International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking (53 papers in press)
An Automated Method for the Construction of Semantic Business Process Patterns
by Makni Lobna, Nahla Zaaboub Haddar, Hanêne Ben-Abdallah
Abstract: The effectiveness of reuse in the development of software prompted
researchers to look for reuse techniques for business process modeling. Indeed,
a variety of reusable business artifact types has been proposed during the last
decade. Among the recently proposed reuse artifact types, Semantic Business
Process Patterns (SB2P) offer process patterns that encapsulate knowledge and
commonly used practices in a particular domain. The design using an SB2P
provides for the adaptation of these practices and it offers guidance on possible
variations. This paper presents an automated method to construct SB2P starting
from a set of process models in a given domain. The proposed method has
the merit of accounting for the semantic, structural and behavioral information
of the initial models. In addition, it produces process patterns where common
fragments are distinguished from variation points, which assists business process
designers in reusing an SB2P to meet their requirements. The method is
illustrated through a case study in the cost accounting domain.
Keywords: Business process modeling; Semantic Business Process Pattern; business object ontology; semantic rules; mandatory activities; variation points.
A farmland choice based on hesitant fuzzy linguistic preferences relations
by Nesrin Halouani, Sonia Hajlaoui
Abstract: A new type of fuzzy preference structure, called hesitant linguistic preference relations is developed in order to describe uncertain evaluation information in group decision making (GDM) farmland choice. Moreover, it allows decision makers to offer all possible linguistic terms that are not accounted in current preference structure types when we compare two alternatives. Systematic aggregation operators are proposed to aggregate hesitant fuzzy linguistic information. In addition, an approach to GDM based on PROMETHEE method concepts and hesitant linguistic preference relations is developed to take into account the differences in opinions between individual decision makers. An agriculture real case study is implemented to demonstrate the practicability of the proposed method. Also, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to reveal the effect of the criteria weighting variations on the originally obtained ranking.
Keywords: MCDA; preference relations; fuzzy sets; linguistic terms; hesitant fuzzy sets; hesitant linguistic terms; PROMETHEE method; farmland choice.
A Reliability Centered Maintenance Approach for Assessing the Impact of Maintenance for Availability Improvement of Carding Machine
by Aniket Thawkar, Pravin Tambe, Vishwas Deshpande
Abstract: The complex nature of modern equipment and systems often leads to failures and as a consequence increase in machine downtime, thus affecting production. The failures of machines cause disruptions in production, resulting in the loss of availability of the system and increase the cost of maintenance. This paper presents a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodology to improve the availability of carding machine in textile industry. The main objective of this paper is to present a RCM approach for improving the availability of the carding machine and thus maximize the production output. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is used for analyzing the failures in the machine. The preventive measure to reduce the failure frequency and its impact are proposed. The proposed preventive measures results in reduction of about 26 % of the total downtime and availability improvement of approximately 1.7 %, as compared with the availability due to current maintenance practices.
Keywords: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM); Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA); Availability; Textile industry; Carding machine.
A graph-theoretic based meta-heuristic algorithm for solving cooperative dynamic facility layout problems
by Masume Messi Bidgoli
Abstract: The Dynamic Facility Layout Problem (DFLP) is related to location of all facilities of a plant in a dynamic environment. Most of the existing models for this problem ignore competitive or cooperative reactions to ones action.
In a recent work, the assumption of independency between parameters of material handling cost function has been relaxed and a game model has been presented. Two main shortcomings exist in this work. In one side, cooperation between decision makers is ignored. This matter could result to remove some better solutions that are not Nash equilibrium. In other hand, computing Nash equilibrium takes much time. Then, Nash equilibrium maybe results in expensive solutions in cooperative conditions.
In this paper, this real assumption is considered and by modeling the problem as a multi-criteria shortest path problem, a Pareto optimal solution is obtained. The numerical experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution method.
Keywords: Dynamic Facility layout design; Material Handling System design; Graph theory; Multi-criteria shortest path; Simulated annealing.
