Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management


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International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management (88 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Soft Total Quality Management and Lean Manufacturing Initiatives: Model Development through Structural Equation Modeling   Order a copy of this article
    by Amjad Khalili, Md Yusof Ismail, A.N.M. Karim, Mohd Radzi Che Daud 
    Abstract: Both Soft Total Quality Management (STQM) and Lean Manufacturing (LM) are philosophies for continuous improvement. In Operations Management (OM) literature little is known about whether they can be integrated together or they are in conflict. Furthermore, the nature of integration together in the same enterprise is not clear. This paper tries to eliminate gap in OM literature regarding the integration of soft TQM and LM practices. To do this, it proposes a comprehensive model to be implemented in the developing economy of Malaysia, to investigate the linkages among elements of soft TQM and LM tools in the measured manufacturing sectors. A structured closed questionnaire was designed to validate the model and test the hypothesis. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS 22) is utilized to empirically investigate the model based on primary data of 329 responses. Results obtained from the structural model implied that hypothesis is significant and supported. Thus both practices are complementary to each other. It contributed to OM body of knowledge by theoretically proposing the model and empirically by investigating it using techniques from SEM. This paper can be considered a guide for Malaysian manufacturers towards achieving excellence and sustain their performance in LM environment.
    Keywords: Soft TQM; Lean; Integration; AMOS; Complementary; Malaysia.

  • Development and Validation of Multi-Dimensional Wind Turbine Service Quality Scale for Measuring Operations and Maintenance Service Quality in Wind Energy Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Jernick, L. Suganthi, S. Iniyan 
    Abstract: Service Quality and customer satisfaction are very important concepts that organizations must understand in order to remain competitive in business and hence grow. It is very important for any organization to know how to measure these dimensions from the consumers perspective in order to better understand their needs and hence satisfy them. Service quality is considered very important because it leads to higher customer satisfaction, profitability, reduced cost, customer loyalty and retention. The aim of the study is to develop and validate a multi-dimensional scale for measuring Wind Turbine Service Quality (WTSQ). The instrument consists of 42 items operationalizing three dimensions namely functional, technical and corporate quality. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed through a confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling using the responses from 352 customers of wind turbine industry in India. The study findings indicated that the assessed instrument had three oblige factor structure and also has good reliability and validity. The paper contributes to the development of multi-dimensional service quality model in the Wind Turbine sector.
    Keywords: Service quality model; Multi-dimensional; Wind Turbine; Structural Equation Modelling; Operation and Maintenance.

  • Understanding Nature of Empathy through the lens of Service Encounter: A Phenomenological Study on FLEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Michael Sony, Nandakumar Mekoth, Therisa K K 
    Abstract: Research suggests that every conceptual model of service organizations in the past 20 years has recognized that front line employees (FLEs) significantly influence the customer experience. In service front line employee and customer interaction little is understood about the nature of empathy as a cognitive, an affective, or a multidimensional phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the multidimensional nature of empathy. This phenomenological study focuses on how the theoretical discussion of the cognitive-affective nature of empathy finds expression in a service encounter. Conclusions in this study point to the ending that empathy has different meanings for different service frontline employees, when they are empathizing with another customer. In probing the way service frontline employees experience empathy, it seems that both cognitive and affective aspects of this experience play a significant role and may appear either collectively or separately. The study provides some initial evidence on the conceptualization of empathy and present findings add to the literature by focusing on the intrapersonal world of FLEs and examining how their empathetic behaviour relates to the customer.
    Keywords: Service Encounter; emotional empathy; cognitive empathy; Phenomenological research; Service front line employees.

  • TQM as Business Strategy: A Meta-Analysis review   Order a copy of this article
    by Anupama Prashar 
    Abstract: There is no doubt in the fact that organisations, worldwide, are currently in the era of Total Quality Management (TQM), but whether it is making a real impact on these organisations bottom-line or is turning out to be yet another fad, remains a much-debated topic in both academic and management forums. Although there is ample evidence supporting the role of TQM in attaining competitive advantage, research has also revealed that TQM may not be a panacea for business problems, particularly in the absence of critical resources. In this direction, the study conducted a meta-analytical investigation of the association of TQM practices with firms performance from the quality management literature by adopting the heuristic approach proposed by Hunter and Schmidt (1990). The study also examined the role of moderating factors (country of firms origin) in influencing this association. For the meta-analytical review, 12 empirical studies (in an academic sense) that had examined the link between TQM practices and firms performance were sampled using the research databases (ABI/INFORM). The study adopted the random-effects meta-analysis model using weighted mean of raw correlation coefficient (Pearson r) as a measure of the size of the effect. The results marked the existence of association between the TQM practices and the firms performance in the sampled studies. Further, the analysis also highlighted the existence of moderators (country/region of firms origin) impacting this association. With these modest findings, this study is an effort to provide a fresh perspective on the role of TQM in the business strategy for competitive advantage.
    Keywords: TQM; Meta-Analysis; Effect size; Correlation; Random-effects models; Competitive advantage.

  • The Evaluation of Green Manufacturing Strategies adopted by ISO 14001 Certificate Holders in Jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Yazan Migdadi, Dua'a Alzagaibeh 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is evaluating the performance of green manufacturing strategies adopted by ISO 14001 certificate holders in Jordan. The survey questionnaire was developed based on the literature and interviews with industry experts and academics, twenty seven manufacturing organizations were surveyed. K-mean clustering analysis was used to cluster the manufacturing organizations to green manufacturing strategic groups. Also perfect matching analysis was used to trace the relationship between performance indicators and green actions. This study revealed that; there are three significant clusters of green manufacturing strategies: agile environment, care-taker environment and lean environment. The performance of agile strategic group is high to moderate; however, the performance of care-taker and lean is moderate to low. Different combinations of perfect matched green actions with performance indicators were adopted by each strategic group. This is the first study which reports the green manufacturing strategic patterns in Middle East, the majority of previous studies have not addressed the significant actions and performance indicators in details, the majority of previous studies have not clustered or grouped the manufacturing firms based on green key performance indicators.
    Keywords: ISO 14001; environment management system; green manufacturing strategy; key performance indicators; green operation actions; Jordan.

  • Quality and Productivity improvement through Spot Welding Process Optimization in Automobile Body Shop   Order a copy of this article
    by Selvam Ganesan, Prince Arockia Doss Sebastian, Surya Prakash Vaidhyanathan, Rohit Tungar 
    Abstract: Optimized geometry weld spot distribution for different configurations of automobile body sub-assemblies, is a critical activity in any Automobile Body Shop process planning. For an Ideal Body Shop Planning, it has to be planned in a systematic approach so that the maximum productivity with high Quality is being achieved. For this, the optimized Planning has to be made for number of spots welded in a geometry station. Lesser the number of spots, higher will be the dimensional variations of the assembly; greater the number of spots, lesser will be the productivity of the sub-assembly lines. The aim of this paper is to identify an optimized spot quantity for different sizes of parts with different surface contacts. To identify the optimum spot quantity, an industrial experiment was conducted using Taguchi method (L27 OA). Dimensional variations of the samples were recorded in 2 stages; (1) Post geometry spot welding (2) Post Re-spot welding; and the measured data was thoroughly analysed. Recommendations for the optimized number of spots for geometry spot weld stage were made for different assembly configurations. These recommendations are discussed in detail. This study will aid the process planners to distribute the appropriate number of spots in the geometry welding stations.
    Keywords: Body-In-White (BIW); Productivity; Quality; Geometry spot; Re-Spot; Taguchi method; DOE; Process optimization; Body Shop; Weld Shop; Surface contact; Dimensional Stability.

  • Performance Evaluation of the Public Transportation System in Esfahan Steel Company from the Production Line Employees Perspective with Data Envelopment Analysis Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Parisa Pendar, Farimah Mokhatab-Rafiei, Seyed Akbar Nilipour-Tabatabaei 
    Abstract: Public transportation is considered as one of the important parts in factories transportation systems which are known as employees public transportation system. In order to evaluate this system in Esfahan Steel Company, merely from the production line staff perspective, in this study the factors effective on employees satisfaction in terms of the transportation system quality were identified only through the interviewing with a group of production line workers. Final data obtained through interviewing and questionnaire were collected during four months from April to July 2015 and were considered as inputs of the study decision making units (DMUs) in data envelopment analysis (DEA). Solving the above mentioned model via Software LINGO 16.0. and DEA Frontier, efficient and inefficient routes of the factory were identified and ranked completely based on production line employees perspective; i.e. among 27 routes, 16 were recognized inefficient. Finally, sensitivity analysis on ε value was conducted in the modified model of this study; in addition, creating a virtual unit was done accordingly.
    Keywords: performance evaluation; efficiency; employee’s public transport; public transportation; Data Envelopment Analysis; DEA; ranking; Esfahan Steel Company; sensitivity analysis; output-oriented CCR model.

  • The relation between the traditional quality and the change of organizational culture using as methodology the Quality Control Circle (QCC)   Order a copy of this article
    by Kelly Cristina Araujo Nemer, Raimundo K. Vieira 
    Abstract: Aggregate value is to give a quality leap in one or more characteristics to a product, and make a difference of point of view to the customer. This article expresses a proposal for the implementation of the Quality Control Circle (QCC) as a strategic tool to improve the production process through the addition of value and eliminating waste, using together the traditional quality model, to obtain a culture change, where any collaborator becomes a final customer representative, eliminating waste through QCC projects.
    Keywords: Quality Control Circle; Elimination of waste; Addition of value.

  • Identification and ranking of enablers of green lean six sigma implementation using AHP   Order a copy of this article
    by Harsha Pandey, Dixit Garg, Sunil Luthra 
    Abstract: Improved environmental measures, waste reduction, cost optimization and increased quality of products/services have now become the main objectives of the organizations. In this study, an attempt towards fulfilling the above goals has been made by proposing the concept of Green Lean Six Sigma (GLS). The study emphasizes the implementation of GLS concept by identifying and ranking of various enablers. Five enabler dimensions and eighteen enablers of GLS concept implementation have been identified through combined association of existing literature and opinions of experts from appropriate field. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach is applied for ranking of these enabler dimensions and enablers. In AHP, pair wise comparisons are all done considering the opinions of experts. Further, the obtained results are validated using sensitivity analysis.
    Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); Green Lean Six Sigma (GLS); Enablers for implementing GLS; Indian manufacturing industry.

  • An Integrated Management System: From various aspects of the literature to a maturity model based on the process approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Mariyam Moumen, Houda El Aoufir 
    Abstract: Through this work, we will try at first, to provide a look at the literature to define the concept of integrated management system (IMS) and define the different approaches of study on the topic, a critical analysis of the different models, strategies and integration techniques will also be discussed.rnThe results for this research confirm the usefulness to potential contribution and the development of a single model of integrated management systems following a continuous improvement PDCA approach, incorporating a set of Quality, Safety and Environment tools at each stage of the implementation management systems.rnThe integrated management system (IMS) proposed, gathers three aspects and observes the following key standards: quality (ISO 9001), environment (ISO 14001) and occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001)). The chosen integration is based on a conceptual model governed by a simple and consistent form of generic processes and requirements to be an adaptable model to all types and sectors of business. Finally we propose a set of performance indicators to effectively assess the production system in terms of cost, time, quality, safety and environment to achieve the optimal performance of IMS;rn
    Keywords: Quality; Environment; Safety and Security; QSE; IMS; MSS; Integrated Management Systems.

  • The effects of Positive Organizational Behavior on entrepreneurial personality and Innovation   Order a copy of this article
    by Fazel Larijani, Nahid Saravi-Moghadam 
    Abstract: Today, organizations seek for entrepreneurial personality and innovation in order to survive in the competition scene. So far, the literature has recognized various items that affect entrepreneurial personality and innovation in organizations. The study analyzes how Positive Organizational Behavior dimensions predict entrepreneurial personality and innovation. In terms of objective, this study is considered as an empirical one, and the research methodology is descriptive type. The population includes 265 managers and professional experts working in Kalleh Company from Iran. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The Results of study showed Psychological capital and emotional intelligence enhanced innovation and entrepreneurial personality in Kalleh Company. The current research also provides more suggestion for future studies that could consider consequences of entrepreneurial personality and Innovation in their career.rnrn
    Keywords: Positive Organizational Behavior dimension; Entrepreneurial Personality; Innovation.

