International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management (77 papers in press)
Cost Reduction by value stream mapping using Lean-Kaizen concept: A case study
by Sunil Kumar, Ashwani Kumar Dhingra, Bhim Singh
Abstract: The present cut-throat competition in the market, small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs), across the globe, are under consistent pressure for improving the product quality through eliminating the non-value added processes for the customer requirements. The present case study demonstrates the application of Lean-Kaizen concept for identifying various waste which are directly contributing to increased product cost. On the basis of data collected from selected product Shaft Swing Arm of the selected industry, current state and future state maps have been constructed. After current state map analysis, waste such as high rejection rate and increased lubrication oil consumption are identified which needs to be eliminated for achieving the proposed future state. For bridging the gap between current state and future state of the organization, two Kaizen events have been proposed. Firstly, the high rejection rate is fixed after modifying the existing process route and in the second, the high consumption of lubrication oil is to be controlled by installing the new pipeline in the machine that collects the leaked lubrication oil into a plastic bin. The data has been analyzed before and after Lean-Kaizen implementation and a significant cost reduction of 7.50 lacs, INR per year is presented as the findings in the present paper. The study concluded that Value Stream Mapping (VSM) using Lean-Kaizen is an effective and efficient technique that reduces the cost by eliminating different wastes in the process. The method will be beneficial for the managers and researchers for finding the different inefficiencies in the SMEs in order to achieve a competitive edge and sustainable growth.
Keywords: Lean Manufacturing; Kaizen; Cost Reduction; Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Value Stream Mapping (VSM).
ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS FOR SELECTING BEST ATTRIBUTES FOR SUCCESSFUL 5S IMPLEMENTATION
by Jugraj Singh Randhawa, Inderpreet Singh Ahuja
Abstract: 5S technique requires significant attributes for its successful implementation in the manufacturing organizations. Successful adoption of 5S philosophy necessitates the involvement from top management to bottom level of employees and many other attributes in the organizations in order to establish an appropriate platform for the implementation of other Lean manufacturing initiatives. The research helps to select the best attributes thorough the attempt by developing a model of 5S technique decision making by utilizing the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The research paper presents the framework for selecting the best attributes for the successful implementation of 5S technique which act as base foundation for standing the pillars of other quality tools and enhance the business excellence. The significant attributes highlighted in this study can guide the top management to focus on crucial areas and allocating necessary resources for ensuring successful 5S implementation in manufacturing organizations. Further the study also establishes AHP framework for providing the justification of 5S implementation in manufacturing organisations.
Keywords: 5S; Lean manufacturing; Attributes; AHP; Manufacturing organizations; business excellence.
The Effect of In-service Training on Employees Productivity in Education and Training Organization, Shiraz, Iran
by Fatemehsadat Mousavifard, Abdolhossein Ayoubi, Mohammad Sadegh Sanie
Abstract: Implementation of training programs in an organization can provide organizational human resources with the proper knowledge in future, and can assist their empowerment. Generally, the main purpose of in-service training seems to be more productivity and the real productivity. Examining the result of such a study will definitely have a significant effect on improving employees productivity which is a requisite of continuing education and training cycle. rnThe goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of training on employees productivity; the participants are Shiraz-branch Education and Training Organization. Regarding the type, this study is an applied one, and data gathering is done as a descriptive survey. The participants consist of 65 employees of Education and Training Organization. Achieve labor productivity Inventory questionnaire and information technology were applied. Results indicate that there is a meaningful and significant relationship among in-service training, productivity, increase in self-confidence and adaptation to change among employees. rn
Keywords: adaptation to change; self-confidence; productivity; in-service training; Efficiency; Organization; employees; promotion ; performance ; job satisfaction.
Developing a Quality Improvement Plan for a Small Engineering Firm in the United States with Six Sigma Methodologies
by Jordan Belcher, Evea Kaldas, Virginia Beth Ellington, Dinesh Dave
Abstract: This research study analyzes business processes utilized by a small engineering firm in the United States that provides vibration analysis services for the automotive, aerospace, agricultural, and manufacturing industries. The study examines procedures, Six Sigma methodologies and quality improvement efforts currently in place and presents a quality improvement plan for enhancing quality of services and increasing customer satisfaction.
Keywords: Six Sigma Methodologies and DMAIC approach; Process Improvement; process maps; Pareto analysis; regression analysis; and Application of Lean Six Sigma in an Engineering Organization.
Statistical process control and quality of service at seaports
by Iñigo L. Ansorena
Abstract: This paper focuses on the statistical process control as a strategic tool for the improvement of service at seaports. The aim of this paper is to examine the variable time of container ships at port. A methodology based on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) statistic is proposed in order to monitor each container vessel that arrives at the port of Valencia. The EWMA chart is a type of time-weighted control chart that plots the exponentially weighted moving averages of a process. In the future this model can be used by terminal managers of Valencia Port to implement better control techniques and thus improve the quality of service. Moreover, the methodological procedure presented in this paper is general enough to be applied by any other port as well.
Keywords: Container Terminals; Quality of service; Port Management; EWMA; control chart.
Operational attributes influencing productivity in Indian opencast mines
by Padma Charan Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mohanty, Manmohan Mall
Abstract: Mining industry has colossal impact on Indian economy. It directly and indirectly impacts countrys GDP, employment, revenue, society and related industries growth prospects. After the economic super cycle i.e. from 2002 to 2010 whole world is suffering from economic slowdown. This sluggish phase demands improve in productivity and sustainability across all production sectors to stay alive. This calls for identifying each attribute, which are affecting productivity and to improve upon those areas. This paper explores specifically operational attributes, which has substantial impact on productivity of Indian open cast mines. 32 such attributes are identified though literature review and gap analysis. Subsequently these attributes are ranked through RIDIT analysis and color coded using color codification system of Homeland Security, USA. This research expects mining industries to be benefited after reviewing critically their operational attributes and work upon them for further improvement at their respective work zones.
Keywords: Indian Opencast mines; Productivity; Operational attributes; RIDIT analysis; Colour coding.
Study of Relationship between Cost Overrun and Labor Productivity in Road Construction Projects
by Ibrahim Mahamid
Abstract: This study aims at (1) identifying the main causes of cost overrun in road construction projects, (2) determining the factors that affect labor productivity in road construction projects, (3) examining the relationship between cost overrun and labor productivity, (4) to develop a predictive model that will determine the impact of labor productivity on cost overrun in road construction projects. To achieve the listed objectives, a questionnaire survey was used to elicit the attitude of consultants and contractors towards the factors affecting cost overrun and labor productivity in road construction projects implemented in the West Bank in Palestine. The questionnaire contained 21 causes of project cost overrun and 14 causes of low labor productivity which had been identified from the literature reviewed. The size of cost overrun and loss in productivity in base works of road construction projects was found based on a data collected from 61 projects implemented in the West Bank in Palestine between 2010-2015. Regression analysis was used to show the impact of labor productivity on cost overrun. The study has established that among the various factors that causes cost overrun, awarding the bid to the lowest price, poor planning in early stages of the project, financial status of the owner, relationship between managers and labors, and frequent changes in design top the list. The respondents input revealed that the most significant factors affecting labor productivity on the construction sites are: lack in materials, inaccurate drawings and specifications, lack of labor experience. Significant direct relationship was found between cost overrun and loss in labor productivity in base works of road construction projects in the West Bank.
Keywords: labor productivity; cost overrun; road construction; construction management; cost increase; contractors; consultants; construction; productivity; Performance.
AN EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF 5S IMPLEMENTATION INITIATIVES IN AN INDIAN MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISE
by Jugraj Singh Randhawa, Inderpreet Singh Ahuja
Abstract: 5S has emerged as one of the fundamental technique needed for growth and improvement for any manufacturing organization in globally competitive manufacturing scenario for imbibing various Lean manufacturing techniques. The literature reveals that 5S technique has potential to significantly improve the working environment, culture, workplace with proper safety and health standards, self-discipline and enriched morale values among all employees in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate effectiveness of 5S implementation technique in manufacturing environment that effectively facilitated manufacturing organization in solving specific issues and problems regarding productivity, quality, cost, safety and morale values of the manufacturing company. The study depicts methodology for systematic implementation of 5S technique at the plant for specific time period and examined the results during the period of 5S practice. The analysis of results have shown significant realization of company's goals and brought considerable difference of improvement in desired parameters of plant performance.
Keywords: 5S; lean manufacturing; Kaizen; 5S implementation.
Supplier selection and evaluation using QFD and ELECTRE in quality management system environment (Case study: Faravari & Sakht company)
by Mitra Abbaszadeh Tavassoli, Soroush Avakh Darestani, Sara Abbaszadeh Tavassoli
Abstract: The purpose of supplier selection is to, identify suppliers and vendors that consistently the highest potential to meet the needs of a company for an acceptable cost. Comparing this choice through an extensive set of criteria and standards-based suppliers has been done. The aim of this study is to evaluate and select suppliers with QFD method and ELECTRE in the quality management system. So create a set of quality HOQ, the connection between the purchased product specifications and evaluation criteria for suppliers and suppliers creates interdependence criteria, will be considered. To assess the needs of customers, QFD deals and then using ELECTRE model selection criteria for suppliers using the Shannon entropy weighting and finally ranked. The results of this research show that suppliers index and related strategies are least important relationships as well as resource received the highest weight and, the design and development was given the highest rank.
Keywords: Assessment and selection of suppliers; Multi-criteria decision; QFD; Quality management system.
Supplier Selection Model Using QFD-ANP Methodology under Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Environment
by Neda Ahmadizadeh-Tourzani, Abbas Keramati, Arash Apornak
Abstract: Supplier selection is the most fundamental decision in the purchase management phase. Purchase is the most functional activity among several activities in a supply chain. A proper supplier selection supports a companys long-term strategies and its competitive position. Due to presence of ambiguities and uncertainties in the decision making process for selecting suppliers, fuzzy techniques could provide more reliable and flexible decision of supplier selection problem. In such techniques, Customer needs and engineering requirements are weighted by the method of fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) and relationship matrix of quality function deployment (QFD) in fuzzy environment of their importance degree, respectively. Using a mathematical model would integrate the amount of cost components and objective factor measure (OFM). The integrated method is applied to a case study in a reputable Iranian automotive company. The results show the efficiency of the method through considering the viewpoint of decision-makers and their dependence on each other.
Keywords: Multi criteria decision making; Supplier selection; Quality function deployment; Analytical network process; Fuzzy environment.
Modelling and Analysis of Assembly Clearance by Size and Form Tolerances in Selective Assembly using Clustering Algorithm
by Chaitanya S.V., Jeevanantham A.K.