A Framework to Enhance Cellular Manufacturing System: A Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) Approach
by Sanjay Kumar, Vasdev Malhotra, Vikas Kumar
Abstract: The cellular manufacturing (CM) has been proved as a well-known manufacturing strategy that helps to improve manufacturing efficiency and productivity by utilizing the philosophy of group technology. Cellular Manufacturing (CM) has been emerged as a strong approach for improving operations in batch and job shop environments. In cellular manufacturing, Group Technology is used to form part families based on similar processing requirements. It has often been said that the strength of any country resides in the strength of its industrial sector and progress in industrial society has been accomplished by the creation of new technologies. The implementation of cellular manufacturing system (CMS) requires careful planning at all levels of the organisation to ensure that the implementation will achieve the intended goals considering the multiple criteria. Purpose- To identify and analyze the interactions among different enablers of cellular manufacturing system (CMS). The existing enablers available in the past literature are scattered and not able to meet specific requirements of the customers. So, it becomes a necessity to encapsulate these enablers in appropriate proportions to enable traditional organizations to CMS. To fill this gap total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) and MICMAC analysis based framework model has been developed to understand the mutual interactions between among the enablers. Design/methodology/approach- Identification of enablers followed by application of TISM which is an innovative version of ISM and MICMAC analysis used to study and analyze the mutual interactions between identified enablers. Findings- The result reveals that top management support, organizational structure and information technology integration have strong driving power and weak dependence power and are at the lowest level in the TISM model hierarchy, while the outcome enablers of CMS have low driving power but have high dependence power. Research limitations/implications This model is developed on the basis of inputs from few experts and may not reflect the opinion of whole industry community. Practical implications Top management must stress on enablers having strong driving power for efficient implementation of CMS. Managers in the area of manufacturing may drive useful insights from the empirical study presented in this paper. Managers should plan an effective strategy for proper implementation of CMS which make organization more flexible, productive, competitive and profitable. Originality/value TISM based framework structural model have been proposed for industry or organization which is a new effort for implementation of CMS.
Keywords: Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS); Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM); MICMAC Analysis; Ranking; Interaction; Enablers.
EVALUATING JUST IN TIME IMPLEMENTATION IMPLICATIONS IN AN INDIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
by I.P.S. Ahuja, Sukhjinder Singh, Gurinder Singh
Abstract: The manufacturing sector has witnessed severe challenges due to increasing customer demand, cost competitiveness and rapid innovations in processes and technologies. This has forced the manufacturing industries to look out for innovative process management tools and techniques having competencies to drastically transform the manufacturing operations to significantly enhance the business operations capabilities. Just-in-time (JIT) production systems, International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 certifications and total quality management (TQM) are few major techniques adopted by manufacturing organizations to cater to aforesaid business objectives. JIT is a technique of producing product at high quality at a rapid response by considering the various strategies during the implementation in the company. The research presents a detailed case study in Indian manufacturing organization to depict the JIT initiatives taken by organization for realizing significant manufacturing performance improvements for meeting stringent competition. This case study reveals that JIT implementation has facilitated the manufacturing organization to reap significant benefits like productivity enhancement in various plants, removing congestion in parking areas, difficulties in loading and unloading products from the trucks, difficulties in quality check of product while unloading and ensuring on time delivery of the raw materials when needed.
Keywords: Just in Time; Manufacturing Industry; manufacturing performance; plant productivity.
AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IN INDIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
by I.P.S. Ahuja, Jaspreet Singh, Gurinder Singh
Abstract: At current situation, LM has grown to be a worldwide trend. This is a tentative study of lean manufacturing implementation in Indian industries. A questionnaire survey has been deployed to evaluate the contributions of lean manufacturing in Indian Manufacturing Industry. The analysis was executed on thirty four Indian manufacturing organizations. All the respondents were selected from those organizations that are committed to imbibe various lean manufacturing practices. The study reveals that nearly all of the selected respondent firms are categorized as an evolution on the way to lean manufacturing practice and the organizations have paid more attention towards organization operation and management, narrate to external relationships with suppliers and customers through various parameters. Such organizations think that the issues that drive lean manufacturing implementation include customer focus and organizations ability to holistically imbibe continuous improvement initiatives. The results of this study have revealed that the major difficulty to implement lean manufacturing system in an organization is the lack of understanding lean concepts and lack of appropriate understanding about lean techniques adopted by the organizations.