  • An Empirical Study on Factors Influencing Technology Transfer using Structural Equation Modelling   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehri Chehrehpak, Alireza Alizadeh, Salman Nazari-Shirkouhi 
    Abstract: This paper aims to determine the factors influencing technology transfer (TT) in an empirical study using structural equation modeling (SEM). A sample of 100 experts working in the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC) as empirical study is randomly selected. The data are collected through the questionnaire and are then analyzed using LISREL software. Results show that law and policy, companies capabilities, skilled human resource, localization of technology, and characteristics of technology significantly influence on the technology transfer. In addition, it is shown that the highest correlation is between companies capabilities and technology transfer. Fit indices show that the model has an appropriate fit. In general, building and strengthening law and policy, companies capabilities, skilled human resource and localization of technology could suitably improve the technology transfer.
    Keywords: Technology; Technology Transfer; National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC); Structural Equation Modelling (SEM).

  • The effect of business intelligence adoption on agile supply chain performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Javad Khazaei Pool, Hadi Balouei Jamkhaneh, Reihaneh Alsadat Tabaeeian, Hoda Tavakoli, Amir Shahin 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine how business intelligence (BI) adoption affects agile performance in supply chain. Drawing from the computer behavior literature, we hypothesize and test the relationship among technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework, BI adoption and agile performance. A structural equation modeling (SEM) test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationship among the research variables. The empirical results from the structural model suggest that TOE framework positively influenced business intelligence adoption. Furthermore, BI adoption was a direct antecedent of agile performance.
    Keywords: Supply chain agile performance; Business intelligence (BI); Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework; Technology adoption.

  • Effect of Organizational Culture and Organizational Learning on Organizational Innovation: An Empirical Investigation   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Rezaei, Sayyed Mohsen Allameh, Reza Ansari 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of organizational culture and organizational learning on organizational innovation in knowledge-based companies. To examine these relationships, organizational culture was considered based on Quinn and Cameron model involving hierarchy culture, adhocracy culture, clan culture and market culture. Moreover, organizational innovation was evaluated by Damanpour model in the form of technical and administrative innovation. A descriptive (non-trial) and correlational methodology using structural equations modelling was used for the study. Participants included top and middle managers of knowledge-based, start-up and industrial knowledge-based companies. These companies were divided into 14 groups. A number of 200 questionnaires were distributed among top and middle managers of these companies. Out of these, 141 questionnaires were returned. Of the questionnaires returned, 8 questionnaires were partially completed; thus, they were excluded from the analysis. Finally, 133 questionnaires were analyzed. This study used a correlational methodology by structural equations modeling in the form of partial least squares to test the measurement model and hypotheses. For data analysis, SMARTPLS was used to test the model. The results showed that adhocracy culture and clan culture had a positive effect on organizational learning, and market culture and hierarchy culture had a negative effect on organizational learning. Moreover, adhocracy culture and clan culture had a positive effect on technological and administrative innovation, while market culture and hierarchy culture were considered as a barrier to innovation. It was also found that organizational learning had a positive effect on technical and administrative innovations.
    Keywords: adhocracy culture; hierarchy culture; market culture; clan culture; organizational learning; technological innovation; administrative innovation.

  • Challenges in technology adoption in Indian public distribution system: A quality management approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Varun Chhabra, Shweta Chopra, Prashant Rajan 
    Abstract: Information and communication technologies are increasingly being used by various countries to provide faster and transparent services to their citizens through e-government initiatives. A large population in developing countries remain deprived of these services due to lack of skills, training and infrastructure. Local community intermediaries who have the necessary skills to use e-government technology are employed to provide services to beneficiaries. The purpose of this study was to identify and prioritize the challenges faced by intermediaries in adopting new e-government technology by studying technology adoption of point-of-sale devices introduced in the public distribution system of Chhattisgarh using quality management tools. Quality management tools of list reduction and affinity diagram were used to organize the data and categorize the challenges into various areas to be addressed by government. Pareto chart was used to prioritize and identify the areas that required immediate attention. Utilization of quality management tools is an unconventional approach to problem solving in public administration sector. The six identified priority areas, in order of their importance, were lack of infrastructure, design of device hardware, process design, salespeople errors, government support and software design. This research will help policy makers and government agencies to improve technology dissemination for easier adoption of existing as well as new e-government initiatives.
    Keywords: E-governance; information and communications technology; technology adoption; quality management tools; list reduction; affinity diagram; pareto chart; food security; public distribution system.

  • Analyzing of customer feedback on critical quality parameters to improve productivity in manufacturing A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by I.S. Stephan Thangaiah, Vinay Sharma, Vembar Nainar Sundharam 
    Abstract: Globalization and peers competition have forced industries to deliver what customer wants and even further, what will delight them. Technology innovation has created more awareness that customer has full knowledge on product and freebies offered. This has indirectly reflected on industrys profit and industries are concentrating best possible method to overcome it. Traditionally, Quality Function Deployment (QFD) has been used as a strategic tool to introduce cost effective new product. This paper explores application of QFD differently. It analyzes the manufacturing industrys operational process to achieve zero defect product which reduces the raw materials wastage, increase productivity and profitability. A study was conducted to understand the customer's preference of beverage products in Tamil Nadu State, India and prioritized them using Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) and constructed zero defect quality matrix. All critical operational quality parameters are analyzed and ranked. A suitable actions were recommended based on the observations.
    Keywords: Quality Function Deployment; Analytical Hierarchy Process; Value Chain; Zero Defect; Beverage Industry.

  • Analysis of Axioms and Assumptions of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Application for Efficiency Measurement in Project Management Contexts   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooria Niknazar, Mario Bourgault 
    Abstract: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is increasingly used to measure projects efficiency, as recent research contributions indicate. However, most studies in project management take the axioms and assumptions underlying DEA for granted or do not pay attention to the type of data they are working with. Lack of attention to these important factors leads to selection of inappropriate DEA models and, consequently, produces biased efficiency scores. In this paper, after arguing that DEA is an appropriate model for project efficiency measurement, the economic meaning of its axioms and assumptions is explained. We also explain how different data types require some modifications in the CCR model. As a result, a guideline is presented to help future project management scholars select an appropriate DEA method tailored for their specific situation. Further, to highlight the importance of paying attention to these issues, we empirically demonstrate the high sensitivity of DEA results to the applicability of underlying DEA axioms and assumptions.
    Keywords: Project efficiency measurement; Project Management; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Convexity; Returns-to-scale.

    by Shamshuritawati Sharif, Suzilah Ismail, Zurni Omar 
    Abstract: The depreciation of many currencies over the world has retarded the economic development during 2008 credit crisis. The aim of this study is to detect the existence of changes in the currency stability structure by using a new covariance structure test known as S* statistics for high dimensional data involving 74 currencies.Comparisons were made between monthly data and overall data of 2008. Further analysis was conducted using network topology to visualize the pattern of structural changes and identifying which currencies affected by the crisis. The findings disclose that October currency structure has the utmost changes as compared to overall structure 2008. Forty one (or 55%) currencies were affected. The most affected currencies were Austrian Schilling (ATS) and followed by Lebanese Pound (LBP)and Mexican Peso (MXN). These findings reflect the major impact of 2008 credit crisis on deterioration currencies performance.
    Keywords: credit crisis; covariance test; high dimension; network topology; currencies performance.

  • Justification of advanced manufacturing technologies for small and medium enterprises from auto component sector: AHP Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimple Bhandari, Rajesh Kr Singh, S.K. Garg 
    Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are considered as engine of economic growth in most of the countries. They need to change themselves with dynamic market requirements. This study tries to justify implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from auto component sector. Majorly seven benefits of using AMTs are identified from literature and experts opinion. These are improvement in flexibility, reduction in production cost, inventory reduction, lead time reduction, delivery on time, productivity improvements and innovative products. Global desirability index of SMEs with AMTs and Traditional manufacturing is calculated and compared with the help of AHP. It is observed that AMTs based production systems have more global desirability index as compared to traditional manufacturing systems. Therefore findings imply that SMEs can improve their performance by judicious application of AMTs in their processes.
    Keywords: Advanced manufacturing technology; Analytic hierarchy process; Small and medium enterprises; Productivity improvement; Competitive advantage.

  • Study the relationship between Supply Chain Quality Management practices and performance in the Iranian Automotive Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Nosratpour, Ali Nazeri, Rahman Soofifard 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between supply chain quality management practices and performance. A conceptual model is developed and tested through path analysis using the cross-section data collected from the automotive industry in Iran. Using a quantitative methodology, 280 of 500 senior and executive managers in the automotive industry in Iran participated and completed the survey. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used for data reduction of the entire sample (to purify the scale) and to ascertain whether the survey questions were loaded on their respective dimensions (this was refined and confirmed later by CFA). Besides that, the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine the research hypotheses and hypothesized model. Leadership, Customer focus, Education and training, strategic suppliers partnership, information analysis, internal lean practices and teamwork is positively associated with organizational performance. The results of this study provide strong evidence that certain supply chain quality management practices when implemented can directly or indirectly improve innovation and performance.
    Keywords: Innovation; Supply Chain Quality Management; Performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2018.10007726
  • Process improvement in an Indian Automotive Part Manufacturing Company: a case study   Order a copy of this article
    by M.L. Meena, Rahul Jain, G.S. Dangayach 
    Abstract: Problem-solving and ongoing procedure enhancements are key elements to obtaining quality improvement in business operations. Many process improvement strategies have been suggested and implemented in organizations, where define, measure, analysis, improve and control (DMAIC) is mostly applied. This study presents a practical application of an improved version of DMAIC, for reducing the defects generated through a process within the auto part manufacturing firm. The paper reviews the most commonly used lean and six sigma tools, explicitly, DMAIC, its modifications, and restrictions. Based on this, the study provides define, measure, pre-analysis, experiment, analysis, improve, and control (DMPEAIC) methodology. Finally, DMPEAIC is tested in a case study. The results obtained from the case study shows that DMPEAIC is an efficient approach resulting in the case study company to get a reduction of 76.4% defects in problems related to maintenance methods, and informal issues.
    Keywords: Automobile Part Manufacturing; Defect; DMAIC; Process Improvement; Six Sigma; Waste Reduction.

    by Mario Alfredo Ferrer Vasquez, Ricardo Santa, Anita Medhekar, Erick Calvo, Lina Molina 
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to identify the elements that contribute most to the culture of quality in patient safety in Saudi Arabian hospitals. Additionally, this study seeks to establish and test a model to determine relations between the drivers of safety culture. In order to test the proposed hypotheses, a self-administered questionnaire was submitted to 110 hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Research findings presented that Saudi Arabian hospitals need to adapt a clear communication policy and respond to feedback after errors are discovered so as to create a culture of quality, safety and constant enhancement. Also, they need to adapt a policy of non-punitive response to errors, so that employees are able to learn from their mistakes and prevent similar ones in the future, without fear of the consequences of reporting an error.
    Keywords: Hospital; Safety Culture Quality; Healthcare management; Documentation; Non-punitive Response to Errors; Quality of Communication; and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  • Cost Reduction by value stream mapping using Lean-Kaizen concept: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunil Kumar, Ashwani Kumar Dhingra, Bhim Singh 
    Abstract: The present cut-throat competition in the market, small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs), across the globe, are under consistent pressure for improving the product quality through eliminating the non-value added processes for the customer requirements. The present case study demonstrates the application of Lean-Kaizen concept for identifying various waste which are directly contributing to increased product cost. On the basis of data collected from selected product Shaft Swing Arm of the selected industry, current state and future state maps have been constructed. After current state map analysis, waste such as high rejection rate and increased lubrication oil consumption are identified which needs to be eliminated for achieving the proposed future state. For bridging the gap between current state and future state of the organization, two Kaizen events have been proposed. Firstly, the high rejection rate is fixed after modifying the existing process route and in the second, the high consumption of lubrication oil is to be controlled by installing the new pipeline in the machine that collects the leaked lubrication oil into a plastic bin. The data has been analyzed before and after Lean-Kaizen implementation and a significant cost reduction of 7.50 lacs, INR per year is presented as the findings in the present paper. The study concluded that Value Stream Mapping (VSM) using Lean-Kaizen is an effective and efficient technique that reduces the cost by eliminating different wastes in the process. The method will be beneficial for the managers and researchers for finding the different inefficiencies in the SMEs in order to achieve a competitive edge and sustainable growth.
    Keywords: Lean Manufacturing; Kaizen; Cost Reduction; Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Value Stream Mapping (VSM).