Abstract: In this paper, a new method in selective assembly to minimize the assembly variation due to the size and form tolerances of the matting components is proposed. The radial assembly of hole and shaft is analysed with the form tolerances of circularity and straightness respectively. The matting components are segregated into selective groups with respect to their size as well as form tolerance deviations. The assembly clearance between any pair of matting components is calculated by the Euclidean distance measure. A k-mean clustering algorithm has been used to club the matting components and cluster the assemblies according to the required assembly fit specification based on the proximity of matting data points. A case example with hole and shaft assembly has been successfully used to explain the application of selective assembly based on size and form tolerance deviations.
Keywords: Selective assembly; Form tolerance; Clustering algorithm; Radial assembly.
Hybrid Fuzzy MCDM model for effective utilization of quality cost analysis in manufacturing firms
by A. Sailaja, P.C. Basak, K.G. Viswanadhan
Abstract: Modern manufacturing industries face a myriad of challenges due to the globalization of operations and supply chains, rapid changes in the product features, increasing customer expectations for superior quality and the pressure to deliver products in the most cost-effective manner. As quality and costs are the two crucial factors for meeting this challenge, effective quality management programs which help the organizations to increase productivity and customer satisfaction through superior quality products and services with least possible incurred costs and most optimal utilization of resources has gained much more importance in the present manufacturing scenario. Quality cost analysis can provide a basis for planning the quality operations. But the complexity of the interrelationship between different cost categories due to its varied patterns of investments and benefits, the approximations used in the assessment of hidden quality cost elements, the differences in the degree of importance of cost elements and mutually conflicting objectives makes the selection of the most optimal quality control program complex. A hybrid model using the strength of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) together with the Fuzzy logic concept and Fuzzy MOORA is proposed in this study , with the inclusion of additional dimensions, to overcome the limitations of present system as an effective decision-making tool for manufacturing firms.
Keywords: Quality cost; Fuzzy logic; Fuzzy AHP; Fuzzy MOORA; Hybrid model; Quality improvement.
The impact of total productive maintenance on key performance indicators (PQCDSM):- A case study of automobile manufacturing sector
by Richa Sharma, Jagtar Singh, Vikas Rastogi
Abstract: Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program, which involves a customized approach for maintaining plants and equipment ensuring maximum availability, equipment effectiveness and promotes autonomous maintenance culture. The objective of this paper is to highlight the significant improvements of operational efficiency regarding TPM key performance indicators known as Productivity (P), Quality (Q), Cost (C), Delivery (D), Safety (S) and Morale (M) termed as PQCDSM in selected two wheeler automobile sector. The study has focused on the tangible benefits gained regarding TPM key performance indicators. The results shown that there was a significant improvement in production volume, customer complaints, the cost of operations, number of accidents and morale of the employees which the selected automobile plant achieved in the target period of three years. The findings of the research determine a significant contribution due to systematic TPM interventions to PQCDSM indicators and hence motivated the workforce to contribute for improvement activities. An important aspect investigated from this study was the intangible outcomes achieved by implementing TPM.
Keywords: Total productive maintenance; Overall equipment effectiveness; Performance indicators; autonomous maintenance; Productivity; automobile industry; 5S implementation.
Prioritizing Different Branches of Meli Bank Based on Motivation Creating Factors Organised By Gap Analysis Approach and Muiti Criteria Decision MakingCase Study: Meli Bank Branches in Najafabad City
by Monir Al-sadat Mousavi Nejad, Farimah Mokhatab-Rafiei, Hadi Shirouyehzad
Abstract: Needs and motivations of human beings are the source of their behaviors. Recognizing job motivation creating variables is a necessity which can boost job satisfaction and efficiency of Meli banks employees. In the present work the perceived significance of internal and external variables are in agreement with Herzbergs job motivation theory. Accordingly, Herzbergs theory and other extracted variables from previous literature are used here. The aim of the present study is to identify different motivation creating factors for personnel based on previous works and receiving experts help. Thus after extracting all motivation creating factors based on creditable sources and experts views a questionnaire was devised. More frequent variables were chosen, then by considering the importance of motivation creating factors among organizations personnel another questionnaire was designed. This questionnaire was distributed among employees to assess motivation creating factors in the eyes of managers, experts and personnel. Most repeated factors were categorized based on ranking gap analysis and graphs. Some branches of Meli bank of Najaf Abad based on these categories by use of one of the multi criteria decision making tools were prioritized and were assessed for sensitivity. The obtained results indicated that welfare facilities and the second branch got the highest rank among motivation creating factors and different assessed branches.
Keywords: motivation; gap analysis; strategy; Multi Criteria Decision Making; bank.
Overcoming of low discharge problem in shallow well jet pump through the application of Total Quality Function Deployment
by Arun Kaliappan
Abstract: A research which was carried out to investigate the application of a technique called Total Quality Function Deployment (TQFD) in the case of overcoming low discharge problem in a type of pump known as shallow well jet pump has been reported in this paper. TQFD is incorporated with five matrices for translating customers vague languages into practical languages. In the research reported in this paper, all the five matrices of TQFD were developed. When developing component deployment matrix, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to determine the optimum design of nozzle and venture. The prototypes with optimum design were developed by using a Rapid prototyping technology machine. These prototypes were fitted in a shallow well jet pump. On testing, this pump was found to deliver maximum discharge. Thus TQFD was employed to translate the customers vague language into technical language.
Keywords: Voice of customers; Quality function deployment; Total quality function deployment; Computational fluid dynamics; Rapid prototyping technology; House of quality.
An Experimental Investigation on Strain Controlled Fatigue Behaviour of FDM Build Parts
by Swayam Bikash Mishra, Siba Sankar Mahapatra
Abstract: Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have been used for last two decades with the prime focus of fabricating 3D models for design verifications, visualisation and functionality testing of assembly designs. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is one of the emerging technologies that develop 3D complex geometry parts with relatively less material waste and time from computer aided design (CAD) file saved in stereolithography (.stl) format. Now-a-days, FDM is one of the most appreciated technologies to face the challenging requirements in the manufacturing fields. The complex part building mechanism of FDM process attracts the researchers to get insight into the relationship between process parameters and strength of the build parts. Since FDM builds functional parts, it is not only subjected to static loading but also dynamic loading. The behaviour of build parts under repetitive cyclic loading resulting in fatigue needs to be established because it affects functionality as well as the durability. The present study aims at understanding the mechanism of fatigue and influence of FDM process parameters on fatigue life when the build parts are subjected to repetitive cyclic loads. Since the life cycle of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic, one of the work materials of FDM process, is less than 105 cycles, low cycle fatigue (LCF) test is carried out under strain controlled mode for better characterisation of fatigue life of FDM build parts. Using response surface methodology, the relationship between FDM process parameters and fatigue life is developed. From analysis of variance (ANOVA), the influence of each individual parameter upon the fatigue life is analysed. Effect of cyclic loading on rasters are analysed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Genetic programming (GP) technique is adopted to predict the fatigue life of the build parts.
Keywords: ANOVA; Fatigue; Fused Deposition Modelling; Genetic programming; Low cycle fatigue; Rapid Prototyping.
NON-CONFORMITY RECOVERY AND SAFE DISPOSAL BY POKA YOKE AND HALLMARKING IN A PISTON UNIT
by Sundaramali Govindaswamy, Abinav Shankar Siva Balan, Manoj Kummar Madheswaran
Abstract: Every industry has to ensure a quality check so as to ensure that the products manufactured by them are safe for the consumers. During this process, a lot of wastage occurs due to rejection. Because of this rejection a lot of time, money, resources and man power are wasted. This research work focusses on minimizing this rejection and also to ensure maximum recovery from the rejected material by Poka yoke. Furthermore, the rejected products from a parent company are smuggled and sold in the market without the parent companys notice, thereby spoiling their reputation. To elude this situation, hallmarking by engraving technique is also suggested. This helps in maintaining accountability of the rejected goods and also in preventing them from reaching the black market.
Keywords: non-conformities; waste recovery; scrap reduction; safe disposal; hallmarking; Poka Yoke; engraving.
Implementation performance of Agile Manufacturing: A Graph Theoretic Approach
by Srikanta Routroy, Pavan Kumar Potdar, Astajyoti Behera
Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to quantify, evaluate and compare the implementation performance of agile manufacturing program using graph theoretic approach. Eleven agile manufacturing enablers with their key performance indicators were identified and classified into three significant categories. The proposed model captures the performance and interdependencies of significant categories, agile manufacturing enablers and their key performance indicators to quantify the agile manufacturing implementation performance level. In order to demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach, it was applied to an Indian automobile manufacturing company. The performances along the timeline were evaluated and compared with different scenarios to identify performance gap and set the future targets. Although it was observed a significant growth in agile manufacturing implementation performance level in the case company over six quarters, but there was performance gap that needs to be reduced.
Keywords: Agile Manufacturing; Agile Manufacturing Enabler; Key Performance Indicator; Graph Theoretic Approach; Performance Measurement.
A proposed model for leadership styles effect on total quality management (TQM) implementation: An applied study on telecommunication for mobile service companies in Egypt
by Amal Farouk Soliman
Abstract: Purpose- Different leadership styles effects on Total Quality Management (TQM) have not rnrnbeen implied in the literature. This study seeks to theoretically investigate the effect of five rnrnleadership styles ; classified according to personal authority of the leader; on TQM. rnrnDesign/ methodology/ approach- This study identifies five leadership styles which affectrnrnTQM including transformational leadership, transactional leadership, visionary leadership, rnrncharismatic leadership and culture based leadership. This study associates these five leadership rnrnstyles to TQM . A conceptual model is tested using a survey data collected from a sample of rnrnemployees working in Egyptian telecommunications for mobile service companies. rnrnFindings The five leadership styles significantly affects TQM in the telecommunications rnrnfor mobile service companies in Egypt. Charismatic leadership has the strongest effect on TQM. rnrnVisionary leadership follows charismatic leadership in its effect on TQM. Culture based rnrnleadership follows visionary leadership on its effect on TQM. Transactional leadership follows rnrnculture based leadership on its effect on TQM. Finally, transformational leadership has the least rnrneffect on TQM among the five leadership styles.rnrnResearch Limitation/Implications- This study has been applied on the service sector which is rnrncompletely different from the goods manufacturing sector. The telecommunication for mobile rnrnservice companies nature differ from other service sectors. rnrnPractical Implications- This paper identifies the importance of leadership styles in achieving rnrnsuccessful TQM implementation. rnrnOriginality/ value- This study provides a theoretical foundation for the effect of the five rnrnleadership styles on TQM implementation in the telecommunication for mobile service rnrncompanies. This study is one of the first efforts that empirically examine the effect of leadership rnrnstyles on TQM.rn
Keywords: Keywords- TQM ; leadership styles; transformational leadership; visionary leadership; transactional leadership; culture based leadership; charismatic leadership.