Keywords: Lean Manufacturing; Performance Measures; Indian Manufacturing Industry; Waste Elimination; Total Quality Management; 5S; Kaizen; Kanban.
Multi-objective Municipal solid Waste Management Recycling Problem in Fuzzy-Rough Environment.
by Kalipada Maity
Abstract: In municipal solid waste (MSW) management, not only economicrnobjectives but also environmental objectives are consideredrnsimultaneously. In this paper, a fuzzy rough(Fu-Ro) multi-objective Municipal solid Waste Management Problem (MMSWMP) is developed for supporting MSW management, associated Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission control and Recycling. Here, for the first time, three conflicting objectives are integrally considered, including minimization of total system cost, minimization of total GHG emissions from waste management facilities and maximization of total revenue. The present MMSWMP improves upon the existing single or double objectives waste management optimization models.rnHere uncertainties costs of the models are expressed as Fu-Rornparameters, Some constraints of the system are expressed as chancernconstraints and Fu-Ro constraints. Multi-objective problem isrntransformed to single objective one through incorporation of fuzzyrnsatisfying technique. Then it is solved as a general mixed-integerrnmulti-objective linear programming problem using a gradient basedrnoptimization technique-Generalized Reduced GradientrnMethod(Lingo-11.0). Representing different preferences of therndecision makers for economic development and environmental-impact,rnfour different planning models are formulated, analyzed andrncompared. The models are numerically illustrated and somernsensitivity analysis are presented. The results indicate thatrnuncertainties and complexities plays effectively roles for thernsystem and useful information are generated for providing decisionrnsupport.
Keywords: Municipal solid wasternmanagement; Greenhouse gas emission control; Recycling; FuzzyrnRough; Fuzzy satisfying method; Chance-constrained.
Identification of performance variables which affect the FMS: a state of art review
by Vineet Jain, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The aim of this research is the identification of performance variables which affect the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). The study was performed to find the variables especially for performance, productivity and flexibility of FMS. Recognition of variables took place from the literature and experts opinions from the manufacturing industry. The fifteen performance variables were identified and three factors, i.e. Quality, Productivity and Flexibility, were extracted, which involves the performance of FMS. The twenty productivity variables were identified and four factors, i.e. People, Quality, Machine, and Flexibility, were extracted, which involves the productivity of FMS. Fifteen variables were identified and four factors, i.e. Production Flexibility, Machine Flexibility, Product Flexibility, and Volume Flexibility, were extracted, which affect the flexibility of FMS. This research provides the opportunity to management for understanding the factors or variables for enhancement of performance of their manufacturing firms.
Keywords: FMS; performance; productivity; flexibility; factors; variables.
Solving a multi-manned assembly line balancing problem in a Pareto sense
by Parames Chutima, Krit Prasert
Abstract: This paper presents a novel algorithm which modifies the coincident algorithm (COIN), namely the adaptive extended coincident algorithm (AE-COIN), to solve a multi-manned assembly line balancing problem (MALBP). The multiple objectives are optimised in a hierarchical manner comprising of the following objectives: (1) minimise the number of workers, (2) minimise the number of stations, and (3) balance workloads between stations and maximise work relatedness. The objectives in the third hierarchy are optimised in a Pareto sense since they are conflicting in nature. The performances of AE-COIN are compared against well-known algorithms, i.e. BBO, NSGA II and DPSO. The experimental results show that AE-COIN outperforms its contestants in both solution quality and diversity.
Keywords: Assembly line balancing; multi-manned; coincident algorithm.
