufacturing and service SMEs. The study results indicate that over the last two decades, there have been three significant categorical changes relating to the obstacles restraining productivity improvement: 1) from internal to external obstacles; 2) from lack of resources to lack of knowledge; 3) from lack of employees' knowledge and education to lack of supervisors' knowledge and education about productivity.
    Keywords: productivity; obstacles restraining productivity improvement; SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2018.10015181
  • Key factors for adoption of ISO 14001 by the manufacturing industry: a review paper   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Hui Tay, Mariani Ariffin, Amir Hamzah Sharaai 
    Abstract: ISO 14001 has been recognised as the world's most popular environmental management system (EMS). Numerous studies have been conducted on EMS adoption factors and benefits. However, the review of coincidences in published findings is conspicuously absent in current research development. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree of coincidence in the adoption factors studied to identify the key elements of ISO 14001 adoption for manufacturing industry. This paper examines the key factors including size of organisation, top management motivation, ISO 9001 experience, perceived benefit, regulatory concern based on the context of resources-based view (RBV), institutional theory, and previous relevant publications. The findings of this research serve as reference for EMS adoption among manufacturing industries. Observation of the relationship between organisation characteristic and EMS implementation could help prepare organisation through its adoption process and enhance the continual improvement of the system.
    Keywords: ISO 14001; environmental management system; EMS; adoption factors; manufacturing industries; size of organisation; top management motivation; ISO 9001 experience; perceived benefit; regulatory concern; resources-based view; RBV; resources-based view; institutional theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2018.10015182
  • Customer involvement in new product development of tile and ceramic industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Heydar Mirfakhradini, Khalil Safari, Akram Shaabani, Naser Valaei, Khadijeh Mohammadi 
    Abstract: In order to have new product development and attract customers' involvement, a holistic approach is required within which consumers, manufacturers, sellers, designers and other stakeholders are gathered together effectively. Understanding the related factors that influence involvement of each stakeholder is crucial for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Therefore, this study is aimed to examine the effect and importance of customer involvement in new product development. The theoretical model is proposed based on a rigorous literature review and hypotheses are developed. In this survey - solidarity and cross sectional sampling is selected for considering the judgment of 150 managers, suppliers; and sellers (wholesalers and retailers) in Yazd tile and ceramic industry. The data is collected through questionnaires and the partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) approach is applied. Research results indicated that two variables of marketing strategy and contextual factors explain changes in customer involvement as much as 24%, 34%, and the relationship between customer involvement and new product development is positively significant. The relationship between customer involvement and new product performance is also supported.
    Keywords: customer involvement; new product development; marketing strategy; contextual factors; new product performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2018.10015183

Special Issue on: Green and Sustainable Practices in Supply Chains

  • Literature Review: Continuous Improvement through Lean Six Sigma   Order a copy of this article
    by Narottam Yadav, K. Mathiyazhagan, Krishan Kumar 
    Abstract: Six Sigma is a business metric used in manufacturing, service and healthcare sectors. The purpose of this paper is to uncovering existing literature gaps in the field of Lean Six Sigma. From the literature review, 2461 papers were identified based on publication period of 2003 to 2018. It is concluded from the analysis of the results that no framework available in the literature for successful implementation of LSS. There is a need for the empirical study that how to create a continuous improvement culture in the organization and specific barriers for conducting improvements. Lean Six Sigma can be integrated with other improvement philosophies to achieve overall excellence. The thorough review of existing literature reveals that adoption of LSS plays a vital role in process improvement, variation reduction and defect reduction.
    Keywords: Lean; Six Sigma; Literature review; Problem-solving; Manufacturing; Process Improvement; Indian Industry.

  • Inventory Reduction using the Optimal Policy Curve approach: A Case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravindra Ojha 
    Abstract: The current trends in Indian Automotive manufacturing industry indicate a rapidly increasing socio-technical complexity of its manufacturing systems. The industry is striving to meet the ever-changing behavior of the market demand. This has led to considerable increase in variety of products manufactured under one roof. Increasing variety requires high attention to control the high inventory levels of parts and aggregates. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing causes of high inventory levels of a leading Tier-I automotive supplier and recommending the way forward using a structured methodology. The Quality Control (QC) tools, the EOQ (Economic Order Quantity) and the Optimal-Policy curve (Exchange curve) approach have been utilized effectively to funnel the key issues and finally optimize the inventory level of the key parts. The application of the QC tools and the Optima- policy curve approach has resulted in a healthy 25% reduction of the high inventory in the industry under taken as a case study.
    Keywords: Optimal Policy curve; Exchange curve approach; Economic Order Quality; Pareto analysis and Cause and Effect diagram.

  • Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Discomfort Glare Due to Artificial Indoor Lighting   Order a copy of this article
    by Deevesh Sharma, Awadhesh Bhardwaj, Monica Sharma, Ashraf Mirza 
    Abstract: The research evaluated the effect of the change in position of the observer and luminance of light source on discomfort glare. There were two approaches taken in this study, one was qualitative and other was quantitative approach. The quantitative approach was based on unified glare rating. If the value obtained from the UGR formula is more than 10 then according to CIE (International Commission on Illumination), discomfort glare will be there. In this study, 11 experiments have been conducted to get degree of glare at different places of room. The qualitative analysis performed over 15 participants and on the basis of questionnaire, degree of glare has been evaluated. A participant has to answer that he finds particular field of direction comfortable or not by marking it on a scale (De-Boer) of 1-4. The result obtained from both approaches were compared to get the comfortable range of illuminance and the angle between the luminaire with line of sight.
    Keywords: Discomfort Glare; UGR; Guth Position Index; Luminance; LED; CFL.