  • Social Implications of Leagile Manufacturing system: TISM approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Naveen Virmani, Rajeev Saha, Rajeshwar Sahai 
    Abstract: Leagile is a combination of both lean and agile paradigms; it involves the advantages of both lean as well as agile systems. Lean focuses on eliminating different types of wastes like overproduction, unnecessary motion, transportation, inventory etc. It tries to eliminate all the activities which do not add value to the product. Whereas agile system focuses on quick response to customer demand. Leagile is considered as combination of both lean and agile system. Both Lean and agile systems are separated by de-coupling point such that upstream of supply chain, lean system is adopted to make a level schedule while downstream, agile system is adopted for quick respond to customer demand. Leagile manufacturing results in increased profitability of firm, better customer satisfaction and increased quality of the product etc. Through this paper an attempt has been made to study the social implications of this high technology related manufacturing on Indian society. For this purpose, interpretive structural modeling (TISM) technique has been utilized to identify the driving and dependent social implications of Leagile Manufacturing. Moreover, TISM technique has been used in finding the mutual relations of these social implications by developing a model. This TISM model may be utilized to identify the key social implications which will be helpful in the area of Leagile manufacturing. In the present study, social implication of Leagile Manufacturing have been identified through literature study and experts review and an TISM model has also been prepared based on survey.
    Keywords: Leagile Manufacturing; Interpretive Structural Modeling; Lean Manufacturing; Agile Manufacturing.

  • Leagile Manufacturing: A review paper   Order a copy of this article
    by NAVEEN VIRMANI, Rajeev Saha, Rajeshwar Sahai 
    Abstract: Leagile Manufacturing is one of the recent dominant research areas in the field of operations management. However there is a lack of research focusing on Leagile in industries. The Leagile system combines the advantages of both lean as well as agile system. The purpose of the paper is to make the people aware of the Leagile concept and its tools so as to meet the needs of customers. It provides industries to remove all different types of wastes and at the same time concurrently meeting the changing needs of customers. Both lean and agile systems can be incorporated simultaneously in system by proper positioning of de-coupling point.rn rn
    Keywords: De-Coupling Point; Lean Manufacturing; Agile Manufacturing; Leagile Manufacturing.

    by Jugraj Singh Randhawa, Inderpreet Singh Ahuja 
    Abstract: 5S technique requires significant attributes for its successful implementation in the manufacturing organizations. Successful adoption of 5S philosophy necessitates the involvement from top management to bottom level of employees and many other attributes in the organizations in order to establish an appropriate platform for the implementation of other Lean manufacturing initiatives. The research helps to select the best attributes thorough the attempt by developing a model of 5S technique decision making by utilizing the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The research paper presents the framework for selecting the best attributes for the successful implementation of 5S technique which act as base foundation for standing the pillars of other quality tools and enhance the business excellence. The significant attributes highlighted in this study can guide the top management to focus on crucial areas and allocating necessary resources for ensuring successful 5S implementation in manufacturing organizations. Further the study also establishes AHP framework for providing the justification of 5S implementation in manufacturing organisations.
    Keywords: 5S; Lean manufacturing; Attributes; AHP; Manufacturing organizations; business excellence.

  • The Effect of In-service Training on Employees Productivity in Education and Training Organization, Shiraz, Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatemehsadat Mousavifard, Abdolhossein Ayoubi, Mohammad Sadegh Sanie 
    Abstract: Implementation of training programs in an organization can provide organizational human resources with the proper knowledge in future, and can assist their empowerment. Generally, the main purpose of in-service training seems to be more productivity and the real productivity. Examining the result of such a study will definitely have a significant effect on improving employees productivity which is a requisite of continuing education and training cycle. rnThe goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of training on employees productivity; the participants are Shiraz-branch Education and Training Organization. Regarding the type, this study is an applied one, and data gathering is done as a descriptive survey. The participants consist of 65 employees of Education and Training Organization. Achieve labor productivity Inventory questionnaire and information technology were applied. Results indicate that there is a meaningful and significant relationship among in-service training, productivity, increase in self-confidence and adaptation to change among employees. rn
    Keywords: adaptation to change; self-confidence; productivity; in-service training; Efficiency; Organization; employees; promotion ; performance ; job satisfaction.

  • Developing a Quality Improvement Plan for a Small Engineering Firm in the United States with Six Sigma Methodologies   Order a copy of this article
    by Jordan Belcher, Evea Kaldas, Virginia Beth Ellington, Dinesh Dave 
    Abstract: This research study analyzes business processes utilized by a small engineering firm in the United States that provides vibration analysis services for the automotive, aerospace, agricultural, and manufacturing industries. The study examines procedures, Six Sigma methodologies and quality improvement efforts currently in place and presents a quality improvement plan for enhancing quality of services and increasing customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: Six Sigma Methodologies and DMAIC approach; Process Improvement; process maps; Pareto analysis; regression analysis; and Application of Lean Six Sigma in an Engineering Organization.

  • Statistical process control and quality of service at seaports   Order a copy of this article
    by Iñigo L. Ansorena 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the statistical process control as a strategic tool for the improvement of service at seaports. The aim of this paper is to examine the variable time of container ships at port. A methodology based on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) statistic is proposed in order to monitor each container vessel that arrives at the port of Valencia. The EWMA chart is a type of time-weighted control chart that plots the exponentially weighted moving averages of a process. In the future this model can be used by terminal managers of Valencia Port to implement better control techniques and thus improve the quality of service. Moreover, the methodological procedure presented in this paper is general enough to be applied by any other port as well.
    Keywords: Container Terminals; Quality of service; Port Management; EWMA; control chart.

  • Operational attributes influencing productivity in Indian opencast mines   Order a copy of this article
    by Padma Charan Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mohanty, Manmohan Mall 
    Abstract: Mining industry has colossal impact on Indian economy. It directly and indirectly impacts countrys GDP, employment, revenue, society and related industries growth prospects. After the economic super cycle i.e. from 2002 to 2010 whole world is suffering from economic slowdown. This sluggish phase demands improve in productivity and sustainability across all production sectors to stay alive. This calls for identifying each attribute, which are affecting productivity and to improve upon those areas. This paper explores specifically operational attributes, which has substantial impact on productivity of Indian open cast mines. 32 such attributes are identified though literature review and gap analysis. Subsequently these attributes are ranked through RIDIT analysis and color coded using color codification system of Homeland Security, USA. This research expects mining industries to be benefited after reviewing critically their operational attributes and work upon them for further improvement at their respective work zones.
    Keywords: Indian Opencast mines; Productivity; Operational attributes; RIDIT analysis; Colour coding.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2018.10005323
  • Study of Relationship between Cost Overrun and Labor Productivity in Road Construction Projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Mahamid 
    Abstract: This study aims at (1) identifying the main causes of cost overrun in road construction projects, (2) determining the factors that affect labor productivity in road construction projects, (3) examining the relationship between cost overrun and labor productivity, (4) to develop a predictive model that will determine the impact of labor productivity on cost overrun in road construction projects. To achieve the listed objectives, a questionnaire survey was used to elicit the attitude of consultants and contractors towards the factors affecting cost overrun and labor productivity in road construction projects implemented in the West Bank in Palestine. The questionnaire contained 21 causes of project cost overrun and 14 causes of low labor productivity which had been identified from the literature reviewed. The size of cost overrun and loss in productivity in base works of road construction projects was found based on a data collected from 61 projects implemented in the West Bank in Palestine between 2010-2015. Regression analysis was used to show the impact of labor productivity on cost overrun. The study has established that among the various factors that causes cost overrun, awarding the bid to the lowest price, poor planning in early stages of the project, financial status of the owner, relationship between managers and labors, and frequent changes in design top the list. The respondents input revealed that the most significant factors affecting labor productivity on the construction sites are: lack in materials, inaccurate drawings and specifications, lack of labor experience. Significant direct relationship was found between cost overrun and loss in labor productivity in base works of road construction projects in the West Bank.
    Keywords: labor productivity; cost overrun; road construction; construction management; cost increase; contractors; consultants; construction; productivity; Performance.

    by Jugraj Singh Randhawa, Inderpreet Singh Ahuja 
    Abstract: 5S has emerged as one of the fundamental technique needed for growth and improvement for any manufacturing organization in globally competitive manufacturing scenario for imbibing various Lean manufacturing techniques. The literature reveals that 5S technique has potential to significantly improve the working environment, culture, workplace with proper safety and health standards, self-discipline and enriched morale values among all employees in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate effectiveness of 5S implementation technique in manufacturing environment that effectively facilitated manufacturing organization in solving specific issues and problems regarding productivity, quality, cost, safety and morale values of the manufacturing company. The study depicts methodology for systematic implementation of 5S technique at the plant for specific time period and examined the results during the period of 5S practice. The analysis of results have shown significant realization of company's goals and brought considerable difference of improvement in desired parameters of plant performance.
    Keywords: 5S; lean manufacturing; Kaizen; 5S implementation.

  • Supplier selection and evaluation using QFD and ELECTRE in quality management system environment (Case study: Faravari & Sakht company)   Order a copy of this article
    by Mitra Abbaszadeh Tavassoli, Soroush Avakh Darestani, Sara Abbaszadeh Tavassoli 
    Abstract: The purpose of supplier selection is to, identify suppliers and vendors that consistently the highest potential to meet the needs of a company for an acceptable cost. Comparing this choice through an extensive set of criteria and standards-based suppliers has been done. The aim of this study is to evaluate and select suppliers with QFD method and ELECTRE in the quality management system. So create a set of quality HOQ, the connection between the purchased product specifications and evaluation criteria for suppliers and suppliers creates interdependence criteria, will be considered. To assess the needs of customers, QFD deals and then using ELECTRE model selection criteria for suppliers using the Shannon entropy weighting and finally ranked. The results of this research show that suppliers index and related strategies are least important relationships as well as resource received the highest weight and, the design and development was given the highest rank.
    Keywords: Assessment and selection of suppliers; Multi-criteria decision; QFD; Quality management system.

  • Supplier Selection Model Using QFD-ANP Methodology under Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Neda Ahmadizadeh-Tourzani, Abbas Keramati, Arash Apornak 
    Abstract: Supplier selection is the most fundamental decision in the purchase management phase. Purchase is the most functional activity among several activities in a supply chain. A proper supplier selection supports a companys long-term strategies and its competitive position. Due to presence of ambiguities and uncertainties in the decision making process for selecting suppliers, fuzzy techniques could provide more reliable and flexible decision of supplier selection problem. In such techniques, Customer needs and engineering requirements are weighted by the method of fuzzy analytic network process (ANP) and relationship matrix of quality function deployment (QFD) in fuzzy environment of their importance degree, respectively. Using a mathematical model would integrate the amount of cost components and objective factor measure (OFM). The integrated method is applied to a case study in a reputable Iranian automotive company. The results show the efficiency of the method through considering the viewpoint of decision-makers and their dependence on each other.
    Keywords: Multi criteria decision making; Supplier selection; Quality function deployment; Analytical network process; Fuzzy environment.