An Experimental Investigation to Optimize Injection Moulding Process Parameters for Plastic Parts by Using Taguchi Method and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm
by Deepak Kumar, G.S. Dangayach, P.N. Rao
Abstract: Plastic injection moulding is a useful method to produce plastic parts with high-quality surface finish. Improper process parameter settings can cause many production troubles namely defective products, reduce dimensional precision and scrap. Thus, determining the optimal processing parameters are regularly performed in injection moulding industry. In this paper, to determine the initial range of process parameters steady state experiments were performed. Taguchi method and Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm are used to optimize the process parameters of electric meter box and to reduce its shrinkage and warpage and to enhance its impact strength. For this purpose L27 orthogonal array was used. The modified linear graph was used with the line separation method to assign the parameters and interactions to various columns of the orthogonal array. The confirmation experiments show that the errors associated with prediction of shrinkage, warpage and impact strength are 5.11%, 5.91% and 1.171 % respectively.
Keywords: Injection moulding; Process parameters; Taguchi method; Multi-objective Genetic algorithm; steady state experiments; modified linear graph; prediction; shrinkage; warpage; impact strength.
The relationship between Workplace Spirituality, Job Satisfaction and Job Performance
by Michael Sony, Nandakumar Mekoth
Abstract: The paper aims to study the impact of four dimensions of workplace spirituality (Compassion, Meaningful work, mindfulness and Transcendence) proposed by (Petchsawang & Duchon, 2009, 2012) on Job Outcomes. The impact of moderating variables like gender, chronological age and Work experience is also considered in this research. Finally Job satisfaction is also studied as a mediating variable between workplace spirituality and Job performance. A cross section research was conducted on 262 employees working in western India which is a non W.E.I.R.D (Western educated industrialized rich democratic) sample. The data is analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The research results indicate that there is a positive relationship between various dimensions of workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. These findings deepen the understanding of Workplace spirituality, Job satisfaction and Job performance. This study brings new insights into the noteworthy role spirituality plays in the context of the workplace.
Keywords: Workplace Spirituality; Job Satisfaction; Job Performance; Compassion; Mindfulness; Meaningful work and Transcendence.
Modeling and Analysis for the Machinability Evaluation of Udimet-L605 in Wire-cut Electric Discharge Machining
by Somvir Singh Nain, Dixit Garg, Sanjeev Kumar
Abstract: The intention of this paper is to examine and analyze the machinability of Udimet-L605 in wire-cut electric discharge machining. Overall six input parameters have been considered as pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff), peak current (IP), wire tension (WT), spark gap voltage (SV), wire feed (WF) and two response variables as material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR). The four models such as support vector machine (SVM) using two different kernels, non-linear regression (NLR) and multi-linear regression (MLR) have been proposed to check the variation among the experimental and predicted outcome. In addition to this, sensitivity analyze test has been performed on prominent model to analyze the significance of each input parameter on MRR and SR of WEDM and suggested that pulse-on time is the momentous parameter for both MRR and SR. The SVM based on polynomial kernel model give enhanced result in contest with others models.
Keywords: Support vector machine; WEDM; Regression; Sensitivity Analysis; Udimet-L605; Material Removal Rate; Surface Roughness.
Experimental investigation on surface integrity in machining of Inconel X750 with WEDM using Taguchi Technique
by Mandeep Kumar, Hari Singh
Abstract: The objective of the present work is to investigate the effects of various WEDM process parameters such as pulse on time, pulse off time, servo voltage, peak current, wire tension and wire feed rate on the Surface Roughness of the machined samples. The analysis of variance was carried out for raw data as well as for signal to noise ratio. Four input parameters have been found to be statistically significant for their effects on the response of interest. The optimum value of surface roughness was obtained at pulse on time-110; pulse off time-51; spark gap voltage-65 V; peak current- 90 A; wire feed-11; wire tension-5. The confirmation experiments were also performed for validating the predicted results. Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed on the machined samples to investigate the effect and microstructure of the samples after machining.
Keywords: Machining; Optimization; ANOVA; SR; Inconel; Taguchi; WEDM; GRA; SEM; Recast layer.