APPLICATION OF FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY- AN INTEGRATED APPROACH WITH FAHP - FUZZY TOPSIS AND FAHP -FUZZY VIKOR
by Gnanasekaran Sakthivel, Saravanakumar D, Muthuramalingam T
Abstract: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used engineering technique to improve product quality, system reliability and eliminate known and/or potential failures. A typical FMEA includes three risk factors: severity (S), occurrence (O), and detection (D). Risk priority number (RPN) is obtained from product of these factors. The objective of this paper is to develop an evaluation model based on FMEA and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) integrated with Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and and VlseKriterijumskaOptimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje, (VIKOR) under fuzzy environment to evaluate greatest risk for production of dust cap in automotive industry. FAHP is used to compute the weights of Severity (S), Occurrence (O) and Detection (D), whereas fuzzy TOPSIS and fuzzy VIKOR are used to obtain the final ranking of risk. Here, the risk factors and their weights are treated as fuzzy triangular linguistic variables for eliminating the risk of subjective quantification and similarity of Risk Priority Number (RPN). The ranking of the failures depends upon the closeness coefficient of nine failure modes. The priority ranking order of failures for Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy VIKOR are F1 (0.649) > F2(0.5116) >F4(0.470) >F6(0.4128)> F3(0.4118)> F7(0.406)> F8(0.372)>F5(0.3445)>F9(0.3409) and F1 (0) > F2(0.461) >F4(0.716) >F3(0.720)> F7(0.957)> F6(0.967)> F8(0.974)>F5(0.982)>F9 (1.000). Hence by comparing both these methods, (Blanking of blank failure) and F2 (Drawing dimension failure) are obtained as the most serious failure mode using Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy VIKOR
Keywords: FMEA; FAHP; FUZZY TOPSIS; FUZZY VIKOR; Dust cap; automotive industry.
Root Cause Analysis in Quality Problem Solving of Research Information Systems: A Case Study
by Mohammad Javad Ershadi, Roozbeh Aiasi, Shirin Kazemi
Abstract: Nowadays the information systems have become a key part of any organization. On the one hand these systems are considered as basis of management decisions and on the other hand they serve the within or outside of organizations users and clients as well. Therefore good performances of these systems could become one of the main objectives of senior managers in any organization. Research information systems (RIS) are not exceptional on these norms either and in order to continually improve these systems their quality aspects should be analyzed and improved to achieve better performances. In this paper application of root cause analysis in RIS using a case study for solving quality problems is considered. This approach is used in three main stages of RIS means data entry, indexing and dissemination of information. Results of this paper show that through application of root cause analysis identifying, categorizing and defining appropriate corrective action for quality problems of RIS could be easily achieved. Furthermore main results of application of this approach are presented.
Keywords: Root Cause Analysis (RCA); Research Information Systems (RIS); Quality Problem; Case study.
Integration of Lean, Six Sigma and Theory of Constraints for Productivity Improvement of Mining Industry
by Jayachandran Rajini, Dega Nagaraju, S. Narayanan
Abstract: In todays unstable economic conditions, achieving a sustained throughput is the prime objective of the companies. In this paper, an attempt is made on implementing the integrated concept of Theory of Constraint (TOC), Lean and Six Sigma to get the maximum Throughput which is the primary goal of TOC. An empirical model is derived to predict the organizational goal. Dynamic Smart goal tracking system is developed in the proposed model. The goal of each employee or the sub-teams goal is aligned to teams overall goal with weighted ranking. Path finding to the strategic goal is decided with next high priority goal on an iterative mode. This approach aligns employee goals in line to accomplishing the organization priority goal throughput. Vision of the organization to sub-team gets clarity on what to be achieved. This system thinking approach, TOC philosophy enables to achieve the organization goal in a better way.
Keywords: Lean; Six Sigma; TOC; Goal achievements; Process improvement; advantages of Integrated Lean Six sigma and TOC;.
Improving conformance to quality requirements in making hot metal
by Arup Ranjan Mukhopadhyay, Jit Kumar Mitra
Abstract: The quality of the output hot metal in mini blast furnace is assessed by the extent of conformity to specifications of different chemical constituents. It is crucially important to maximize the conformance to specifications of C%, Si%, S% and Carbon Equivalent (CE). The objective of the study thus turned out to be to achieve the optimum quantum of the input material and that of the input parameters of the furnace for which the extent of conformance is maximized. The approach adopted is to build up regression equations between furnace output and furnace input and subsequent optimization using the method of moving asymptotes. The novelty of this work can be seen through application of this improved process optimization methodology. The amount of non-conformity has turned out to be nil for C% and Si% from their respective baselines of 12.5% and 29.7%. Through this paper practitioners and researchers can understand as to how statistical and quantitative tools can be applied in a systematic manner for solving a real life quality problem.
Keywords: optimization; process improvement; statistical decision making; empirical modelling; quality assurance.
Advances in Solution Methods for Optimisation of Multiple Quality Characteristics in Manufacturing Processes
by Sasadhar Bera, Indrajit Mukherjee
Abstract: A typical problem generally encountered in the quality control and improvement operations of manufacturing processes involves simultaneously optimising multiple critical quality characteristics (or multiple responses). These type of problems are so-called multiple-response optimisation (MRO) problems. Owing to correlation between multiple responses, trade-off solution(s) are inevitable. The term trade-off is an explicit compromised solution, considering the bias from the targets and variability in the responses. The global best solution for such a problem is usually unknown. Over the years, various solution methods and their theoretical advancement are proposed. However, only a handful of critical reviews are evident in open literature. Available review articles on MRO seem insufficient and address only specific aspects of the solution methods (e.g. response-surface modelling, problem formulation, or optimisation techniques). In this study, five different types of solution methods suggested for MRO problems are categorised and critically reviewed, including response-surface-based contour plot, response surface-free data mining methods, etc. The theoretical relationship between the MRO and the multi-objective-optimisation solution methods is analysed along with identifying potential research direction in this domain.
Keywords: multiple-response optimisation; quality control and improvement; response surface; manufacturing-process optimisation; multi-objective optimisation.
Increasing Energy Productivity in Lean Production System with Energy Oriented Value-Stream Mapping
by Javad Rezaeian, Irandokht Parvizi Omran, Iraj Mahdavi
Abstract: Nowadays, reduction of energy waste becomes a great concern for manufacturing companies. They have to be energy efficient since it provides great saving potential. Hence, this research investigates the energy productivity in an auto body paint shop of an automobile manufacturer. In this study, energy wastages are detected by using the Energy Value-Stream Mapping (EVSM) approach based on lean production system. Then, a group of improvement plans are proposed and are evaluated by using a questionnaire which is filed by a group of specialists. Afterward, the proposed plans are assessed by using statistical analysis. Finally, improvement plans are determined by using an integer programming and a goal programming under two scenarios with regard to some defined constraints by the studied company. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the effect of factors on the objective function and the number of improvement plans.
Keywords: Energy Productivity; Lean Production; Energy Value-Stream Mapping.
Productivity Improvement by Line Balancing and Process Modification Keeping Quality Intact
by Janardhan Reddy K, Mahendra Reddy G., Nadimpalli Raghukiran
Abstract: Productivity improvement has long been approached by greatly diversified techniques. More often than not, these approaches were confined to a specific theme such as statistical and process-centric optimizations, production-centric (layout, line balancing etc.) optimizations, machine-centric optimizations or product design-centric optimizations. Each of those areas were proved to be capable of improving the productivity of the systems to some extent. However, significant productivity improvement of any system is only possible by the collective application of all the aforementioned approaches to mitigate the inefficacy of any system. In the present study, an attempt was made to improve the productivity of a production line by the collective application various productivity improvement techniques such as process-improvement, line balancing, statistical tools and machine center modification. The quality parameters of the product were constantly monitored and weighed against every effort of productivity improvement.
Keywords: Productivity; Line balancing; Optimization; Design of experiments.
Enhanced biogas production from poultry litter by improving the carbon nitrogen ratio
by Balaji S, Sakthivel M, Pasupathy S A, Sivakumar P, Arun K K
Abstract: The rapid growing world population and rapid industrialization demands for the quest of alternate sources of energy which is also a renewable, clean and green energy. For the tropical countries like India where the availability of biomass waste is very high, especially in poultry sector because of the vast growth of the poultry sector. The production of biogas from these wastes is one of the proven and cost effective method to generate energy in the form of methane. There are various factors which affects the anaerobic digestion (AD) process which results in reduced biogas yield, formation of ammonia nitrogen inside the digester and low methane concentration of the biogas. Among the various factors the low carbon nitrogen (C/N) ratio of poultry litter is a prime factor that affects the process adversely. The C/N ratio of the poultry litter can be increased by a number of methods like co-digestion of poultry litter with carbon rich feedstock, dilution of slurry, carbohydrate material addition and by using ammonia stripping techniques. In this research, the ammonia removal by air stripping method and co-digestion of poultry litter with water hyacinth is performed to increase the C/N ratio. Samples for this study are digested in three fixed dome batch type reactors. Raw poultry litter, co-digested poultry litter (75% PL with 25% WH) and co-digested air stripped poultry litter (75% PL with 25% WH). The digestion was carried out at mesophilic conditions 25 40 0C and pH of 6.8-7.2 for a hydraulic retention time of 21 days. The C/N ratio of the three samples were 6.86:1, 10.48:1 and 14.88:1 respectively. A 17% increase in biogas production is observed in digester 2 and 25% increase in biogas production is observed in digester 3 because of the increase the C/N of the poultry litter by co-digestion and air stripping respectively. These results shows that the increase in C/N ratio of the feedstock has a positive effect on the biogas production.
Keywords: Carbon nitrogen ratio; air stripping; co-digestion; ammonia nitrogen; water hyacinth.
Determinants of performance of Tunisia insurance companies: Case of life insurance
by Abdelkader Derbali, Lamia Jamel
Abstract: Business performance has attracted researchers' attention in the previous literature of corporate finance. However, in the framework of the life insurance sector, they have given a number of attentions. In our paper, we investigate empirically the effect of firm-specific characteristics (size, leverage, tangibility, risk, growth, liquidity and age) on the profitability of eight Tunisian insurance companies during the period of study from 2005 to 2015. The empirical results show that the variables size, age and growth are the most important determinants of the performance of Tunisian insurance companies as measured by Return on Asset ratio. Then, leverage, tangibility, liquidity and risk dont affect the performance of Tunisian insurance companies.
Keywords: Performance; life insurance; insurance companies; ROA; panel data.
Banking Service Quality Provided by Commercial Banks and Customer Satisfaction. A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approaches
by Main Alolayyan, Sulieman Al-Hawary, Bahaa Al-Nady, Anber Mohammad
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the constructs of service quality and customer satisfaction in commercial banks operating in Jordan. The study uses qualitative methodology, a face to face survey was conducted to test the hypothesis, thirteen banks were chosen randomly in Jordan with their customers acting as respondents to survey, a sample includes 453 customers of Jordanian commercial banks. The study finds that the order of importance of the dimensions of service quality tested here is: Assurance; Reliability; tangibles; Empathy; and Responsiveness. customers satisfaction are mostly influenced by the service quality. customers indicated high satisfaction with the five dimensions of service quality. This finding reinforces the need for banks managers to place an emphasis on the underlying dimensions of service quality, especially on Assurance, and should start with improving service quality in order to raise customer satisfaction. The study had been implemented in specific type of industry of professional service. Therefore, the findings of this research should be used cautiously in attempting to make generalizations into whole professional service industry, and the sample in this study was small and limited to customers living in Jordan this group is relatively homogeneous, the study did not take into account the potential differences in customers reactions with regard to culture compared to other countries.