  • Modelling and Analysis of Assembly Clearance by Size and Form Tolerances in Selective Assembly using Clustering Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Chaitanya S.V., Jeevanantham A.K. 
    Abstract: In this paper, a new method in selective assembly to minimize the assembly variation due to the size and form tolerances of the matting components is proposed. The radial assembly of hole and shaft is analysed with the form tolerances of circularity and straightness respectively. The matting components are segregated into selective groups with respect to their size as well as form tolerance deviations. The assembly clearance between any pair of matting components is calculated by the Euclidean distance measure. A k-mean clustering algorithm has been used to club the matting components and cluster the assemblies according to the required assembly fit specification based on the proximity of matting data points. A case example with hole and shaft assembly has been successfully used to explain the application of selective assembly based on size and form tolerance deviations.
    Keywords: Selective assembly; Form tolerance; Clustering algorithm; Radial assembly.

  • Hybrid Fuzzy MCDM model for effective utilization of quality cost analysis in manufacturing firms   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Sailaja, P.C. Basak, K.G. Viswanadhan 
    Abstract: Modern manufacturing industries face a myriad of challenges due to the globalization of operations and supply chains, rapid changes in the product features, increasing customer expectations for superior quality and the pressure to deliver products in the most cost-effective manner. As quality and costs are the two crucial factors for meeting this challenge, effective quality management programs which help the organizations to increase productivity and customer satisfaction through superior quality products and services with least possible incurred costs and most optimal utilization of resources has gained much more importance in the present manufacturing scenario. Quality cost analysis can provide a basis for planning the quality operations. But the complexity of the interrelationship between different cost categories due to its varied patterns of investments and benefits, the approximations used in the assessment of hidden quality cost elements, the differences in the degree of importance of cost elements and mutually conflicting objectives makes the selection of the most optimal quality control program complex. A hybrid model using the strength of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) together with the Fuzzy logic concept and Fuzzy MOORA is proposed in this study , with the inclusion of additional dimensions, to overcome the limitations of present system as an effective decision-making tool for manufacturing firms.
    Keywords: Quality cost; Fuzzy logic; Fuzzy AHP; Fuzzy MOORA; Hybrid model; Quality improvement.

  • The impact of total productive maintenance on key performance indicators (PQCDSM):- A case study of automobile manufacturing sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Sharma, Jagtar Singh, Vikas Rastogi 
    Abstract: Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program, which involves a customized approach for maintaining plants and equipment ensuring maximum availability, equipment effectiveness and promotes autonomous maintenance culture. The objective of this paper is to highlight the significant improvements of operational efficiency regarding TPM key performance indicators known as Productivity (P), Quality (Q), Cost (C), Delivery (D), Safety (S) and Morale (M) termed as PQCDSM in selected two wheeler automobile sector. The study has focused on the tangible benefits gained regarding TPM key performance indicators. The results shown that there was a significant improvement in production volume, customer complaints, the cost of operations, number of accidents and morale of the employees which the selected automobile plant achieved in the target period of three years. The findings of the research determine a significant contribution due to systematic TPM interventions to PQCDSM indicators and hence motivated the workforce to contribute for improvement activities. An important aspect investigated from this study was the intangible outcomes achieved by implementing TPM.
    Keywords: Total productive maintenance; Overall equipment effectiveness; Performance indicators; autonomous maintenance; Productivity; automobile industry; 5S implementation.

  • Prioritizing Different Branches of Meli Bank Based on Motivation Creating Factors Organised By Gap Analysis Approach and Muiti Criteria Decision MakingCase Study: Meli Bank Branches in Najafabad City   Order a copy of this article
    by Monir Al-sadat Mousavi Nejad, Farimah Mokhatab-Rafiei, Hadi Shirouyehzad 
    Abstract: Needs and motivations of human beings are the source of their behaviors. Recognizing job motivation creating variables is a necessity which can boost job satisfaction and efficiency of Meli banks employees. In the present work the perceived significance of internal and external variables are in agreement with Herzbergs job motivation theory. Accordingly, Herzbergs theory and other extracted variables from previous literature are used here. The aim of the present study is to identify different motivation creating factors for personnel based on previous works and receiving experts help. Thus after extracting all motivation creating factors based on creditable sources and experts views a questionnaire was devised. More frequent variables were chosen, then by considering the importance of motivation creating factors among organizations personnel another questionnaire was designed. This questionnaire was distributed among employees to assess motivation creating factors in the eyes of managers, experts and personnel. Most repeated factors were categorized based on ranking gap analysis and graphs. Some branches of Meli bank of Najaf Abad based on these categories by use of one of the multi criteria decision making tools were prioritized and were assessed for sensitivity. The obtained results indicated that welfare facilities and the second branch got the highest rank among motivation creating factors and different assessed branches.
    Keywords: motivation; gap analysis; strategy; Multi Criteria Decision Making; bank.

  • Overcoming of low discharge problem in shallow well jet pump through the application of Total Quality Function Deployment   Order a copy of this article
    by Arun Kaliappan 
    Abstract: A research which was carried out to investigate the application of a technique called Total Quality Function Deployment (TQFD) in the case of overcoming low discharge problem in a type of pump known as shallow well jet pump has been reported in this paper. TQFD is incorporated with five matrices for translating customers vague languages into practical languages. In the research reported in this paper, all the five matrices of TQFD were developed. When developing component deployment matrix, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to determine the optimum design of nozzle and venture. The prototypes with optimum design were developed by using a Rapid prototyping technology machine. These prototypes were fitted in a shallow well jet pump. On testing, this pump was found to deliver maximum discharge. Thus TQFD was employed to translate the customers vague language into technical language.
    Keywords: Voice of customers; Quality function deployment; Total quality function deployment; Computational fluid dynamics; Rapid prototyping technology; House of quality.

  • An Experimental Investigation on Strain Controlled Fatigue Behaviour of FDM Build Parts   Order a copy of this article
    by Swayam Bikash Mishra, Siba Sankar Mahapatra 
    Abstract: Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies have been used for last two decades with the prime focus of fabricating 3D models for design verifications, visualisation and functionality testing of assembly designs. Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is one of the emerging technologies that develop 3D complex geometry parts with relatively less material waste and time from computer aided design (CAD) file saved in stereolithography (.stl) format. Now-a-days, FDM is one of the most appreciated technologies to face the challenging requirements in the manufacturing fields. The complex part building mechanism of FDM process attracts the researchers to get insight into the relationship between process parameters and strength of the build parts. Since FDM builds functional parts, it is not only subjected to static loading but also dynamic loading. The behaviour of build parts under repetitive cyclic loading resulting in fatigue needs to be established because it affects functionality as well as the durability. The present study aims at understanding the mechanism of fatigue and influence of FDM process parameters on fatigue life when the build parts are subjected to repetitive cyclic loads. Since the life cycle of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic, one of the work materials of FDM process, is less than 105 cycles, low cycle fatigue (LCF) test is carried out under strain controlled mode for better characterisation of fatigue life of FDM build parts. Using response surface methodology, the relationship between FDM process parameters and fatigue life is developed. From analysis of variance (ANOVA), the influence of each individual parameter upon the fatigue life is analysed. Effect of cyclic loading on rasters are analysed using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Genetic programming (GP) technique is adopted to predict the fatigue life of the build parts.
    Keywords: ANOVA; Fatigue; Fused Deposition Modelling; Genetic programming; Low cycle fatigue; Rapid Prototyping.

    by Sundaramali Govindaswamy, Abinav Shankar Siva Balan, Manoj Kummar Madheswaran 
    Abstract: Every industry has to ensure a quality check so as to ensure that the products manufactured by them are safe for the consumers. During this process, a lot of wastage occurs due to rejection. Because of this rejection a lot of time, money, resources and man power are wasted. This research work focusses on minimizing this rejection and also to ensure maximum recovery from the rejected material by Poka yoke. Furthermore, the rejected products from a parent company are smuggled and sold in the market without the parent companys notice, thereby spoiling their reputation. To elude this situation, hallmarking by engraving technique is also suggested. This helps in maintaining accountability of the rejected goods and also in preventing them from reaching the black market.
    Keywords: non-conformities; waste recovery; scrap reduction; safe disposal; hallmarking; Poka Yoke; engraving.

  • Implementation performance of Agile Manufacturing: A Graph Theoretic Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Srikanta Routroy, Pavan Kumar Potdar, Astajyoti Behera 
    Abstract: The primary objective of this paper is to quantify, evaluate and compare the implementation performance of agile manufacturing program using graph theoretic approach. Eleven agile manufacturing enablers with their key performance indicators were identified and classified into three significant categories. The proposed model captures the performance and interdependencies of significant categories, agile manufacturing enablers and their key performance indicators to quantify the agile manufacturing implementation performance level. In order to demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach, it was applied to an Indian automobile manufacturing company. The performances along the timeline were evaluated and compared with different scenarios to identify performance gap and set the future targets. Although it was observed a significant growth in agile manufacturing implementation performance level in the case company over six quarters, but there was performance gap that needs to be reduced.
    Keywords: Agile Manufacturing; Agile Manufacturing Enabler; Key Performance Indicator; Graph Theoretic Approach; Performance Measurement.

  • A proposed model for leadership styles effect on total quality management (TQM) implementation: An applied study on telecommunication for mobile service companies in Egypt   Order a copy of this article
    by Amal Farouk Soliman 
    Abstract: Purpose- Different leadership styles effects on Total Quality Management (TQM) have not rnrnbeen implied in the literature. This study seeks to theoretically investigate the effect of five rnrnleadership styles ; classified according to personal authority of the leader; on TQM. rnrnDesign/ methodology/ approach- This study identifies five leadership styles which affectrnrnTQM including transformational leadership, transactional leadership, visionary leadership, rnrncharismatic leadership and culture based leadership. This study associates these five leadership rnrnstyles to TQM . A conceptual model is tested using a survey data collected from a sample of rnrnemployees working in Egyptian telecommunications for mobile service companies. rnrnFindings The five leadership styles significantly affects TQM in the telecommunications rnrnfor mobile service companies in Egypt. Charismatic leadership has the strongest effect on TQM. rnrnVisionary leadership follows charismatic leadership in its effect on TQM. Culture based rnrnleadership follows visionary leadership on its effect on TQM. Transactional leadership follows rnrnculture based leadership on its effect on TQM. Finally, transformational leadership has the least rnrneffect on TQM among the five leadership styles.rnrnResearch Limitation/Implications- This study has been applied on the service sector which is rnrncompletely different from the goods manufacturing sector. The telecommunication for mobile rnrnservice companies nature differ from other service sectors. rnrnPractical Implications- This paper identifies the importance of leadership styles in achieving rnrnsuccessful TQM implementation. rnrnOriginality/ value- This study provides a theoretical foundation for the effect of the five rnrnleadership styles on TQM implementation in the telecommunication for mobile service rnrncompanies. This study is one of the first efforts that empirically examine the effect of leadership rnrnstyles on TQM.rn
    Keywords: Keywords- TQM ; leadership styles; transformational leadership; visionary leadership; transactional leadership; culture based leadership; charismatic leadership.

    by Gnanasekaran Sakthivel, Saravanakumar D, Muthuramalingam T 
    Abstract: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used engineering technique to improve product quality, system reliability and eliminate known and/or potential failures. A typical FMEA includes three risk factors: severity (S), occurrence (O), and detection (D). Risk priority number (RPN) is obtained from product of these factors. The objective of this paper is to develop an evaluation model based on FMEA and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) integrated with Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and and VlseKriterijumskaOptimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje, (VIKOR) under fuzzy environment to evaluate greatest risk for production of dust cap in automotive industry. FAHP is used to compute the weights of Severity (S), Occurrence (O) and Detection (D), whereas fuzzy TOPSIS and fuzzy VIKOR are used to obtain the final ranking of risk. Here, the risk factors and their weights are treated as fuzzy triangular linguistic variables for eliminating the risk of subjective quantification and similarity of Risk Priority Number (RPN). The ranking of the failures depends upon the closeness coefficient of nine failure modes. The priority ranking order of failures for Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy VIKOR are F1 (0.649) > F2(0.5116) >F4(0.470) >F6(0.4128)> F3(0.4118)> F7(0.406)> F8(0.372)>F5(0.3445)>F9(0.3409) and F1 (0) > F2(0.461) >F4(0.716) >F3(0.720)> F7(0.957)> F6(0.967)> F8(0.974)>F5(0.982)>F9 (1.000). Hence by comparing both these methods, (Blanking of blank failure) and F2 (Drawing dimension failure) are obtained as the most serious failure mode using Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy VIKOR
    Keywords: FMEA; FAHP; FUZZY TOPSIS; FUZZY VIKOR; Dust cap; automotive industry.