Designing and planning a sustainable supply chain network considering economic aspects, environmental impact, fixed job opportunities and customer service level
by Alireza Taheri-Moghadam, Jafar Razmi, Mohammed Fazle Baki
Abstract: In this paper, a sustainable supply chain (SSND) problem is developed which contains economic aspects, environmental issues, social impacts and customer service level. The economic objective is minimizing total cost of the whole network (production, transportation, inventory holding/ stock-out and investment). CO2 emission is considered as environmental issue and the social objective is fixed job opportunities. The customer satisfaction objective contains lead time and stock-out ratio. All of the objectives are in contrast and there is a need for using multi-objective approaches for solving the problem. Normalized normal constraint method is used to capture trade-off between objectives. Simulated numerical examples are considered to evaluate the model and solution approach. Impact of some parameters on customer service level is analyzed by sensitivity analysis. The results show that the proposed model performance is acceptable and it can prepare good managerial decisions for real cases by considering four aspects of business environments simultaneously.
Keywords: Sustainable supply chain network design; Multi-objective optimization; Normalized normal constraint; Social impacts; fixed job opportunities; customer service level.
Organizational and inter-organizational competencies for supply chain integration
by Krishnapriya Vankireddy, Rupashree Baral
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to integrate human resource management with supply chain management through examining the role of inter-organizational competencies (information sharing (IS)) as a mediator between the organizational competencies (cross-functional information sharing, participative culture and learning orientation) and supply chain integration (SCI). To test the hypotheses of interest, data were collected on 80 manufacturing firms from India through a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Partial Least Squares method (PLS). The findings revealed that participative culture and learning orientation were positively related to SCI and were fully and partially mediated by IS respectively. The study provides evidence for linking competencies with SCI in the literature that are otherwise scarce in the form of empirical studies in the context of supply chain. It also succeeds in examining the role inter-organizational competencies as a mediator, thus providing insights into such competencies. The study is also one of the first in studying competencies required for supply chain integration in the Indian context.
Keywords: Inter-organizational competencies;Organizational competencies;Supply chain integration;India.
Measuring the Efficiency of Community Colleges Using Super Efficiency Approach for the Case of Non-discretionary Factors in Data Envelopment Analysis with Sensitivity Analysis
by Mushtaq Taleb, Razamin Ramli, Ruzelan Khalid
Abstract: Malaysian community colleges play a significant role in achieving Malaysias vision to be a developed country in 2020. For this reason, their efficiency should appropriately be measured. However, their efficiency measurement using a conventional Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model is not appropriate since some of their inputs; e.g., entrant and enrolment students are non-discretionary while a part of output of their graduate employability is discretionary. This paper thus proposes an alternative approach of super efficiency slack based measure for the case of non-discretionary factors in DEA. The proposed approach was used to evaluate the efficiency of 25 main campuses of Malaysian community colleges from 2012 to 2013. The results support the decision maker of Malaysian community colleges to discriminate and rank efficient and inefficient community colleges in the presence of both super efficiency and non-discretionary factors. The significance of inputs-outputs on efficiency status was tested by sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; Non-discretionary factors; Slack based measure; Super efficiency.
An improvement heuristic for permutation flow shop scheduling
by Kewal Krishan Nailwal, Deepak Gupta, Kawal Jeet , Sameer Sharma
Abstract: An improvement heuristic algorithm is proposed in this paper for solving flow shop scheduling problem. To test its efficiency, firstly the performance of the proposed algorithm is done against the six heuristics existing in the literature including the best NEH heuristic on 120 Taillard benchmarks. Further, this set of 120 Taillard instances is increased to 266 benchmark problem instances which include Carliers, some Reeves and some new hard VRF instances from Vallada et al. [New hard benchmark for flowshop scheduling problems minimizing makespan. European Journal of Operational Research. 2015; 240: 666-677]. On these instances, the performance of the proposed algorithm is tested against the best NEH and the famous CDS heuristic with the best known upper bounds. Further, a brief analysis of the other heuristics and metaheuristics existing in literature is done on Taillard problem instances. The proposed heuristic outperforms all the heuristics reported in this paper.