Managers should be aware that, among the various dimensions of service quality, Assurance was especially significant in fostering satisfaction for the customers of Jordanian commercial banks. It is apparent that focusing on delivering high quality services , and improve service quality effectively is critical for customer satisfaction. The paper is the first systematic study that examines customer satisfaction and service quality measurement practices in commercial banks operating in Jordan.
Keywords: Service Quality; Customer Satisfaction; Commercial Banks; Jordan; Structural Equation Modelling.
Supply chain management in developing countries: empirical evidence from Vietnamese manufacturing companies
by Minh Hue Nguyen, Anh Chi Phan, Yoshiki Matsui
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the relationship between supply chain management practices and operational capabilities in Vietnamese manufacturing companies. The relationship is examined separately in both upstream and downstream supply chains of the firms. Data were collected from 25 Vietnamese manufacturers operating in automobile, machinery and electric & electronics industries in 2014. After testing the reliability and validity of each measurement scale, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis are utilized to test the relationship between supply chain management practices and operational capabilities. Analysis results indicate positive linkages between supply chain management practices on all aspects of manufacturing capabilities. In particular, the downstream supply chain management practices show more significant effect on manufacturing capabilities than the upstream ones. The paper contributes to enriching the literature on supply chain management in developing countries, and providing insight into how Vietnamese manufacturers would improve manufacturing capabilities through better supply chain management practices.
Keywords: Supply chain management; Manufacturing capabilities; Vietnamese manufacturing.
The Improvement of Thresher Design by Using the Integration of TRIZ and QFD Approach
by Nilda Tri Putri, Agus Sutanto
Abstract: Today's business environment is forcing many SMEs to continuously improve their products, be innovative according to the customer requirements and to remain competitive. Likewise, similar condition occurred in the thresher machines which separated grains from harvested crop in developing country like Indonesia. The research described in this paper aimed to propose an integrative method by using Quality Function Development (QFD) and TRIZ approach to improve thresher design manufactured by SMEs in West Sumatra, Indonesia. The process consisted of the following stages: 1) identification of the customer needs followed by the determination of their requirements rating, 2) the preparation of QFD phase 1, 3) the creation of QFD phase 2 for technical characteristics which do not contradict with the design characteristics or the selection of alternative solutions using TRIZ for both contradictory characteristics, 4) the thresher design improvement according to the design characteristics in the final stage. The result was 10 design characteristics that would be used in re-design of the thresher by SME, in which 9 design characteristics were obtained by QFD Phase 2 and 1 characteristic was obtained from alternative solution of TRIZ method. Design characteristic which had the highest priority level was the use of screw type threshing teeth (priority value of 14%). The distinctions between the re-design threshers with the reference design were wheels to facilitate mobilization; screw type threshing teeth design on the threshing cylinder to meet the user need; and the ergonomic feeding table dimension to improve the user convenience.
Keywords: thresher; QFD; TRIZ approach; consumer requirements; design characteristics.
Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Performance Measures in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process during Taper Cutting Operation
by Siba Sankar Mahapatra, Bijaya Bijeta Nayak
Abstract: Deep-cryogenic treatment brings some remarkable improvements in mechanical properties by refining the microstructure of the materials. In recent times, cryo-processing has been successfully applied to toughened and high strength to weight ratio work piece materials and tools in electrical discharge machining (EDM) and wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) for improving machining efficiency. In the present investigation, coated Bronco cut-W wire electrode and Inconel 718 work piece are subjected to deep cryogenic treatment (-1960C). The microstructure of deep cryo-treated and untreated wire electrode and work piece is observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of deep cryogenically treated wire electrode and work piece on various performance characteristics are studied during taper cutting operation in WEDM process. Taguchis experimental design has been applied to determine the optimal parameter setting considering six input parameters such as part thickness, taper angle, pulse duration, discharge current, wire speed and wire tension on various performance measures such as angular error, surface roughness and cutting speed. The study reveals that deep cryogenic treatment of both wire electrode and work piece can improve the machining performance in WEDM.
Keywords: Angular error; Deep-cryogenic treatment; Wire electrical discharge machining; Taper cutting; Surface roughness.
Performance evaluation of multi-state degraded industrial production system and selection of performance measure using PSO: A case study
by Ajay Kumar
Abstract: In this paper a model is developed for evaluating the availability, the production rate of multi-state degraded systems subjected to minimal repairs and imperfect preventive maintenance. With the help of Mathematical and structural modeling, the transition diagrams are drawn which further helped in the mathematically formulation of the availability states based on the Markov process. This repair action brings the system to its previous operational state without affecting its failure rate (i.e., minimal repair). The main objective of the present research is to examine the performance evaluation of various subsystems of cylinder plant. The steady state availability as well as transient state availability of the subsystem has been analyzed and Particle Swarm optimization (PSO) is used for finding optimal availability of the system. The used preventive maintenance policy suggests that if the system achieves the last acceptable degraded state, it is brought back to one of the states with improved efficiency. The results of this paper will help the decision makers, managers and plant personnel to achieve better system performance and to devise appropriate maintenance schedules and strategies with the help of flexible performance parameter obtained from PSO. Based on various availability values obtained in availability matrices and graphs of failures, repair rates of different subsystems, maintenance priorities are decided for all subsystems.
Keywords: Multi-state systems; Degradation; Performance measures; Particle Swarm Optimization; Selection of failure and repair rates.
Six Sigma Framework Methodology for Deep Drawing Process Improvement
by Nader Al Theeb, Mohammed Hayajneh
Abstract: Deep drawing is one of the common sheet metal forming processes, its products are suffering from many defects, where avoiding such defects can be achieved by many methods. The objective of this work is to provide a framework methodology of using six sigma approach to avoid deep drawing defects and improve the process. The product under consideration is an Aluminum cooker suffers from five types of defects; flange wrinkling, wall wrinkling, tearing, earing, and scratches. Six sigma project is used for random data to reduce the defective rate through the DMAIC procedures. Product and its defects are defined in the define phase. The current situation is measured in the measure phase. Four factors are considered to construct a design of experiment in the analysis phase, there factors are: holding force, lubricant, punch speed, and clearness. Improvement procedure is suggested by adopting the best factorial level that is found in the analysis phase. Finally, a set of procedures is suggested to maintain the improved conditions in the control phase.
Keywords: Deep Drawing; Six Sigma; DMAIC; Quality improvement Framework.
Identifying Critical Factors for Various Maintenance Policies: A Study on Indian Manufacturing Sector
by Nishit Kumar Srivastava, Sandeep Mondal, Namrata Chatterjee, Shwetank Parihar
Abstract: Maintenance is inevitable and each machine requires maintenance after certain interval of time. There are several maintenance policies catering to maintenance needs of manufacturing organizations. The bottom line is that there are several issues governing the selection of a particular maintenance policy. So, in order to understand the factors responsible for selection of particular maintenance policy an empirical study is carried out to study the perception of industry practitioners towards selection of a particular maintenance policy. In this research paper thirty six issues in maintenance are identified and are analyzed using T-test, factor analysis and Friedmans test. Factor analysis is carried out to summarize the large number variable into set of few comprehensible factors and then Friedmans test is performed to rank those factors according to the various identified maintenance policy in order to identify the critical factors playing important role in selection of a particular maintenance policy. The study is carried out on Indian manufacturing sector.
Keywords: Corrective maintenance; Preventive maintenance; Predictive maintenance; T-test; Chi-square analysis; Factor analysis; Friedman’s test; Manufacturing sector.
Evolution of obstacles restraining productivity improvement
by Tero Rantala, Sanna Pekkola, Hannu Rantanen, Mika Hannula
Abstract: One of the most important elements in the overall competitiveness of companies is continuous improvement in productivity. Improvements in productivity have been recognised as having a significant influence on many social and economic phenomena such as economic growth, increased well-being and inflation control. Although continuous improvement in productivity is a well-known issue for companies, there are some factors that restrain such development work. These factors can be called obstacles restraining productivity improvement. The main aim of this study is to explore the changes in the obstacles restraining productivity improvement of Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises from 1997 to 2014. The study also aims to discover the most important obstacles restraining productivity improvement. In addition to discovering the evolution of obstacles restraining productivity improvement, the study increases the understanding of the differences amongst obstacles between manufacturing and service SMEs. The study results indicate that over the last two decades, there have been three significant categorical changes relating to the obstacles restraining productivity improvement: (1) from internal to external obstacles, (2) from lack of resources to lack of knowledge and (3) from lack of employees knowledge and education to lack of supervisors knowledge and education about productivity.
Keywords: Productivity; Obstacles restraining productivity improvement; SMEs.
Key factors for adoption of ISO 14001 by the manufacturing industry: A review paper
by Hui Hui Tay, Mariani Ariffin, Amir Hamzah Sharaai
Abstract: ISO 14001 has been recognized as the worlds most popular environmental management system (EMS). Numerous studies have been conducted on EMS adoption factors and benefits. However, the review of coincidences in published findings is conspicuously absent in current research development. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree of coincidence in the adoption factors studied toidentify the key elements of ISO 14001 adoptionfor manufacturing industry. Thispaper examines the key factors including size of organization, top management motivation, ISO 9001 experience, perceived benefit, regulatory concern based on the context of resources-based view (RBV), institutional theory and previous relevant publications. The findings of this research serve as reference for EMS adoption among manufacturing industries. Observation of the relationship between organization characteristic and EMS implementation could help prepare organization through its adoption process and enhance the continual improvement of the system.
Keywords: ISO 14001; EMS; environmental management system;adoption factors;manufacturing industries; size of organization; top management motivation; ISO 9001 experience; perceived benefit; regulatory concern; RBV; resources-based view; institutional theory.
Customer involvement in new product development of tile and ceramic industry
by Seyed Heydar Mirfakhradini, Khalil Safari, Akram Shaabani, Naser Valaei, Khadijeh Mohammadi
Abstract: In order to have new product development and attract customers involvement, a holistic approach is required within which consumers, manufacturers, sellers, designers and other stakeholders are gathered together effectively. Understanding the related factors that influence involvement of each stakeholder is crucial for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Therefore, this study is aimed to examine the effect and importance of customer involvement in new product development. The theoretical model is proposed based on a rigorous literature review and hypotheses are developed. In this survey- solidarity and cross sectional sampling is selected for considering the judgment of 150 managers, suppliers; and sellers (wholesalers and retailers) in Yazd tile and ceramic industry. The data is collected through questionnaires and the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach is applied. Research results indicated that two variables of marketing strategy and contextual factors explain changes in customer involvement as much as 24%, 34%, and the relationship between customer involvement and new product development is positively significant. The relationship between customer involvement and new product performance is also supported.