  • Root Cause Analysis in Quality Problem Solving of Research Information Systems: A Case Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammad Javad Ershadi, Roozbeh Aiasi, Shirin Kazemi 
    Abstract: Nowadays the information systems have become a key part of any organization. On the one hand these systems are considered as basis of management decisions and on the other hand they serve the within or outside of organizations users and clients as well. Therefore good performances of these systems could become one of the main objectives of senior managers in any organization. Research information systems (RIS) are not exceptional on these norms either and in order to continually improve these systems their quality aspects should be analyzed and improved to achieve better performances. In this paper application of root cause analysis in RIS using a case study for solving quality problems is considered. This approach is used in three main stages of RIS means data entry, indexing and dissemination of information. Results of this paper show that through application of root cause analysis identifying, categorizing and defining appropriate corrective action for quality problems of RIS could be easily achieved. Furthermore main results of application of this approach are presented.
    Keywords: Root Cause Analysis (RCA); Research Information Systems (RIS); Quality Problem; Case study.

  • Integration of Lean, Six Sigma and Theory of Constraints for Productivity Improvement of Mining Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Jayachandran Rajini, Dega Nagaraju, S. Narayanan 
    Abstract: In todays unstable economic conditions, achieving a sustained throughput is the prime objective of the companies. In this paper, an attempt is made on implementing the integrated concept of Theory of Constraint (TOC), Lean and Six Sigma to get the maximum Throughput which is the primary goal of TOC. An empirical model is derived to predict the organizational goal. Dynamic Smart goal tracking system is developed in the proposed model. The goal of each employee or the sub-teams goal is aligned to teams overall goal with weighted ranking. Path finding to the strategic goal is decided with next high priority goal on an iterative mode. This approach aligns employee goals in line to accomplishing the organization priority goal throughput. Vision of the organization to sub-team gets clarity on what to be achieved. This system thinking approach, TOC philosophy enables to achieve the organization goal in a better way.
    Keywords: Lean; Six Sigma; TOC; Goal achievements; Process improvement; advantages of Integrated Lean Six sigma and TOC;.

  • Improving conformance to quality requirements in making hot metal   Order a copy of this article
    by Arup Ranjan Mukhopadhyay, Jit Kumar Mitra 
    Abstract: The quality of the output hot metal in mini blast furnace is assessed by the extent of conformity to specifications of different chemical constituents. It is crucially important to maximize the conformance to specifications of C%, Si%, S% and Carbon Equivalent (CE). The objective of the study thus turned out to be to achieve the optimum quantum of the input material and that of the input parameters of the furnace for which the extent of conformance is maximized. The approach adopted is to build up regression equations between furnace output and furnace input and subsequent optimization using the method of moving asymptotes. The novelty of this work can be seen through application of this improved process optimization methodology. The amount of non-conformity has turned out to be nil for C% and Si% from their respective baselines of 12.5% and 29.7%. Through this paper practitioners and researchers can understand as to how statistical and quantitative tools can be applied in a systematic manner for solving a real life quality problem.
    Keywords: optimization; process improvement; statistical decision making; empirical modelling; quality assurance.

  • Advances in Solution Methods for Optimisation of Multiple Quality Characteristics in Manufacturing Processes   Order a copy of this article
    by Sasadhar Bera, Indrajit Mukherjee 
    Abstract: A typical problem generally encountered in the quality control and improvement operations of manufacturing processes involves simultaneously optimising multiple critical quality characteristics (or multiple responses). These type of problems are so-called multiple-response optimisation (MRO) problems. Owing to correlation between multiple responses, trade-off solution(s) are inevitable. The term trade-off is an explicit compromised solution, considering the bias from the targets and variability in the responses. The global best solution for such a problem is usually unknown. Over the years, various solution methods and their theoretical advancement are proposed. However, only a handful of critical reviews are evident in open literature. Available review articles on MRO seem insufficient and address only specific aspects of the solution methods (e.g. response-surface modelling, problem formulation, or optimisation techniques). In this study, five different types of solution methods suggested for MRO problems are categorised and critically reviewed, including response-surface-based contour plot, response surface-free data mining methods, etc. The theoretical relationship between the MRO and the multi-objective-optimisation solution methods is analysed along with identifying potential research direction in this domain.
    Keywords: multiple-response optimisation; quality control and improvement; response surface; manufacturing-process optimisation; multi-objective optimisation.

  • Increasing Energy Productivity in Lean Production System with Energy Oriented Value-Stream Mapping   Order a copy of this article
    by Javad Rezaeian, Irandokht Parvizi Omran, Iraj Mahdavi 
    Abstract: Nowadays, reduction of energy waste becomes a great concern for manufacturing companies. They have to be energy efficient since it provides great saving potential. Hence, this research investigates the energy productivity in an auto body paint shop of an automobile manufacturer. In this study, energy wastages are detected by using the Energy Value-Stream Mapping (EVSM) approach based on lean production system. Then, a group of improvement plans are proposed and are evaluated by using a questionnaire which is filed by a group of specialists. Afterward, the proposed plans are assessed by using statistical analysis. Finally, improvement plans are determined by using an integer programming and a goal programming under two scenarios with regard to some defined constraints by the studied company. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the effect of factors on the objective function and the number of improvement plans.
    Keywords: Energy Productivity; Lean Production; Energy Value-Stream Mapping.

  • Productivity Improvement by Line Balancing and Process Modification Keeping Quality Intact   Order a copy of this article
    by Janardhan Reddy K, Mahendra Reddy G., Nadimpalli Raghukiran 
    Abstract: Productivity improvement has long been approached by greatly diversified techniques. More often than not, these approaches were confined to a specific theme such as statistical and process-centric optimizations, production-centric (layout, line balancing etc.) optimizations, machine-centric optimizations or product design-centric optimizations. Each of those areas were proved to be capable of improving the productivity of the systems to some extent. However, significant productivity improvement of any system is only possible by the collective application of all the aforementioned approaches to mitigate the inefficacy of any system. In the present study, an attempt was made to improve the productivity of a production line by the collective application various productivity improvement techniques such as process-improvement, line balancing, statistical tools and machine center modification. The quality parameters of the product were constantly monitored and weighed against every effort of productivity improvement.
    Keywords: Productivity; Line balancing; Optimization; Design of experiments.

  • Enhanced biogas production from poultry litter by improving the carbon nitrogen ratio   Order a copy of this article
    by Balaji S, Sakthivel M, Pasupathy S A, Sivakumar P, Arun K K 
    Abstract: The rapid growing world population and rapid industrialization demands for the quest of alternate sources of energy which is also a renewable, clean and green energy. For the tropical countries like India where the availability of biomass waste is very high, especially in poultry sector because of the vast growth of the poultry sector. The production of biogas from these wastes is one of the proven and cost effective method to generate energy in the form of methane. There are various factors which affects the anaerobic digestion (AD) process which results in reduced biogas yield, formation of ammonia nitrogen inside the digester and low methane concentration of the biogas. Among the various factors the low carbon nitrogen (C/N) ratio of poultry litter is a prime factor that affects the process adversely. The C/N ratio of the poultry litter can be increased by a number of methods like co-digestion of poultry litter with carbon rich feedstock, dilution of slurry, carbohydrate material addition and by using ammonia stripping techniques. In this research, the ammonia removal by air stripping method and co-digestion of poultry litter with water hyacinth is performed to increase the C/N ratio. Samples for this study are digested in three fixed dome batch type reactors. Raw poultry litter, co-digested poultry litter (75% PL with 25% WH) and co-digested air stripped poultry litter (75% PL with 25% WH). The digestion was carried out at mesophilic conditions 25 40 0C and pH of 6.8-7.2 for a hydraulic retention time of 21 days. The C/N ratio of the three samples were 6.86:1, 10.48:1 and 14.88:1 respectively. A 17% increase in biogas production is observed in digester 2 and 25% increase in biogas production is observed in digester 3 because of the increase the C/N of the poultry litter by co-digestion and air stripping respectively. These results shows that the increase in C/N ratio of the feedstock has a positive effect on the biogas production.
    Keywords: Carbon nitrogen ratio; air stripping; co-digestion; ammonia nitrogen; water hyacinth.

  • Determinants of performance of Tunisia insurance companies: Case of life insurance   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelkader Derbali, Lamia Jamel 
    Abstract: Business performance has attracted researchers' attention in the previous literature of corporate finance. However, in the framework of the life insurance sector, they have given a number of attentions. In our paper, we investigate empirically the effect of firm-specific characteristics (size, leverage, tangibility, risk, growth, liquidity and age) on the profitability of eight Tunisian insurance companies during the period of study from 2005 to 2015. The empirical results show that the variables size, age and growth are the most important determinants of the performance of Tunisian insurance companies as measured by Return on Asset ratio. Then, leverage, tangibility, liquidity and risk dont affect the performance of Tunisian insurance companies.
    Keywords: Performance; life insurance; insurance companies; ROA; panel data.

  • Banking Service Quality Provided by Commercial Banks and Customer Satisfaction. A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approaches   Order a copy of this article
    by Main Alolayyan, Sulieman Al-Hawary, Bahaa Al-Nady, Anber Mohammad 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the constructs of service quality and customer satisfaction in commercial banks operating in Jordan. The study uses qualitative methodology, a face to face survey was conducted to test the hypothesis, thirteen banks were chosen randomly in Jordan with their customers acting as respondents to survey, a sample includes 453 customers of Jordanian commercial banks. The study finds that the order of importance of the dimensions of service quality tested here is: Assurance; Reliability; tangibles; Empathy; and Responsiveness. customers satisfaction are mostly influenced by the service quality. customers indicated high satisfaction with the five dimensions of service quality. This finding reinforces the need for banks managers to place an emphasis on the underlying dimensions of service quality, especially on Assurance, and should start with improving service quality in order to raise customer satisfaction. The study had been implemented in specific type of industry of professional service. Therefore, the findings of this research should be used cautiously in attempting to make generalizations into whole professional service industry, and the sample in this study was small and limited to customers living in Jordan this group is relatively homogeneous, the study did not take into account the potential differences in customers reactions with regard to culture compared to other countries. Managers should be aware that, among the various dimensions of service quality, Assurance was especially significant in fostering satisfaction for the customers of Jordanian commercial banks. It is apparent that focusing on delivering high quality services , and improve service quality effectively is critical for customer satisfaction. The paper is the first systematic study that examines customer satisfaction and service quality measurement practices in commercial banks operating in Jordan.
    Keywords: Service Quality; Customer Satisfaction; Commercial Banks; Jordan; Structural Equation Modelling.

  • Supply chain management in developing countries: empirical evidence from Vietnamese manufacturing companies   Order a copy of this article
    by Minh Hue Nguyen, Anh Chi Phan, Yoshiki Matsui 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the relationship between supply chain management practices and operational capabilities in Vietnamese manufacturing companies. The relationship is examined separately in both upstream and downstream supply chains of the firms. Data were collected from 25 Vietnamese manufacturers operating in automobile, machinery and electric & electronics industries in 2014. After testing the reliability and validity of each measurement scale, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis are utilized to test the relationship between supply chain management practices and operational capabilities. Analysis results indicate positive linkages between supply chain management practices on all aspects of manufacturing capabilities. In particular, the downstream supply chain management practices show more significant effect on manufacturing capabilities than the upstream ones. The paper contributes to enriching the literature on supply chain management in developing countries, and providing insight into how Vietnamese manufacturers would improve manufacturing capabilities through better supply chain management practices.
    Keywords: Supply chain management; Manufacturing capabilities; Vietnamese manufacturing.