Keywords: Flow shop scheduling; Makespan; Heuristic; Algorithm.
Reliability Analysis of Variables of Environmental Management in Indian micro scale industries and SMEs
by D.R. Prajapati, P.J. Singh, Amit Kumar Tanwer
Abstract: Performance parameters of Environmental Management System (EMS); based on HR dimensions and organizational dimension are important measures for the successful implementation of EMS in any manufacturing industry. This paper identifies the various EMS variables for the successful implementation EMS in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of India. Various measures of collected data of survey of Indian micro scale industries and SMEs have been validated and analysed by using SPSS software. The collected data have been analysed by statistical tools like importance-index and Corrected item minus total correlation (CIMTC) methods and reliability of these data has been tested by Cronbachs alpha (α) analysis. The computed results show that the identified measures are highly reliable for implementation of EMS in Indian SMEs. This study shows that 53 items out of 54 items of 9 variables are having the values of Cronbachs alpha (α) more than 0.70 and it shows that the collected data are highly reliable for Indian SMEs. It is also found that the values of Cronbachs alpha for the employees empowermentʼ and ʻTraining and awareness are above 0.80 and rest variables have the values of Cronbachs alpha (α) in the range of 0.50-0.80 for micro scale Indian industries.
Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Environmental Management System (EMS); Environmental Performance (EP); Cronbach’s alpha; Importance-index and CIMTC.
Optimal Reserve Inventory from Output of One Machine to Input of Two Machines when Inter-arrival Breakdowns is a Random Variable
by Nandakumar C D, Srinivasan S, Sathiyamoorthi R
Abstract: In this paper, a two stage production process is considered such that there is only one machine M_1 in the first stage and two machines 〖 M〗_2^',M_2^'' in the second stage. It is assumed that the output of M_(1 )is the input for〖 M〗_2^',M_2^''. During the breakdown time of M_1, a reserve inventory is suggested for〖 M〗_2^',M_2^'' , to prevent the idle time, which is costlier. An inventory model is derived here based on certain assumptions to find the optimum size of the reserve inventory of the semi-finished product of the machine M_1 to supply the machines 〖 M〗_2^',M_2^'' till M_1 resumes the function. Numerical illustrations are provided.
Keywords: breakdowns; repair time; inventory; change point; SCBZ property; production; shortages.
A study on M/G/1 preemptive priority retrial queue with Bernoulli working vacations and vacation interruption
by P. Rajadurai
Abstract: This paper deals with steady state analysis of single server priority retrial queue with Bernoulli working vacation, where the regular busy server can be subjected to breakdown and repair. There are two types of customers are considered, which are priority customers and ordinary customers. As soon as orbit becomes empty, the server goes for a Working Vacation (WV). The server works at a lower service rate during working vacation period. If there are customers in the system at the end of each vacation, the server becomes idle and ready for serving new arrivals with probability p (single WV) or it remains on vacation with probability q (multiple WVs). Using the supplementary variable technique, we obtained the steady state probability generating functions for the system and its orbit. Important system performance measures, the mean busy period and the mean busy cycle are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.
Keywords: retrial queue; preemptive priority queue; working vacations; supplementary variable technique;.
Optimization of WEDM Process Parameters during Machining of HCHCr Steel using TOPSIS Method
by Sarat Kumar Sahoo
Abstract: Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is an advanced non-conventional machining process specifically used for obtaining complex 3D shape objects in hard materials with high accuracy. The present study investigates the effect of various process parameters viz. pulse on time, pulse off time, wire feed and servo voltage on response variables such as cutting speed, material removal rate, kerf width and surface roughness on machining of high carbon high chromium steel. Taguchis L9 orthogonal array for 4 factors and 3 levels has been used for designing the experiment. A novel technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach has been applied to select the optimal level of machining parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been conducted for investigating the effect of process parameters on overall machining performance. The effectiveness of proposed optimal condition is validated through the confirmatory test. The result of this study highlights that the parameters like pulse on time and servo voltage are significantly influencing to the machining performance.