Keywords: Customer involvement; new product development; marketing strategy; contextual factors; new product performance.
Classification of Critical Success Factors for Reverse Logistics Implementation based on Importance-Performance Analysis
by Hamidreza Panjehfouladgaran, Hadi Shirouyehzad
Abstract: Reverse logistics (RL) is one of the manufacturing methods to recover used products, decreasing wastes and landfills. However, recovered products are competing with new products. Therefore, the identification of critical success factors (CSF) may help to intensify the strengths of the RL. In this paper, identified critical success factors in RL were analyzed by importance-performance analysis (IPA) approach. The results of questionnaire survey for identification of CSF in RL considered as the importance level. Performance level of CSFs evaluated by a checklist which is fulfilled in a RL company. The results indicate that transportation, culture, organizational strategy, top management commitment and logistics network design are critical success factors that must be concentrated for the organizational goals achievements in RL organizations.
Keywords: Reverse Logistics (RL); Critical Success Factors (CSFs); Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA); Critical Success Factor Classification.
Efficiency improvement and resource estimation: a tradeoff analysis
by Mojtaba Ghiyasi
Abstract: This article uses DEA as an evaluation technique of efficiency and proposes a resource (input) estimation procedure that guarantees not only unchanged but also variant efficiency levels for a given expected output level. We also deal with controllable and non-controllable input in process of input estimation. Two trade off indices are proposed to track the relationship between required resources, producible outputs and efficiency improvement percentage. Proposed models and indices provide useful information and help decision maker in process of production planning. Our models and indices are explained by provided numerical example and an empirical illustration using a real world data which also demonstrates the practical relevance and advanced future of our methods.
Keywords: Resource estimation; Trade off index; Inverse DEA; Multi-objective programming.
The Impact of Facultys Communication Behaviors on Student's Satisfaction: The Role of Cognitive and Affective Learning and Student's Motivation
by Smita Kulkarni, Nikhat Afshan, Jaideep Motwani
Abstract: Although the benefits of faculty members communication behaviors have been examined and discussed in earlier studies, they have been mostly done in the context of traditional classrooms or online learning. This study examines the effect of faculty members communication behaviors on students motivation which further impacts students affective and cognitive learning. Further, this study also investigates the relationship between students learning (affective learning and cognitive learning) and students satisfaction in the case study method of teaching. The hypothesized relationships were tested using a sample of 265 postgraduate management students from a Business School of India. The results indicated that faculty members communication behaviors had a positive effect on students motivation and students motivation had a positive effect on the affective and cognitive learning. Further, cognitive learning and affective learning were found to have significant positive impact on students satisfaction.
Keywords: Affective Learning; Case Study Pedagogy; Cognitive Learning; Motivation; Student's Satisfaction,.
Maintenance Policy Selection Using Fuzzy Failure Modes and Effective Analysis and Key Performance Indicators
by Nasrin Farajiparvar, Rene Mayorga
Abstract: Maintenance Policy Selection (MPS) plays an important role in determining a proper maintenance strategy based on the real equipment condition. This study is intended to address the concept of MPS proposing an approach to improve current maintenance selection methods. Further, an integrated three-step model is introduced for MPS using Fuzzy Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FFMEA) and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP). In the first step, a combination of FFMEA and FAHP are applied to calculate the risk of equipment. For the Risk Priority Number computation, three dimensions including Severity, Occurrence, and Detection and their identified sub-dimensions are weighted by three domain experts. The second step is aimed at evaluation of all criteria that crucially affect MPS where four Key Performance Indicators weighted by AHP are defined for equipment criticality assessment. Finally, a novel fuzzy approach is proposed to choose a proper maintenance strategy for each facility according to RPN and Criticality scores. A case study is conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Keywords: Maintenance Policy Selection; Failure Mode and Effects Analysis; Analytic Hierarchy Process; Fuzzy Inference Systems.
Quality Factors and Performance in citrus industry
by Sunil Kumar U.T., Rakesh Shrivastava, Rajasree O.P
Abstract: Management of citrus fruit crop like Nagpur mandarin for future use is topmost priority as the demand for the fruits is increasing tremendously. The exploratory type of study was conducted with 100 valid responses collected from citrus stake holders. In order to investigate the effect of critical success factors (CSF,s) or predictors on the performance measurement factors of citrus industry, multiple regression analysis using independent variables or input factors and dependent variables or performance measurement factors. Frame work or model of quality improvement is derived from the current study. The study revealed that Economics and quality of citrus fruits can be improved by focusing on quality management, innovation and technology management, improved relation among stake holders and also by strengthening the local citrus fruit industry.
Keywords: post harvest; processing; quality management; CSF’s; storage; citrus; model; performance measurement; questionnaire; SPSS.
Analysis of the Effects of Succession Planning Implementation on Organizational Performance
by Seyed Hasan Hosseini, Ali Shaemi Barzoki, Ali Nasr Isfahani
Abstract: According to most scholars, there exists no universally agreed theoretical framework regarding succession management. Present research attempts to explore the impact that succession management and its dimensions may have on organizational performance in Esfahan Steel Company. The required data based on the research model was collected from the questionnaire distributed among managers, executive officers, and superintendents of the company. The sample size was calculated using proportionate stratified sampling based on Cochran formula for finite population. 120 questionnaires were distributed. Of the total number of the returned questionnaires, 106 were usable (88% return rate) and subjected to final analysis. To examine the assumed relationship between the involved variables and test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling (path analysis) was used. Based on the findings derived from earlier qualitative research (Hosseini et al, 2017), the dimensions systemic culture building, creating context for succession planning, committed implementation with a systemic view, policy making, candidate evaluation for competence-based selection, gap analysis, and succession planning evaluation were identified as the succession planning determinants. The required data for execution of the designed model in the qualitative section and demonstration of its impact on organizational performance was obtained using questionnaire, the validity and reliability of which were already verified. rnThe results indicated that at 95 percent confidence there was a positive and significant relationship between introduction of succession management and organizational performance in the understudy company. Additionally, the seven dimensions of succession management were also positively associated with organizational performance.
Keywords: succession management; talent management; BSC-based organizational performance.
Patient satisfaction analysis using a multicriteria analysis method: The case of the NHS in Greece
by Dimitris Drosos, Nikos Tsotsolas, Michalis Skordoulis, Miltiadis Chalikias
Abstract: Patient satisfaction and service quality are critical components for the strategic planning processes in a healthcare system. The aim of this paper is to measure and analyze patient satisfaction with the National Healthcare System (NHS) in Greece by using a preference disaggregation methodology. Patients satisfaction is measured using the Multicriteria Satisfaction Analysis (MUSA) method which assumes that global satisfaction depends on a set of criteria. SERVQUALs five dimensions have been selected as the patients satisfaction criteria, while the sub-criteria are based on SERVQUALs twenty two constructs which were properly adjusted to the surveys specific needs. The research results show high levels of patient satisfaction with medical and nursing services. On the other hand, lower satisfaction rates are recorded concerning the facilities and the administrative services which are connected with the funding and the efficiency of a healthcare system. Thus, a major problem concerning the Hellenic NHS is the continuous reduction of funding. As far as it is concerned, a major challenge for the Hellenic NHS is that the underfunding problem is solved while the necessary measures are taken in order that the optimal allocation of the available resources is ensured. Last but not least, the research design confirms the good adjustment of multidimensional models such as SERVQUAL in patient satisfaction measurement.
Keywords: Patient satisfaction; customer satisfaction; service quality; healthcare quality; public health; multicriteria analysis; SERVQUAL.
Theoretical analysis of JIT elements for implementation in maintenance sector of Indian Industries
by Sandeep Phogat, Anil Kumar Gupta
Abstract: Just in time (JIT) philosophy has grown to new heights since its evolution and has successfully been implemented in manufacturing. As it is universally accepted that manufacturing and maintenance cannot be managed as a separate function, aim of present study is to evaluate various elements of JIT to implement in maintenance sector which have high degree of importance in Indian context. It is because now maintenance is also plays an important role in optimization of business processes. Maintenance operations are much like manufacturing operations where both employ processes that add value to the basic input used to create the end product. Just in Time focuses on the processes, not the product. It can therefore be applied to any process in manufacturing or maintenance operations. For this, literature related to JIT usage and performance is reviewed. Thirty-eight elements are analyzed from twenty-two research papers of Indian context. With aid of theoretical analysis and brain storming with maintenance specialists of Just in Time elements implemented manufacturing industries, eighteen elements are selected to check implementation of JIT philosophy in maintenance sector of Indian context. Relative importance of such elements are also highlighted in the article.
Keywords: Just in time (JIT); Maintenance; JIT elements; JIT in maintenance; JIT in manufacturing.
MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY DRIVERS BY FUZZY ISM AND FUZZY MICMAC APPROACH
by Rahul Sindhwani, Varinder Kumar Mittal, Punj Lata Singh, Vivek Kalsariya, Faizan Salroo
Abstract: The need now a day has arisen which has forced todays generation to sit and think about taking pains regarding energy efficiency. This huge wastage of energy and the ever-increasing cost have not only hindered the smooth economical run but also have sent huge Greenhouse gas emissions into the environment. So, it has become inescapable for us to turn a blind eye. Keeping this thing in mind, this research paper presents identification drivers of energy efficiency which helps us in making a framework which could guide industries in applying the energy efficiency in their setups. These seventeen drivers were leveled and their effect was noticed through Fuzzy Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) and Fuzzy MICMAC analysis. The results reveal that inadequate availability of energy, excessive losses, and energy audits have high driving power and low dependence power and are at the lowest level in Fuzzy ISM digraph, while government promotional benefits, management commitment, research development, and planning for future drivers have high dependence power and low driving power. The results were clear enough to suggest that which drivers we have to take in attention in order to ensure that the energy efficiency is applied in an industry.
Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Drivers; Manufacturing Industry; Fuzzy ISM; Fuzzy MICMAC.
The Impact of Human Capital and Innovation on Labour Productivity of Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises
by Rahmah Ismail
Abstract: Human capital theory post
Keywords: Human capital; innovation; labour productivity; labour quality; small and médium enterprises; manufacturing firms; training; research and development; information and communication technology; employees; Malaysia.