  • The Improvement of Thresher Design by Using the Integration of TRIZ and QFD Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Nilda Tri Putri, Agus Sutanto 
    Abstract: Today's business environment is forcing many SMEs to continuously improve their products, be innovative according to the customer requirements and to remain competitive. Likewise, similar condition occurred in the thresher machines which separated grains from harvested crop in developing country like Indonesia. The research described in this paper aimed to propose an integrative method by using Quality Function Development (QFD) and TRIZ approach to improve thresher design manufactured by SMEs in West Sumatra, Indonesia. The process consisted of the following stages: 1) identification of the customer needs followed by the determination of their requirements rating, 2) the preparation of QFD phase 1, 3) the creation of QFD phase 2 for technical characteristics which do not contradict with the design characteristics or the selection of alternative solutions using TRIZ for both contradictory characteristics, 4) the thresher design improvement according to the design characteristics in the final stage. The result was 10 design characteristics that would be used in re-design of the thresher by SME, in which 9 design characteristics were obtained by QFD Phase 2 and 1 characteristic was obtained from alternative solution of TRIZ method. Design characteristic which had the highest priority level was the use of screw type threshing teeth (priority value of 14%). The distinctions between the re-design threshers with the reference design were wheels to facilitate mobilization; screw type threshing teeth design on the threshing cylinder to meet the user need; and the ergonomic feeding table dimension to improve the user convenience.
    Keywords: thresher; QFD; TRIZ approach; consumer requirements; design characteristics.

  • Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on Performance Measures in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process during Taper Cutting Operation   Order a copy of this article
    by Siba Sankar Mahapatra, Bijaya Bijeta Nayak 
    Abstract: Deep-cryogenic treatment brings some remarkable improvements in mechanical properties by refining the microstructure of the materials. In recent times, cryo-processing has been successfully applied to toughened and high strength to weight ratio work piece materials and tools in electrical discharge machining (EDM) and wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) for improving machining efficiency. In the present investigation, coated Bronco cut-W wire electrode and Inconel 718 work piece are subjected to deep cryogenic treatment (-1960C). The microstructure of deep cryo-treated and untreated wire electrode and work piece is observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of deep cryogenically treated wire electrode and work piece on various performance characteristics are studied during taper cutting operation in WEDM process. Taguchis experimental design has been applied to determine the optimal parameter setting considering six input parameters such as part thickness, taper angle, pulse duration, discharge current, wire speed and wire tension on various performance measures such as angular error, surface roughness and cutting speed. The study reveals that deep cryogenic treatment of both wire electrode and work piece can improve the machining performance in WEDM.
    Keywords: Angular error; Deep-cryogenic treatment; Wire electrical discharge machining; Taper cutting; Surface roughness.

  • Performance evaluation of multi-state degraded industrial production system and selection of performance measure using PSO: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ajay Kumar 
    Abstract: In this paper a model is developed for evaluating the availability, the production rate of multi-state degraded systems subjected to minimal repairs and imperfect preventive maintenance. With the help of Mathematical and structural modeling, the transition diagrams are drawn which further helped in the mathematically formulation of the availability states based on the Markov process. This repair action brings the system to its previous operational state without affecting its failure rate (i.e., minimal repair). The main objective of the present research is to examine the performance evaluation of various subsystems of cylinder plant. The steady state availability as well as transient state availability of the subsystem has been analyzed and Particle Swarm optimization (PSO) is used for finding optimal availability of the system. The used preventive maintenance policy suggests that if the system achieves the last acceptable degraded state, it is brought back to one of the states with improved efficiency. The results of this paper will help the decision makers, managers and plant personnel to achieve better system performance and to devise appropriate maintenance schedules and strategies with the help of flexible performance parameter obtained from PSO. Based on various availability values obtained in availability matrices and graphs of failures, repair rates of different subsystems, maintenance priorities are decided for all subsystems.
    Keywords: Multi-state systems; Degradation; Performance measures; Particle Swarm Optimization; Selection of failure and repair rates.

  • Six Sigma Framework Methodology for Deep Drawing Process Improvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Nader Al Theeb, Mohammed Hayajneh 
    Abstract: Deep drawing is one of the common sheet metal forming processes, its products are suffering from many defects, where avoiding such defects can be achieved by many methods. The objective of this work is to provide a framework methodology of using six sigma approach to avoid deep drawing defects and improve the process. The product under consideration is an Aluminum cooker suffers from five types of defects; flange wrinkling, wall wrinkling, tearing, earing, and scratches. Six sigma project is used for random data to reduce the defective rate through the DMAIC procedures. Product and its defects are defined in the define phase. The current situation is measured in the measure phase. Four factors are considered to construct a design of experiment in the analysis phase, there factors are: holding force, lubricant, punch speed, and clearness. Improvement procedure is suggested by adopting the best factorial level that is found in the analysis phase. Finally, a set of procedures is suggested to maintain the improved conditions in the control phase.
    Keywords: Deep Drawing; Six Sigma; DMAIC; Quality improvement Framework.

  • Identifying Critical Factors for Various Maintenance Policies: A Study on Indian Manufacturing Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Nishit Kumar Srivastava, Sandeep Mondal, Namrata Chatterjee, Shwetank Parihar 
    Abstract: Maintenance is inevitable and each machine requires maintenance after certain interval of time. There are several maintenance policies catering to maintenance needs of manufacturing organizations. The bottom line is that there are several issues governing the selection of a particular maintenance policy. So, in order to understand the factors responsible for selection of particular maintenance policy an empirical study is carried out to study the perception of industry practitioners towards selection of a particular maintenance policy. In this research paper thirty six issues in maintenance are identified and are analyzed using T-test, factor analysis and Friedmans test. Factor analysis is carried out to summarize the large number variable into set of few comprehensible factors and then Friedmans test is performed to rank those factors according to the various identified maintenance policy in order to identify the critical factors playing important role in selection of a particular maintenance policy. The study is carried out on Indian manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: Corrective maintenance; Preventive maintenance; Predictive maintenance; T-test; Chi-square analysis; Factor analysis; Friedman’s test; Manufacturing sector.

  • Evolution of obstacles restraining productivity improvement   Order a copy of this article
    by Tero Rantala, Sanna Pekkola, Hannu Rantanen, Mika Hannula 
    Abstract: One of the most important elements in the overall competitiveness of companies is continuous improvement in productivity. Improvements in productivity have been recognised as having a significant influence on many social and economic phenomena such as economic growth, increased well-being and inflation control. Although continuous improvement in productivity is a well-known issue for companies, there are some factors that restrain such development work. These factors can be called obstacles restraining productivity improvement. The main aim of this study is to explore the changes in the obstacles restraining productivity improvement of Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises from 1997 to 2014. The study also aims to discover the most important obstacles restraining productivity improvement. In addition to discovering the evolution of obstacles restraining productivity improvement, the study increases the understanding of the differences amongst obstacles between manufacturing and service SMEs. The study results indicate that over the last two decades, there have been three significant categorical changes relating to the obstacles restraining productivity improvement: (1) from internal to external obstacles, (2) from lack of resources to lack of knowledge and (3) from lack of employees knowledge and education to lack of supervisors knowledge and education about productivity.
    Keywords: Productivity; Obstacles restraining productivity improvement; SMEs.

  • Key factors for adoption of ISO 14001 by the manufacturing industry: A review paper   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Hui Tay, Mariani Ariffin, Amir Hamzah Sharaai 
    Abstract: ISO 14001 has been recognized as the worlds most popular environmental management system (EMS). Numerous studies have been conducted on EMS adoption factors and benefits. However, the review of coincidences in published findings is conspicuously absent in current research development. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree of coincidence in the adoption factors studied toidentify the key elements of ISO 14001 adoptionfor manufacturing industry. Thispaper examines the key factors including size of organization, top management motivation, ISO 9001 experience, perceived benefit, regulatory concern based on the context of resources-based view (RBV), institutional theory and previous relevant publications. The findings of this research serve as reference for EMS adoption among manufacturing industries. Observation of the relationship between organization characteristic and EMS implementation could help prepare organization through its adoption process and enhance the continual improvement of the system.
    Keywords: ISO 14001; EMS; environmental management system;adoption factors;manufacturing industries; size of organization; top management motivation; ISO 9001 experience; perceived benefit; regulatory concern; RBV; resources-based view; institutional theory.

  • Customer involvement in new product development of tile and ceramic industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Heydar Mirfakhradini, Khalil Safari, Akram Shaabani, Naser Valaei, Khadijeh Mohammadi 
    Abstract: In order to have new product development and attract customers involvement, a holistic approach is required within which consumers, manufacturers, sellers, designers and other stakeholders are gathered together effectively. Understanding the related factors that influence involvement of each stakeholder is crucial for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Therefore, this study is aimed to examine the effect and importance of customer involvement in new product development. The theoretical model is proposed based on a rigorous literature review and hypotheses are developed. In this survey- solidarity and cross sectional sampling is selected for considering the judgment of 150 managers, suppliers; and sellers (wholesalers and retailers) in Yazd tile and ceramic industry. The data is collected through questionnaires and the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach is applied. Research results indicated that two variables of marketing strategy and contextual factors explain changes in customer involvement as much as 24%, 34%, and the relationship between customer involvement and new product development is positively significant. The relationship between customer involvement and new product performance is also supported.
    Keywords: Customer involvement; new product development; marketing strategy; contextual factors; new product performance.

  • Classification of Critical Success Factors for Reverse Logistics Implementation based on Importance-Performance Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamidreza Panjehfouladgaran, Hadi Shirouyehzad 
    Abstract: Reverse logistics (RL) is one of the manufacturing methods to recover used products, decreasing wastes and landfills. However, recovered products are competing with new products. Therefore, the identification of critical success factors (CSF) may help to intensify the strengths of the RL. In this paper, identified critical success factors in RL were analyzed by importance-performance analysis (IPA) approach. The results of questionnaire survey for identification of CSF in RL considered as the importance level. Performance level of CSFs evaluated by a checklist which is fulfilled in a RL company. The results indicate that transportation, culture, organizational strategy, top management commitment and logistics network design are critical success factors that must be concentrated for the organizational goals achievements in RL organizations.
    Keywords: Reverse Logistics (RL); Critical Success Factors (CSFs); Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA); Critical Success Factor Classification.

  • Efficiency improvement and resource estimation: a tradeoff analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Mojtaba Ghiyasi 
    Abstract: This article uses DEA as an evaluation technique of efficiency and proposes a resource (input) estimation procedure that guarantees not only unchanged but also variant efficiency levels for a given expected output level. We also deal with controllable and non-controllable input in process of input estimation. Two trade off indices are proposed to track the relationship between required resources, producible outputs and efficiency improvement percentage. Proposed models and indices provide useful information and help decision maker in process of production planning. Our models and indices are explained by provided numerical example and an empirical illustration using a real world data which also demonstrates the practical relevance and advanced future of our methods.
    Keywords: Resource estimation; Trade off index; Inverse DEA; Multi-objective programming.

  • The Impact of Facultys Communication Behaviors on Student's Satisfaction: The Role of Cognitive and Affective Learning and Student's Motivation   Order a copy of this article
    by Smita Kulkarni, Nikhat Afshan, Jaideep Motwani 
    Abstract: Although the benefits of faculty members communication behaviors have been examined and discussed in earlier studies, they have been mostly done in the context of traditional classrooms or online learning. This study examines the effect of faculty members communication behaviors on students motivation which further impacts students affective and cognitive learning. Further, this study also investigates the relationship between students learning (affective learning and cognitive learning) and students satisfaction in the case study method of teaching. The hypothesized relationships were tested using a sample of 265 postgraduate management students from a Business School of India. The results indicated that faculty members communication behaviors had a positive effect on students motivation and students motivation had a positive effect on the affective and cognitive learning. Further, cognitive learning and affective learning were found to have significant positive impact on students satisfaction.
    Keywords: Affective Learning; Case Study Pedagogy; Cognitive Learning; Motivation; Student's Satisfaction,.

  • Maintenance Policy Selection Using Fuzzy Failure Modes and Effective Analysis and Key Performance Indicators   Order a copy of this article
    by Nasrin Farajiparvar, Rene Mayorga 
    Abstract: Maintenance Policy Selection (MPS) plays an important role in determining a proper maintenance strategy based on the real equipment condition. This study is intended to address the concept of MPS proposing an approach to improve current maintenance selection methods. Further, an integrated three-step model is introduced for MPS using Fuzzy Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FFMEA) and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP). In the first step, a combination of FFMEA and FAHP are applied to calculate the risk of equipment. For the Risk Priority Number computation, three dimensions including Severity, Occurrence, and Detection and their identified sub-dimensions are weighted by three domain experts. The second step is aimed at evaluation of all criteria that crucially affect MPS where four Key Performance Indicators weighted by AHP are defined for equipment criticality assessment. Finally, a novel fuzzy approach is proposed to choose a proper maintenance strategy for each facility according to RPN and Criticality scores. A case study is conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
    Keywords: Maintenance Policy Selection; Failure Mode and Effects Analysis; Analytic Hierarchy Process; Fuzzy Inference Systems.

  • Quality Factors and Performance in citrus industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunil Kumar U.T., Rakesh Shrivastava, Rajasree O.P 
    Abstract: Management of citrus fruit crop like Nagpur mandarin for future use is topmost priority as the demand for the fruits is increasing tremendously. The exploratory type of study was conducted with 100 valid responses collected from citrus stake holders. In order to investigate the effect of critical success factors (CSF,s) or predictors on the performance measurement factors of citrus industry, multiple regression analysis using independent variables or input factors and dependent variables or performance measurement factors. Frame work or model of quality improvement is derived from the current study. The study revealed that Economics and quality of citrus fruits can be improved by focusing on quality management, innovation and technology management, improved relation among stake holders and also by strengthening the local citrus fruit industry.
    Keywords: post harvest; processing; quality management; CSF’s; storage; citrus; model; performance measurement; questionnaire; SPSS.

  • Analysis of the Effects of Succession Planning Implementation on Organizational Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Hasan Hosseini, Ali Shaemi Barzoki, Ali Nasr Isfahani 
    Abstract: According to most scholars, there exists no universally agreed theoretical framework regarding succession management. Present research attempts to explore the impact that succession management and its dimensions may have on organizational performance in Esfahan Steel Company. The required data based on the research model was collected from the questionnaire distributed among managers, executive officers, and superintendents of the company. The sample size was calculated using proportionate stratified sampling based on Cochran formula for finite population. 120 questionnaires were distributed. Of the total number of the returned questionnaires, 106 were usable (88% return rate) and subjected to final analysis. To examine the assumed relationship between the involved variables and test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling (path analysis) was used. Based on the findings derived from earlier qualitative research (Hosseini et al, 2017), the dimensions systemic culture building, creating context for succession planning, committed implementation with a systemic view, policy making, candidate evaluation for competence-based selection, gap analysis, and succession planning evaluation were identified as the succession planning determinants. The required data for execution of the designed model in the qualitative section and demonstration of its impact on organizational performance was obtained using questionnaire, the validity and reliability of which were already verified. rnThe results indicated that at 95 percent confidence there was a positive and significant relationship between introduction of succession management and organizational performance in the understudy company. Additionally, the seven dimensions of succession management were also positively associated with organizational performance.
    Keywords: succession management; talent management; BSC-based organizational performance.

  • Patient satisfaction analysis using a multicriteria analysis method: The case of the NHS in Greece   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitris Drosos, Nikos Tsotsolas, Michalis Skordoulis, Miltiadis Chalikias 
    Abstract: Patient satisfaction and service quality are critical components for the strategic planning processes in a healthcare system. The aim of this paper is to measure and analyze patient satisfaction with the National Healthcare System (NHS) in Greece by using a preference disaggregation methodology. Patients satisfaction is measured using the Multicriteria Satisfaction Analysis (MUSA) method which assumes that global satisfaction depends on a set of criteria. SERVQUALs five dimensions have been selected as the patients satisfaction criteria, while the sub-criteria are based on SERVQUALs twenty two constructs which were properly adjusted to the surveys specific needs. The research results show high levels of patient satisfaction with medical and nursing services. On the other hand, lower satisfaction rates are recorded concerning the facilities and the administrative services which are connected with the funding and the efficiency of a healthcare system. Thus, a major problem concerning the Hellenic NHS is the continuous reduction of funding. As far as it is concerned, a major challenge for the Hellenic NHS is that the underfunding problem is solved while the necessary measures are taken in order that the optimal allocation of the available resources is ensured. Last but not least, the research design confirms the good adjustment of multidimensional models such as SERVQUAL in patient satisfaction measurement.
    Keywords: Patient satisfaction; customer satisfaction; service quality; healthcare quality; public health; multicriteria analysis; SERVQUAL.

  • Theoretical analysis of JIT elements for implementation in maintenance sector of Indian Industries   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Phogat, Anil Kumar Gupta 
    Abstract: Just in time (JIT) philosophy has grown to new heights since its evolution and has successfully been implemented in manufacturing. As it is universally accepted that manufacturing and maintenance cannot be managed as a separate function, aim of present study is to evaluate various elements of JIT to implement in maintenance sector which have high degree of importance in Indian context. It is because now maintenance is also plays an important role in optimization of business processes. Maintenance operations are much like manufacturing operations where both employ processes that add value to the basic input used to create the end product. Just in Time focuses on the processes, not the product. It can therefore be applied to any process in manufacturing or maintenance operations. For this, literature related to JIT usage and performance is reviewed. Thirty-eight elements are analyzed from twenty-two research papers of Indian context. With aid of theoretical analysis and brain storming with maintenance specialists of Just in Time elements implemented manufacturing industries, eighteen elements are selected to check implementation of JIT philosophy in maintenance sector of Indian context. Relative importance of such elements are also highlighted in the article.
    Keywords: Just in time (JIT); Maintenance; JIT elements; JIT in maintenance; JIT in manufacturing.

    by Rahul Sindhwani, Varinder Kumar Mittal, Punj Lata Singh, Vivek Kalsariya, Faizan Salroo 
    Abstract: The need now a day has arisen which has forced todays generation to sit and think about taking pains regarding energy efficiency. This huge wastage of energy and the ever-increasing cost have not only hindered the smooth economical run but also have sent huge Greenhouse gas emissions into the environment. So, it has become inescapable for us to turn a blind eye. Keeping this thing in mind, this research paper presents identification drivers of energy efficiency which helps us in making a framework which could guide industries in applying the energy efficiency in their setups. These seventeen drivers were leveled and their effect was noticed through Fuzzy Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) and Fuzzy MICMAC analysis. The results reveal that inadequate availability of energy, excessive losses, and energy audits have high driving power and low dependence power and are at the lowest level in Fuzzy ISM digraph, while government promotional benefits, management commitment, research development, and planning for future drivers have high dependence power and low driving power. The results were clear enough to suggest that which drivers we have to take in attention in order to ensure that the energy efficiency is applied in an industry.
    Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Drivers; Manufacturing Industry; Fuzzy ISM; Fuzzy MICMAC.

  • The Impact of Human Capital and Innovation on Labour Productivity of Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Rahmah Ismail 
    Abstract: Human capital theory post
    Keywords: Human capital; innovation; labour productivity; labour quality; small and médium enterprises; manufacturing firms; training; research and development; information and communication technology; employees; Malaysia.

  • Deployment of operational performance indicators (OPIs) in failure mode effect and analysis (FMEA) application: A literature review and classification   Order a copy of this article
    by CHEN FUNG LIEW, Joshua A/L Jaya Prakash, Kok Seng Ong 
    Abstract: Failure mode effect and analysis (FMEA) is a well-known methodology for improving operational performance, such as the quality, cost, and delivery time of a product, process, or system. However, the success of FMEA in operational performance cannot be quantified at present. The risk priority number (RPN), which is the only indicator of FMEA, has no relationship with operational performance. For example, a reduction in RPN may not benefit operational performance, particularly if the corrective action is to enhance detection. Thus, the capability of FMEA to improve operational performance cannot be validated unless it demonstrates quantifiable operational performance. An organization is distinct from its competitors based on its operational performance and not based on RPN. The missing operational performance measurement practice in FMEA is essential for further strengthening the FMEA methodology. This study aims to identify the most effective methodology and approach for quantifying the success of FMEA in operational performance through a systematic review and to classify FMEA articles that measured operational performance.
    Keywords: corrective action; FMEA; operational performance; operational performance indicator; RPN.

  • Development of four row paddy transplanter by applying value engineering principles   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Mohan, G. Sundararaj, S.R. Devadasan, R. Murugesh 
    Abstract: Engineers and practitioners have been developing manually operated paddy transplanters to enable farmers for achieving productivity and quality in paddy transplantation. These manually operated paddy transplanters are often difficult to be operated. The research reported in this paper was carried out to overcome these difficulties which are experienced by the farmers while operating a six row manually operated paddy transplanter. This exercise was carried out by applying the steps of value engineering job plan. While carrying out this exercise, five ideas generated by a team of experts were implemented in practice. According to one of these ideas, a four row manually operated paddy transplanter was developed from six row manually operated paddy transplanter. Though there is insignificant increase in the manufacturing cost, the developed four row manually operated paddy transplanter was found to be easier to operate than to operate the six row manually operated paddy transplanter.
    Keywords: Value engineering job plan; paddy transplanter; FAST diagram; brainstorming; idea generation.

  • A Practical Framework for Identification of Key Factors of Talented Employee Retention using Grounded Theory: A Case of Aviation Industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyyed Mohsen Allame 
    Abstract: Talent management is defined as a system for identifying, hiring, training, promoting and retaining talented peoplein order to optimize organizational capacity to achieve business outcomes. This study tends to achieve a theory in the field of talent management for better understanding of this phenomenon. The methodology used is qualitative based on grounded theory. This study is conducted in the aviation industry of Iran. Using theoretical and snowball sampling, 13 interviews are done with managers of aviation industry and human resource professionals. Findings show that employment support, organizational trust, organizational talent and talent recognition act as contextual conditions. Psychological contract and working shocks are considered as intervening conditions. Moreover, mental structure of human resources, organizational thinking structure, available talent identification system and managerial barriers are considered as causal conditions of talent-based organizations in aviation industry of Iran. Reward and recognition system, development of organizational and job structure, talent development, socialization and talent development, teamwork and information system as strategies help this process.Improved talent management process, organizational efficiency and professionalism of human resources are identified as consequences of talent-based architecture. Talent-based architecture as a central category relates these categories in a paradigmatic model.
    Keywords: talent; talent management; retention system; grounded theory.

  • Prioritization of Leader Roles in Several Phases of Innovation Process to Enhance Productivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Mojtaba Kiaei, Amir Hassan Zarei Rahro, Mona Shirkhorshidi 
    Abstract: The present research aims to prioritize leader roles in several phases of the innovation process in order to enhance productivity. For this purpose, leader roles in the innovation process were investigated from different authors viewpoints and five roles were finally extracted. According to the results obtained from the analysis of the questionnaires, in the front end phase of innovation process, the roles are ranked based on their importance as follows: technical expert, planner, communicator, team builder and champion. In the development phase, the results are: technical expert, planner, team builder, communicator, and champion, respectively. Furthermore, several activities of the front end and the development phase in the New Product Development (NPD) process were ranked based on their importance. Opportunity identification, idea generation and customer need assessment in the front end phase and development and design and production engineering, in the development phase determined as most important activities.
    Keywords: Productivity; leadership; innovation process; front end phase of innovation; development phase of innovation; new product development; technical expert; planner; team builder; communicator; champion.