Deployment of operational performance indicators (OPIs) in failure mode effect and analysis (FMEA) application: A literature review and classification
by CHEN FUNG LIEW, Joshua A/L Jaya Prakash, Kok Seng Ong
Abstract: Failure mode effect and analysis (FMEA) is a well-known methodology for improving operational performance, such as the quality, cost, and delivery time of a product, process, or system. However, the success of FMEA in operational performance cannot be quantified at present. The risk priority number (RPN), which is the only indicator of FMEA, has no relationship with operational performance. For example, a reduction in RPN may not benefit operational performance, particularly if the corrective action is to enhance detection. Thus, the capability of FMEA to improve operational performance cannot be validated unless it demonstrates quantifiable operational performance. An organization is distinct from its competitors based on its operational performance and not based on RPN. The missing operational performance measurement practice in FMEA is essential for further strengthening the FMEA methodology. This study aims to identify the most effective methodology and approach for quantifying the success of FMEA in operational performance through a systematic review and to classify FMEA articles that measured operational performance.
Keywords: corrective action; FMEA; operational performance; operational performance indicator; RPN.
Development of four row paddy transplanter by applying value engineering principles
by M. Mohan, G. Sundararaj, S.R. Devadasan, R. Murugesh
Abstract: Engineers and practitioners have been developing manually operated paddy transplanters to enable farmers for achieving productivity and quality in paddy transplantation. These manually operated paddy transplanters are often difficult to be operated. The research reported in this paper was carried out to overcome these difficulties which are experienced by the farmers while operating a six row manually operated paddy transplanter. This exercise was carried out by applying the steps of value engineering job plan. While carrying out this exercise, five ideas generated by a team of experts were implemented in practice. According to one of these ideas, a four row manually operated paddy transplanter was developed from six row manually operated paddy transplanter. Though there is insignificant increase in the manufacturing cost, the developed four row manually operated paddy transplanter was found to be easier to operate than to operate the six row manually operated paddy transplanter.
Keywords: Value engineering job plan; paddy transplanter; FAST diagram; brainstorming; idea generation.
Prioritization of Leader Roles in Several Phases of Innovation Process to Enhance Productivity
by Mojtaba Kiaei, Amir Hassan Zarei Rahro, Mona Shirkhorshidi
Abstract: The present research aims to prioritize leader roles in several phases of the innovation process in order to enhance productivity. For this purpose, leader roles in the innovation process were investigated from different authors viewpoints and five roles were finally extracted. According to the results obtained from the analysis of the questionnaires, in the front end phase of innovation process, the roles are ranked based on their importance as follows: technical expert, planner, communicator, team builder and champion. In the development phase, the results are: technical expert, planner, team builder, communicator, and champion, respectively. Furthermore, several activities of the front end and the development phase in the New Product Development (NPD) process were ranked based on their importance. Opportunity identification, idea generation and customer need assessment in the front end phase and development and design and production engineering, in the development phase determined as most important activities.
Keywords: Productivity; leadership; innovation process; front end phase of innovation; development phase of innovation; new product development; technical expert; planner; team builder; communicator; champion.
A probabilistic model for predicting Service Level Adherence of Application Support projects
by Srijith Sreenivasan, Manimaran Sundaram
Abstract: Application support projects are those which maintain the operations of software in production environment. Service Level Adherence is a key outcome metric which monitors the contractual compliance of these projects with customers. This paper discusses an approach to develop a prediction model using process factors impacting service level adherence. These factors are derived from the processes and sub-processes having a logical relationship with the outcome. A total of 23 factors were considered initially for modelling, of which 6 were found to be statistically significant. The model, developed using regression and Monte Carlo simulation, is validated in an actual industrial project to ensure its accuracy. The model can be used in application support projects to arrive at timely decisions for suitable mid-course corrections to control service level adherence.
Keywords: application support; software maintenance; service level adherence; prediction model; regression analysis; monte carlo simulation; model validation.
AN APPROACH FOR JUSTIFICATION OF SUCCESS 5S PROGRAM IN MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATIONS USING FUZZY BASED SIMULATION MODEL
by Jugraj Singh Randhawa, Inderpreet Singh Ahuja
Abstract: Customised demands having low cost, good quality of products and services in time are the major issues of the global competitive markets. Every organization resolves these issues by the implementation of different quality improvement tools effectively in order to stay competitive in the market. The literature revels that 5S implementation is most effective tool for the organization in order to resolves these issues and enhances the business performance parameters. Though 5S is a simple technique to learn, but the sustainability and success of implementation in organization needs a number of factors to be considered which later on become a Multi Criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. To resolve the MCDM problems, there are different MCDM analytical tools suggested by the literature to find the effective solution of the problem. This research paper deploys the Fuzzy Inference System (Fuzzy logic toolbox) to evaluate the success of 5S implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations on the basis of three critical elements, namely Top management to bottom level employee involvement (TM-BLEI), Basic 5S issues (BFSI) and Fifth S issues (FSI) deployed in the study. The results of fuzzy rule viewer and surface view tool of fuzzy tool box in MATLAB have highlighted that top to bottom management involvement; basic 5S Issues and fifth S (SHITSUKE) elements have emerged as significant predictor variables for the high Success of 5S implementation program in Indian industries.
Keywords: 5S; 5S implementation; Manufacturing organization; Multi Criteria Decision Making; Fuzzy Simulation; Fuzzy Inference System(FIS); Business Performance Parameters.
Behavior of productivity indicators and financial resources in the field of extraction and exploitation of minerals in Colombia.
by Jose Morelos, Tomas Fontalvo, Efrian De La Hoz
Abstract: This research presents the results of the analysis of the behavior of productivity indicators and financial resources in the extractive sector of minerals in Colombia. The method used allowed the calculation of the indicators of productivity and financial, to the 31 companies that projected its financial statements in the Information System and Business Risk (SIREM) for the years 2010 and 2013. Then we used the technique of multivariate analysis of data, to explain the membership and the existence of significant differences in the group of companies in the sector, which showed a decreasing behavior from one period to another of the indicators reason net income and value added (IP3) and reason and net working capi-tal (IP6), low productive capacity presented by the indicators of productivity (IP2) and (IP5), as a result of the deficiencies in sales (IE3) and low investment that will drive growth in the cluster.
Keywords: Productivity; financial rates; minerals; discriminant analysis; energy; efficiency; perfor-mance; measure; value added and extraction.
A Quality Function Deployment-based Model for Coordinate Measuring Machine Selection
by Shankar Chakraborty, Kanika Prasad
Abstract: Advanced manufacturing technologies, machines and materials have transformed the manufacturing sector to be extremely vigorous in their approach. This transformation is being observed in all aspects of manufacturing, including quality control and assurance. Automated inspection devices are capable of ensuring better quality products, while improving productivity and minimizing the overall cost of manufacturing. Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is one such important automated inspection device used to determine coordinates of points on a workpiece surface using a movable probe. Selection of a suitable CMM for a manufacturing organization is a complex task as most of the available CMMs are designed to serve a wide array of inspection requirements. Inadequate decision making skills resulting from technical acumen of the staff or time constraints and conflicting business goals may further complicate the CMM selection process. Although, the selection of automated inspection devices has been addressed in fewer past studies, most of them have not considered voice of the customers in the decision making process. Hence, this paper proposes a quality function deployment-based model which correlates customers requirements with technical specifications of the available CMMs. Furthermore, in order to ease out the entire CMM selection procedure, a user friendly software prototype in Visual BASIC 6.0 is developed. Two illustrative examples are cited to demonstrate the applicability and robustness of this model.
Keywords: QFD technique; Decision making; CMM selection; Rank.
Application of Taguchi and RSM Techniques for Optimizing the Parameters of Pressure Die Casting Process
by MUTHUSWAMY SHANMUGARAJA
Abstract: Most of the automotive and allied components in todays world are produced by metal casting processes. However, the casting process industries suffer from poor quality of castings due to involvement of large number of process parameters. The primary intent of this paper is to enhance the quality of aluminium die casting products using optimization techniques such as Taguchi and Response surface methodology.In this study, some of the factors that have reasonable influence on blow holes defect are identified. Each factor is considered with three levels and Taguchi technique is employed. Analysis of Variance table is generated to determine the statistical significance of the parameters. Response graphs are plotted to determine the preferred level for each parameter. By using the Minitab soft tool, Response surface methodology is carried out. The regression model, surface and contour plots are developed to identify the most contributing process parameter. Among the selected process parameters, the degassing frequency is noted as greatest influencing factor up to 47% on response, next influencing factor as metal temperature with 45% contribution on response.The highest level of metal temperature and lowest level of degassing frequency are found as optimum level to decrease the blowhole defect.
Keywords: Automotive; Metal Casting; Poor Quality; Process Parameters; Aluminium Die Casting; Taguchi; Response Surface Methodology; Pareto Analysis; Ishikawa Diagram; Orthogonal Array; Analysis of Variance.
Service Providers Rationalization for the Performance Improvement of the Organization: a Case Study
by Bhaskar Gardas, Rakesh Raut, Annasaheb H. Jagtap, Pradeep Yadav
Abstract: In the highly competitive environment organizations want to select an experienced service provider (SP) for improving their supply chains performance. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the selection criteria identified through literature review and expert opinions, peculiar to the oilfield services for the selection of (surface equipment) service providers in the Indian context by employing an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach. The results of the study revealed that cost and preventive maintenance measures are the top two significant criteria, and the service provider 1 is the best amongst fifteen shortlisted SPs. The developed hierarchical model is intended to guide the decision and policy makers in understanding the evaluation process, and for formulating the strategies & policies for the same.
Keywords: Service providers’ rationalization; performance improvement; evaluation; selection; AHP; oilfield services.
Prioritizing Post Sales Service Quality Items in Light Commercial Vehicles using TOPSIS Method
by Santosh Kumar Yadav
Abstract: Post sales service quality is the most essential viewpoint to measure customer satisfaction in light commercial vehicles. A post sales service is required after the sales of a vehicle. Customer satisfaction checks whether after getting services, customers feel happy or not. This research paper attempts to identify post sales service quality items that lead to customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. A Questionnaire was developed about post sales service quality in which the customer was asked to rate the importance of these items. The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method was applied to rank the post sales service quality items based on their importance in light commercial vehicles. From the results, it is found that the having a consistent standard for accepting and returning vehicles for service and promptness of service were the two most important post sales service quality items. The accessibility to the service station and the availability of advanced facilities in the service station were also found to be of significant importance. Service station managers may give these items priority in order to increase post sales service quality.
Keywords: Post Sales Service Quality; Light Commercial Vehicle; TOPSIS.
Business Research Productivity and Barriers
by Omar Khalil
Abstract: Knowing why some faculty members are more scholarly productive than others and what factors influence research productivity in an institution is essential to guiding research productivity improvement efforts. This study explored the research productivity and perceived research barriers to conducting research by the Business faculty members at Kuwait University (KU) as well as the influence of their individual characteristics on the reported productivity and barriers. The reported Business research productivity tends to be low. Barriers related to research efficacy, physical and information resources, fiscal resources, and time reportedly challenge research productivity. However, the individual characteristics of gender, age, nationality, academic rank, experience at HE, time spent on research, and time spent on teaching variably influence the reported research productivity and perceived research barriers. These findings as well as their implications and limitations are further discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Business Research; Productivity; Barriers; Individual Characteristics; Kuwait University (KU).
Evaluating the Efficiency of the Commercial Banks Admired in Fortune 500 List; Using Data Envelopment Analysis
by Mohammad Saljoughian, Hadi Shirouyehzad, Elaheh Khajeh, Reza Dabestani
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach for identifying the relatively most efficient Banks in Future 500 list. The second purpose of this paper is to suggest benchmarks for the banks that were not considered efficient. In this paper, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to discriminate efficient banks from the inefficient ones. To do so, each bank was considered as a decision Making Unit (DMU). Then, experts assigned inputs and outputs to the model. They suggested Assets as the input and Revenue, Profit, and Total Stockholders Equity as the output. Having discriminated the DMUs, we ranked them and ran a sensitivity analysis on the data. Necessary data were acquired from the Fortune 500 list. The results, findings, implications, and suggestions are presented in the paper. DEA results can serve as a benchmark for the inefficient DMUs. That is, each inefficient bank can find its benchmark and set proper policies to achieve the efficiency with least wastage of budget and time.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Efficiency; Commercial Banks; Ranking; Sensitivity Analysis.
Monitoring of an Ingot making facility via Principal Component Analysis and its variants
by Swarnambuj Suman, Anupam Das
Abstract: The ingots are a key intermediate product manufactured in the steel making industries. The article delves into the monitoring of the ingot manufacturing facility by making use of the multivariate process monitoring techniques. In order to deal with the various scenarios arising during the production of ingots, different variants viz multi-block principal component analysis and multiway principal component analysis are also employed to monitor the process and feed stock characteristics. A comparative analysis of the merits and demerits of the employed variants is also presented in the article based on the case study. On the basis of the findings it may be concluded that the decision regarding the methodology to be adopted depends upon a trade-off between the scope of application of the methodology and the ease of development.
Keywords: Ingot manufacturing; Steel Manufacturing Facility; Principal Component analysis; Multi-Block PCA; Multiway PCA. Statistical Process Monitoring.
An empirical investigation of the relationship between TQM practices, quality performance, and customer satisfaction level.
by A.N.U. P ANIL, SATISH K P
Abstract: Although much has been written about TQM, little attention has been paid to determine the effect of TQM practices on organizations performance measures, particularly in Indian manufacturing context. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the significant impact of TQM practices on quality performance and customer satisfaction level of an organization through an empirical approach. This paper also extends the research on exploring the mediating effect of quality performance on the relationship between TQM practices and customer satisfaction level. The empirical data was collected from a survey of 260 manufacturing organizations in India using a self-administrated questionnaire. After confirming the reliability and validity of latent variables with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling technique. The findings support the proposed hypotheses that there is a positive and significant relationship between TQM practices and quality performance as well as customer satisfaction level simultaneously. The results of the study also support the hypothesis that quality performance partially mediates the relationship between TQM practices and customer satisfaction level.
Keywords: Total quality management; Quality performance; Customer satisfaction level; Structural equation modeling.
A Study of Correlation for Reverse Logistics Barriers to Solutions Using Structural Equation Modeling
by Pornwasin Sirisawat, Tossapol Kiatcharoenpol
Abstract: Reverse logistics (RL) plays an important role in many industries especially in the electronics industry and helps sustainability businesses while also reducing environmental impacts from various business processes. The electronics industry is one of the most rapidly growth industries in Thailand. It plays an important role in the countrys economy. Many companies adopted RL for their business process but still enforce some barriers that make it unsuccessful. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relationship of RL barriers and solutions then examines the relationship between these factors. A conceptual model was developed by proposing four hypotheses in which structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the proposed model. For data collection, 417 questionnaires were distributed to Thai electronics companies from which 67 questionnaires were included in the final sample with a 16.07 % response rate. The main results of this study presented that there are statistics significant of the proposed hypothesis which can be explained such that RL barriers have a directly negative relationship with overall solutions for reverse logistics practices. And RL barriers have also indirect negative relationships to the group of management & organization solutions, the group of technology and collaboration solutions and the group of legal and infrastructural solutions. In conclusion, the proposed model could fit with the empirical data by using SEM. The proposed results could reconfirm that there are statistics significant of the relationship between RL barriers and solutions of RL practices implementation in Thailand electronics industry. Hence, the results of the proposed model provide valuable information for decision makers and top management to create policy and strategy by choosing an appropriate solution to overcome RL barriers implementation and increase competitive strength of their companies. Furthermore, it could be a guideline for additional by both researchers and practitioners in the electronics industry and other related industries.
Keywords: structural equation modeling; correlation; reverse logistics; electronics industry.
Evaluation of HealthCare Service Quality Management in an Iranian Hospital by using Fuzzy Logi
by Farzad Firouzi Jahantigh
Abstract: Service quality Management is a requirement for survival and development of organizations inrntoday's competitive environment. Good service quality can lead to customer satisfaction andrnloyalty which any organization needs to be successful. Measuring service quality is complicatedrnand developing suitable instruments for this purpose is essential for active healthcare planners.rnThus, the present study is aimed to introduce a framework to determine the service quality gaprnbetween expectations and perceptions of customers in healthcare, using Fuzzy logic ThernWilcoxon Mann-Whitney fuzzy test was utilized to measure the main outcome of the studyrnwhich was the service quality gap between expectations and perceptions of customers inrnhealthcare. This gap was measured with the SERVQUAL instrument. Considering the aboverncases, it is necessary to provide a simple model based on fuzzy logic for dealing withrnuncertainties. It is important to note that studies conducted in foreign and domestic articlesrnhavent focused on assessing the quality of medical care services with a fuzzy approach. In thisrnregard, according to the research objectives, the hypotheses of the study were tested .In thisrnstudy, fuzzy linguistic analysis is introduced into the gap theory and SERVQUAL assessmentsrnthat makes possible more internal consistency and shown Wilcoxon test hypotheses that only inrnthe tangible dimension, the hospital was able to meet patients 'expectations and their officialsrnshould put much more effort to improve service quality in other dimensions such as empathy,rnresponsiveness, security and safety .The proposed framework enables hospital managers tornunderstand how patients evaluate the quality of healthcare provided in respect of everyrndimension. Utilizing this framework, the hospitals can discover the crucial service qualityrnattributes and make a value to improve or enhance.rn
Keywords: Healthcare system; Fuzzy logic; Evaluation; Quality Management of health care.
Evaluating the Factors Considered for Procurement of Raw Material in Food Supply Chain using Delphi-AHP Methodology- A Case Study of Potato Chips Processing Company in India
by Sachin Kamble, Rakesh Raut
Abstract: Procurement of raw material plays a very critical role in a supply chain. In the era where, the organizations are searching for cost saving innovative ideas due to the increasing cost pressures procurement function provides an opportunity to these organizations to remain competitive. Procurement of raw materials in a food supply chain has to face the problems like shortage of raw material, quality, lack of continuous supply of seasonal raw material, inadequate trained labor force, costly imported packing material, infrastructure and technological deficiencies. This demands that the food industry need to manage the risk/cost trade-off without disregarding freshness, sustainability and corporate social responsibility issues. This paper presents a case study of a food processing plant in India manufacturing potato chips, with potato as the main raw material. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the important criteria that are considered while procuring the raw material in a food supply chain. Delphi technique and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) were used for exploring and ranking the criteria. Quality of the raw material, supplying capacity of the supplier-quantity and price were identified as the most important purchasing criteria.
Keywords: Procurement of raw material; Analytical Hierarchical Process; Supplier; Supply Chain Management; Delphi Technique.
Reducing Variation in Tensile Impact Testing of Plastics
by Hari Prasad, Narayana Rao, Prasanta Prasanta Mukhopadhyay
Abstract: Polymeric materials are characterised using various analytical techniques, the interest in this work emanates from mechanical testing, more specifically tensile impact studies. Tensile impact properties has been a critical factor in evaluating polymeric material brittleness or ductility changes (ASTM D1822/ ISO 8256). High variation of this test leads to difficulty in formulation optimization efforts during material development targeted for applications demanding mechanical designs and integrity. The objective of this study is to understand the different factors affecting the variation in the test results. A systematic statistical analysis to increase robustness of the testing instrument design was undertaken. This study of multiple samples showed that specimen alignment issue in the test fixture was a major source of error. Modification to the test fixture were carried out to address this issue. Statistical treatment to the data was done using a variety of analysis methods, namely, defect per million opportunities (DPMO), Z-score around process capability, homogeneity of variance (HOV), 2-sample T-test. HOV analysis indicated that the spread was significantly reduced and 2-sample t test indicated that the sample mean was not shifted post machine modification. Product benchmark report estimated process capability increase in the Z value from 0.843 to 2.192, post-instrument modification. This was reflected as improved sigma capability of the process, with reduction in DPMO from 7,44,444 to 2,44,444 (67% improvement in process capability).
Keywords: Variation,Statistical Process Control (SPC); Risk Priority Number (RPN); Failure Mode Effective Analysis (FMEA); Standard deviation; Homogeneity of Variance etc.
Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) measurement of TPM manager model machines in flexible manufacturing environment: A case study of automobile sector
by Richa Sharma
Abstract: Total productive maintenance (TPM) has provided a quantitative metric tool which is known as overall equipment effectiveness (OEE). OEE provides an efficient and effective way of measuring and analyzing the efficiency of a single machine cell or an integrated manufacturing system. The objective of this paper is to highlight the OEE measurement in flexible manufacturing system of selected automobile manufacturing plant by enhancing the equipment and plant reliability by eliminating all the losses incurred. In this study, a methodology is presented for analysis of OEE of TPM manager model machines in a selected semi-automated cell. In this paper, an approach is developed to identify and address the losses and failures which are responsible for lowering the OEE. The results have shown that there was a significant improvement in OEE measurement of TPM manager model machines in a semi-automated cell of selected automobile plant by addressing the six big losses. The findings of the research determine a significant contribution due to OEE measurement and assessment of losses and therefore were quite useful for the organization to initiate TPM improvement activities to enhance the overall plant efficiency.
Keywords: Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE); Total productive maintenance (TPM); six big losses; Efficiency; Availability; Autonomous maintenance; flexible manufacturing environment.
The effect of combining knowledge-based practices and healthcare policies on healthcare quality
by Milad Kolagar, Seyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini
Abstract: Purpose: Nowadays, quality promotion of health care services has become one of the most important and challenging goals of health care systems all over the world. Health care quality, due to the specific characteristics of this field, always has a sensitivity and high priority. Accordingly, this research aimed to determine the effect of combining knowledge-based practices and health care policies on health care quality in three training hospitals of Tehran, Iran.
Design: In this study, a model has been proposed for health care quality improvement. In the proposed model, the relationship between knowledge-based practices, which contains knowledge and organizational learning, and health care policies, which contains patient safety culture and clinical governance, has been investigated and the interactions between these variables and their impact on the healthcare quality, have been examined.