  • A probabilistic model for predicting Service Level Adherence of Application Support projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Srijith Sreenivasan, Manimaran Sundaram 
    Abstract: Application support projects are those which maintain the operations of software in production environment. Service Level Adherence is a key outcome metric which monitors the contractual compliance of these projects with customers. This paper discusses an approach to develop a prediction model using process factors impacting service level adherence. These factors are derived from the processes and sub-processes having a logical relationship with the outcome. A total of 23 factors were considered initially for modelling, of which 6 were found to be statistically significant. The model, developed using regression and Monte Carlo simulation, is validated in an actual industrial project to ensure its accuracy. The model can be used in application support projects to arrive at timely decisions for suitable mid-course corrections to control service level adherence.
    Keywords: application support; software maintenance; service level adherence; prediction model; regression analysis; monte carlo simulation; model validation.

    by Jugraj Singh Randhawa, Inderpreet Singh Ahuja 
    Abstract: Customised demands having low cost, good quality of products and services in time are the major issues of the global competitive markets. Every organization resolves these issues by the implementation of different quality improvement tools effectively in order to stay competitive in the market. The literature revels that 5S implementation is most effective tool for the organization in order to resolves these issues and enhances the business performance parameters. Though 5S is a simple technique to learn, but the sustainability and success of implementation in organization needs a number of factors to be considered which later on become a Multi Criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. To resolve the MCDM problems, there are different MCDM analytical tools suggested by the literature to find the effective solution of the problem. This research paper deploys the Fuzzy Inference System (Fuzzy logic toolbox) to evaluate the success of 5S implementation in Indian manufacturing organizations on the basis of three critical elements, namely Top management to bottom level employee involvement (TM-BLEI), Basic 5S issues (BFSI) and Fifth S issues (FSI) deployed in the study. The results of fuzzy rule viewer and surface view tool of fuzzy tool box in MATLAB have highlighted that top to bottom management involvement; basic 5S Issues and fifth S (SHITSUKE) elements have emerged as significant predictor variables for the high Success of 5S implementation program in Indian industries.
    Keywords: 5S; 5S implementation; Manufacturing organization; Multi Criteria Decision Making; Fuzzy Simulation; Fuzzy Inference System(FIS); Business Performance Parameters.

  • Behavior of productivity indicators and financial resources in the field of extraction and exploitation of minerals in Colombia.   Order a copy of this article
    by Jose Morelos, Tomas Fontalvo, Efrian De La Hoz 
    Abstract: This research presents the results of the analysis of the behavior of productivity indicators and financial resources in the extractive sector of minerals in Colombia. The method used allowed the calculation of the indicators of productivity and financial, to the 31 companies that projected its financial statements in the Information System and Business Risk (SIREM) for the years 2010 and 2013. Then we used the technique of multivariate analysis of data, to explain the membership and the existence of significant differences in the group of companies in the sector, which showed a decreasing behavior from one period to another of the indicators reason net income and value added (IP3) and reason and net working capi-tal (IP6), low productive capacity presented by the indicators of productivity (IP2) and (IP5), as a result of the deficiencies in sales (IE3) and low investment that will drive growth in the cluster.
    Keywords: Productivity; financial rates; minerals; discriminant analysis; energy; efficiency; perfor-mance; measure; value added and extraction.

  • A Quality Function Deployment-based Model for Coordinate Measuring Machine Selection   Order a copy of this article
    by Shankar Chakraborty, Kanika Prasad 
    Abstract: Advanced manufacturing technologies, machines and materials have transformed the manufacturing sector to be extremely vigorous in their approach. This transformation is being observed in all aspects of manufacturing, including quality control and assurance. Automated inspection devices are capable of ensuring better quality products, while improving productivity and minimizing the overall cost of manufacturing. Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is one such important automated inspection device used to determine coordinates of points on a workpiece surface using a movable probe. Selection of a suitable CMM for a manufacturing organization is a complex task as most of the available CMMs are designed to serve a wide array of inspection requirements. Inadequate decision making skills resulting from technical acumen of the staff or time constraints and conflicting business goals may further complicate the CMM selection process. Although, the selection of automated inspection devices has been addressed in fewer past studies, most of them have not considered voice of the customers in the decision making process. Hence, this paper proposes a quality function deployment-based model which correlates customers requirements with technical specifications of the available CMMs. Furthermore, in order to ease out the entire CMM selection procedure, a user friendly software prototype in Visual BASIC 6.0 is developed. Two illustrative examples are cited to demonstrate the applicability and robustness of this model.
    Keywords: QFD technique; Decision making; CMM selection; Rank.

  • Application of Taguchi and RSM Techniques for Optimizing the Parameters of Pressure Die Casting Process
    Abstract: Most of the automotive and allied components in today’s world are produced by metal casting processes. However, the casting process industries suffer from poor quality of castings due to involvement of large number of process parameters. The primary intent of this paper is to enhance the quality of aluminium die casting products using optimization techniques such as Taguchi and Response surface methodology.In this study, some of the factors that have reasonable influence on blow holes defect are identified. Each factor is considered with three levels and Taguchi technique is employed. Analysis of Variance table is generated to determine the statistical significance of the parameters. Response graphs are plotted to determine the preferred level for each parameter. By using the Minitab soft tool, Response surface methodology is carried out. The regression model, surface and contour plots are developed to identify the most contributing process parameter. Among the selected process parameters, the degassing frequency is noted as greatest influencing factor up to 47% on response, next influencing factor as metal temperature with 45% contribution on response.The highest level of metal temperature and lowest level of degassing frequency are found as optimum level to decrease the blowhole defect.
    Keywords: Automotive, Metal Casting, Poor Quality, Process Parameters, Aluminium Die Casting, Taguchi, Response Surface Methodology, Pareto Analysis, Ishikawa Diagram, Orthogonal Array, Analysis of Variance.

  • Evidence for quality management systems being instrumental in improving supplier performance: the case of the wind power sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Jordi Castelló, Josep Llach, Rodolfo De Castro 
    Abstract: This paper evaluates whether ISO certification enables a supplier to become an extended resource in a specific sector. The evaluation consisted of a statistical analysis of data from 90 suppliers to a wind turbine manufacturer. The suppliers were selected, evaluated and audited as extended resources from a resource-based view (RBV). We test the differences that the qualified suppliers exhibit in main ISO processes and we identify specific areas that will improve supplier relationships. We also demonstrate significant differences exist when the level of technology the supplier uses is taken into account. Our results may well be applicable in a wider manufacturing processes context. We determine that ISO certification alone is not enough to cement a positive relationship in an upstream supply chain environment, despite such relationships being crucial to the success of a business, and support the use of a wider sector-specific certification tool that goes beyond ISO certification.
    Keywords: supplier evaluation; supplier relationships; quality management; ISO certification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2017.10008482
  • Six Sigma in construction industry: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Preetam Singh Negi, Akash Mandaliya, Abhijit Mahida, Alap Patel, Vishal Singh Patyal 
    Abstract: Six Sigma (SS) is a business strategy which aims at zero defects and eliminating variations in business processes to achieve breakthrough business results. The purpose of this study is to understand the role of SS implementation in construction industry. This study has systematically reviewed published literature on the topic of SS during 2003-2016 based on semantic search techniques. A total of 39 relevant articles from leading journals and proceedings were selected for this study. The findings of this study revealed that more case studies have been conducted as compared to empirical and conceptual studies. Though the empirical studies started later, it is now gaining more momentum in tandem with case studies. The paper also highlights the SS application areas in construction industry. The quality tools like cause and effect diagram is used in most of the areas followed by Pareto chart, control and run chart, failure mode effects analysis (FMEA), histogram, value stream mapping for SS implementation in construction projects. The paper draws conclusion and future research directions for effective implementation of SS in construction industry.
    Keywords: Six Sigma; construction; literature review; quality; TQM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2017.10008483
  • Failure mode and effect analysis using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and GRA TOPSIS in manufacturing industry   Order a copy of this article
    by G. Sakthivel, Bernard W. Ikua 
    Abstract: In the manufacturing industry, system failures may cause to personnel and infrastructure damages to the organisation which leads to loss in production. FMEA is a widely used engineering technique to improve product quality, reliability and eliminate known and/or potential failures. The present study develops evaluation model based on FMEA and FAHP integrated with combination of TOPSIS and GRA to valuate greatest risk in the processes for production of automotive dust cap in manufacturing industry. FAHP is used to compute the weights whereas fuzzy TOPSIS is used to obtain the final ranking. Among the various failure, blanking of blank failure mode is ranked first in the priority order to make an attention followed by the drawing dimension failure > window cutting failure > final inspection of dimension failure > packing (short excess quantity) failure > hole size failure > packing (damage in pack) failure > dispatch failure > plating failure.
    Keywords: failure mode and effects analysis; analytical hierarchy process; TOPSIS; fuzzy set theory; manufacturing industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2017.10008484
  • Who are hindering shop floor productive hours? An exploratory finding from discrete manufacturing industries of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Manoj Kumar Mohanty, Padma Charan Mishra, Manmohan Mall 
    Abstract: Indian manufacturing sector contributes about 15% of India's gross domestic product (GDP), 50% to the country's exports and employed about 12% of the total workforce. Government of India expects about 25% of contribution to GDP from manufacturing industries by 2022. This calls for a special focus on manufacturing sector and optimal use of resources. For effective availability time, idle hour have to be cut down from various operations. This study was conducted on three large scales discrete manufacturing industries of India. Based on the customer requests/requirements tailor made products are being manufactured in these organisations. This study found poor panning, unclear manufacturing documents to production, pending decisions, movement of materials from operations to operation, want of crane, layout, skill set of operators, absenteeism, union work, breaks between working hours, machine breakdown and rework as prominent attributes. Planning and workforce related issues are surfacing out clearly for generation of idle hours.
    Keywords: productivity; non-productive hours; idle hours; Indian industry; discrete manufacturing; shop floor management; factor analysis; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2017.10005489
  • Understanding the barriers in implementing leagile manufacturing system   Order a copy of this article
    by Naveen Virmani, Rajeev Saha, Rajeshwar Sahai 
    Abstract: The concept of lean manufacturing and agile manufacturing is not new nowadays, but the combination of the two i.e., lean as well as agile has been emerging as a new concept. Both lean and agile concepts are separated by a strategic point called de-coupling point, upstream of which there is a level schedule and at the same time, downstream, the system is agile so as to met volatile needs of customers. There are many advantages of implementing leagile manufacturing system like reduced cost, reduced lead time, improved quality, better customer satisfaction, increased sales and profitability, etc. So it is necessary to understand the barriers in implementing leagile system and also to what extent. Researchers have used different techniques like graph theory, technique of order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), interpretive structural modelling (ISM), etc. In this paper ISM technique is used to understand the barriers in implementation of leagile manufacturing system. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to rank these barriers. ISM approach has been used for converging some key barriers and managerial implications. Also, driving and dependent power of these barriers have been found out by using MICMAC analysis.
    Keywords: lean manufacturing; agile manufacturing; leagile manufacturing system; Interpretive structural modelling; ISM; MICMAC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2017.10004126
  • Proposing a model for evaluating lean project management performance using grounded theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Dabestani, Abbas Moghbel Baerz, Adel Azar, Arash Shahin 
    Abstract: The current study is an attempt to present a grounded-theory-based model to evaluate lean project management. To do that, we first developed the concept of lean project management through defining 'lean' in project management by a three-stage strategy of databased theory with inductive method. Afterwards, we exploited grounded theory and its instructions to interview experts and managers of steel industry. Having collected data and perused the related literature, we initiated a recursive process in which we defined the elements of our model as well as their relationship through formulation, amendment, and verification of the raw data. Eventually, we identified 17 major categories and 76 characteristics to be in our model.
    Keywords: lean project management; performance; grounded theory; model; qualitative research.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2017.10008485
  • Perspectives on productivity: identifying attributes influencing productivity in various industrial sectors   Order a copy of this article
    by Raju Kamble, Lalit Wankhade 
    Abstract: The attributes affecting productivity concept have received much attention in the past four decades, however, different scholars who have investigated productivity issues have done it mostly independent of each other and widespread literature review has not been presented so far. This paper provides a review of several research papers published in core journals on productivity. The paper aims to identify the key attributes, so as to improve productivity and performance of various industrial sectors. This review is characterised by three factors: wide coverage, broad scope of productivity improvements, and a focus on attributes affecting productivity. The paper further categorises identified attributes into five major key factors: human resource management (HRM), organisational culture (OC), production methodology (PM), management strategy (MS), and performance (PER). Attributes are then tabulated and the meaning of each attribute has been explained. The study also helps to determine productivity index (PI) to assess current productivity-maturity-level of any industry.
    Keywords: attributes; categorisation; key factors; productivity; literature review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJPQM.2017.10008486