Findings: The results and findings of the research have confirmed all of the hypotheses which means the t-value on each path is higher than 2.58 at a significance level of 0.01 in a bootstrapping process. This means that the proposed framework could help the healthcare organizations to promote their service quality in order to have healthier people, healthier families, healthier lifestyles and healthier world.
Originality: One of the most important factors affecting the orientation and implementation of health care policies in any country, is managing and controlling knowledge and learning of healthcare systems. Given the specificity of the model presented in this study and by using it, the effect of combining knowledge-based practices with health care policies on promotion and improvement of health care policies in Tehran hospitals is being investigated. The novelty of this research lies in the inclusion of knowledge-based practices (knowledge and organizational learning) while implemented on patient safety culture as a basis for the dominance of hospitals clinical governance in order to improve the quality of healthcare services.
Keywords: patient safety culture; knowledge ; organizational learning; clinical governance; healthcare quality.
Using System Dynamics to better understand quality management in the construction industry
by Anna Hulda Olafsdottir, Harald Sverdrup, Gunnar Stefansson, Helgi Ingason
Abstract: System dynamics was applied to evaluate the use of quality management in the construction industry. Results were reached with the following: 1) a background study, 2) group model building, 3) a case study of a construction project 4) a simulation model. The main objective of the study is to assist in minimizing the total quality cost for a construction project with the holistic approach system dynamics offer. The model offers a unique contribution to the possibility to be adapted to other projects. It can then be used to minimize cost with suggested dynamic policies. To the best of the authors knowledge, the current study is the first to offer a system dynamics approach to evaluate the cost of quality in a construction project. The results give a link to the literature with a comparison between simulation outputs and Jurans (1988) graphical representation of the total cost of quality.
Keywords: System Dynamics; Construction Industry; Case Study; Quality Management; Project Management.
Assessing the challenging factors towards green initiatives in Indian Electronic industries: A framework and evaluation
by Kaliyan Mathiyazhagan, Shivani Sehrawat, Bhumika Sharma, K. Elangovan
Abstract: Globally industries are under pressure to incorporate environmental consideration in traditional activities based on demand from customers and government regulations. But industries are facing a lot of problems in analyzing and identifying the influential challenging factors for adopting eco-friendly and green practices in traditional activities. This paper reviews the scenario of green supply chain management (GSCM) in India as well electronics industry perspective based on extensive literature review. Also, this study focuses on identifying the most influential challenging factors for adoption of green in traditional practices with the help of decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) approach. A total of 35 challenging factors was identified based on literature and discussion with industry experts. Than considered 20 challenging factors for further analysis. This study involved 30 electronics SMEs in and around the Delhi - National Capital Region (NCR) of India and more than 15 academicians were also consulted.
Keywords: Green initiatives; GSCM; Electronics industries; Challenging factors; DEMATEL.
EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 5S IMPLEMENTATION PRACTICES IN INDIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
by Inderpreet Singh Ahuja, Harwinder Singh
Abstract: In the contemporary scenario, manufacturing environment and changing customer demands call for quality of products and services. This product quality and attributes increasingly depends upon the organizations competencies regarding infrastructural adequacies and abilities of organization to manage its equipment and facilitate in proper manner. The present study involves investigation of 5S implementation in Indian manufacturing industries. A questionnaire survey has been conducted to evaluate the contribution of 5S in Indian manufacturing industries. The analysis have been conducted on forty-one manufacturing industries. This study develops an understanding of contribution of 5S initiatives toward accruing manufacturing performance enhancements in Indian manufacturing industries. This study reveals that the overall organization achievements are interconnected with achieving the results through 2S and quality improvements have strong linkage with adoption of 5S initiatives. The study highlights that various 5S implementation issues and achievements are closely related with each other.
Keywords: 5S implementation; Lean Manufacturing; Manufacturing Industry; Manufacturing Performance Achievements.
Selection of material for Electric Arc Spraying using hierarchical Entropy-TOPSIS approach
by Rakesh Kumar Phanden, Rahul Sindhwani, Faizan Iqbal, Vivek Kalsariya
Abstract: Electric Arc Spray (EAS) is a process used to solidify the molten metal on the substrate surface. The desired material is first melted due to current and voltage applied to the ends of two electrically conductive metal wires and then propelled on the desired surface. The present work suggests possible material alternatives that could enhance the properties of the EAS process. Entropy approach is used to give the weightage to the factors on which materials will be prioritized. TOPSIS method is applied to determine the ranking of each of the material which could happen to be a best feasible alternative. It is found that Tin, Zirconium and Titanium are top ranked best feasible metals while as Cadmium and Calcium are the least priority. Thus, the results yield a platform to choose the best possible material as an alternative. The future scope of the work lies in the fact that an ideal solution as an alternative would help in increasing the quality of the capacitors besides saving the cost. The motive of every manufacturer is to achieve the right quality at the right price which is met by using these alternate materials during manufacturing.
Keywords: Electric Arc Spray; Entropy method; TOPSIS method; alternative material.
Measuring productivity in multi-stage, multi-product environment
by Shlomo Globerson, Gad Vitner
Abstract: Productivity is defined as the ratio of output to the resources required to produce it. The objective of this study is to present a model aimed at measuring the productivity of producing different products, each consisting of a few work stations, in a service and manufacturing environment. Since organizational profit, or other financial indicators used for evaluating organizational success, cannot be measured at the time of the operation, the presented model can be used as a fast and valid indicator of expected future profit. Calculating productivity requires measuring both output and resources. This study focuses on the measurement of the outputs and offers methodologies to quantify the following two concepts: 1.Calculating total output for each product, taking into consideration the value of items in process by summing up partial items into an equivalent number of complete items. 2.Developing a method to sum up the outputs of various products by assigning the relative weight of each product, according to the level of usage of the most intensively used resource.
Keywords: productivity; performance management; multi-stage; multi-product.
Cost and benefit analysis of Implementing TFMEA in Tea Industry: A Case Study
by Angeline Geetha.M, Suresh Premil Kumar.R, S.R. Devadasan, A. Pal Pandi
Abstract: Tea is an aromatic drink commonly consumed by the people worldwide. Tea manufacturers face a serious threat in controlling the failures in its manufacturing process. Failures in the manufacturing process affect the quality of the tea produced. The cost of the tea varies with the quality of the tea. The tea manufacturers are more concerned about the internal failure cost incurred in its manufacturing process as it determines the cost and quality of the tea. In this background a new approach namely Cost based Total Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (CTFMEA) was applied in the research reported in this paper. In this research, a maiden attempt is made to implement this new approach by conducting a case study in tea manufacturing company. After implementing TFMEA technique its cost benefit analysis was conducted. The outcome of this research indicated that through the application of CTFMEA, the quality of the tea could be improved by reducing the failures thereby assuring cost benefits to the tea manufacturers.
Keywords: Tea manufacturing; Internal failure cost; Continuous quality improvement; TQM; FTA; FMEA; CTFMEA; Cost benefits.
A NOVEL APPROACH FOR FAILURE MODE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS IN PROPELLER SHAFT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY USING FUZZY ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GRA VIKOR
by Gnanasekaran Sakthivel, Bernard W. Ikua
Abstract: The present study develops the evaluation model based on FMEA and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with GRA (Gray Relational Analysis) - VIKOR (Vlse Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) under fuzzy environment to evaluate the greatest risk for processes in the production of dust cap assembly in the propeller shaft manufacturing industry. Three risk factors S, O, D and their weights are treated as fuzzy triangular linguistic variables to eliminate the risk for production. FAHP is used to compute the weights of Severity (S), Occurrence (O) and Detection (D), whereas GRA-VIKOR is used to obtain the final ranking of a risk alternative. Here, the risk factors and their weights are treated as fuzzy triangular linguistic variables for eliminating the risk of subjective quantification and similarity of Risk Priority Number (RPN). The ranking of the failures depends upon the VIKOR index of nine failures. The ranking order of nine failure modes based on VIKOR index is F2 (Drawing dimension failure)-0.210 < F1(Blanking of blank failure)-0.5< F4(Window cutting failure)-0.504 < F7(Packing- short excess quantity)-0.786 < F6(Final Inspection of dimension failure )-0.795 < F8(Packing -damage in pack)-0.822 < F3(Hole size failure)-0.965 < F9(Dispatch failure)-0.97< F5(Plating failure)-1. Drawing dimension failure (F2) and Blanking of blank failure (F1) is obtained as the most serious failure mode using Fuzzy GRA VIKOR.
Keywords: Risk assessment; FMEA; FAHP; GRA VIKOR.
SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW OF ISO 9001 AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT
by Leonardo Sfreddo, Guilherme B.B. Vieira, Gabriel Vidor, Roque Zin
Abstract: This paper presents a systematic literature review of ISO 9001 and process management from 1990 to 2015. In order to investigate the studies published in English on these topics, the keywords ISO 9001 and process management were searched in Science Direct database. These terms should be mentioned in papers title, abstract or keywords as an inclusion criterion. Studies which were redundant due to search criterion or which were published in a language other than English were excluded. Three rounds of analysis were conducted, including quantitative analysis of search results, bibliometric analyses, qualitative analysis, and in-depth reading of the selected studies. By carrying out the review, it was possible to identify an opportunity to deepen the studies that correlate ISO 9001 and process management, which is justified by the small number of papers published with this specific approach. In addition, the papers which were analyzed in this systematic review did not address some important aspects in the relationship between ISO 9001 and process management, such as evidence of improved operational efficiency of processes, and cultural changes noticed in organizations after the implementation of ISO 9001.
Keywords: ISO 9001; Process Management; systematic literature review.
The relationship between human resource management practices and manufacturing flexibility: Empirical evidence from manufacturing companies in Vietnam
by Ngoc Anh Nguyen, Dinh Phuong Trieu, Chi Anh Phan, Yoshiki MATSUI
Abstract: Manufacturing flexibility has been widely considered as an aid to greater productivity, meanwhile, multi-functional employees has been viewed as a great potential source of productivity improvement by avoiding bottlenecks. This study aims to investigate the relationship between human resource management practices and manufacturing flexibility in Vietnamese manufacturing companies. Data were collected from 25 Vietnamese companies belonging to three industries: electronics/electrical, machinery and automobile in 2014. Correlation and regression analyses are applied to explore the relationships among research variables. The results indicate not only a significant linkage between multi-functional employees and manufacturing flexibility but also a positive relationship between management breadth of experience, task-related training for employees and multi-functional employees. The paper enriches the literature of manufacturing flexibility by providing empirical evidence from developing countries, and by providing insights into how Vietnamese manufacturers use internal resources, i.e. human resources, to achieve a higher level of manufacturing flexibility.
Keywords: manufacturing flexibility; human resource management; competitive performance; empirical study; Vietnamese manufacturing companies.