Keywords: Wire EDM; electrical discharge machining; High carbon high chromium steel; Material removal rate; Productivity; Taguchi; TOPSIS; ANOVA; Multi-response Optimization.
Qualitative analysis of drivers of poka yoke in small and medium enterprises of Indian automobile sector
by Sanjay Kumar, Sunil Luthra, Abid Haleem, Dixit Garg
Abstract: Poka-Yoke has been recognized as a proven approach towards achieving error free environment, especially in manufacturing. Automobile industry of India may be considered as backbone of the countrys economic growth with social sustainability. However, we found that the understanding of Poka Yoke is poor especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). A need has been felt to explore possibilities for improvement in Indian automobile sector focusing upon SMEs towards error free manufacturing & assembly practices for enhancing quality with profitability. In this paper, an attempt has been made to justify importance of Poke-yoke in SMEs, identify and analyze important drivers for successful implementation of Poka-Yoke concept. Literature review methodology has been utilized to identify important drivers for successful implementation of Poka-Yoke concept in SMEs of Indian automobile. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology has been used for the ranking of identified drivers. Management Attitude driver has been identified as top ranked driver to responsible to implement Poka Yoke in Indian automobile SMEs. Further, DEMATEL methodology has also been used to understand and categorize these identified drivers of Poka Yoke implementation into cause group and effect group of drivers. Appropriate discussions have helped to conclude this work with directions for future research. This paper may help production engineers and managers to identify errors and further rectify them for gaining competitive advantage over domestic and international automobile market players.
Keywords: Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL); Drivers of Poka Yoke; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Indian Automobile Industry; Poka Yoke; Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).
A comparative study of multi-criteria decision making approaches for prioritizing the manufacturing systems
by Suman Gothwal, Tilak Raj
Abstract: Globalization and modern lifestyle trends have put up tremendous challenge to manufacturing industries. To meet the challenges imposed by todays dynamic market conditions it is the right time for the manufacturing companies to transit from traditional manufacturing system to advance manufacturing system. This paper highlights four areas of manufacturing systems i.e., humanised flexible manufacturing system (HFMS), flexible manufacturing system (FMS), computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and computer numerical control (CNC) systems. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework to proactively select the best manufacturing system. This study is an effort for identifying the factors affecting the manufacturing system and to find out the best manufacturing system. For this purpose a comparative study of multi criteria decision making approaches, analytical network process (ANP) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) techniques have been used for prioritization of alternatives. The shortcomings of the research are stated and future directions are proposed.
Keywords: Measures; humanised flexible manufacturing system; HFMS; flexible manufacturing system; FMS; computer integrated manufacturing; CIM; computer numerical control; CNC; analytical network process; ANP; analytical hierarchy process; AHP;.
Big data and privacy A legal perspective and comparative study of United States and India
by Rupal Rautdesai, Ujwal Nandekar, Aditya Kedari, Yogesh Patil
Abstract: Due to advancement of science and technology a new concept called big data has emerged. Its utility has attracted not only the private companies and organizations but also governmental authorities. But at the same time it has also raised certain ethical, moral and legal concerns. This paper looks at the threats to individuals privacy caused due to big data. This paper compares the U.S. laws with Indian laws with respect to privacy and data protection and attempts to offer a solution to safeguard individuals privacy against such threats. The research methodology used by the researchers is doctrinal method along with arm chair, exploratory, analytical and comparative method. The authors argue that individuals privacy can be safeguarded through a holistic approach wherein apt technology standards, management practices along with force of law are adopted. Companies and organizations should adopt self-regulating operating standards and practices too. The concept of privacy in this paper has been restricted to mean the individual privacy and does not include national security concerns or confidential data of corporations. The authors also suggest a framework for the protection of individual privacy and its implementation in India.
Keywords: Big Data; Privacy laws; Data Protection; Sensitive personal information; Right
to privacy; U.S. and India.
Development of Optimistic and Pessimistic Models using FDEA to Measure Performance Efficiencies of DMUs
by Alka Arya, Shiv Prasad Yadav
Abstract: In this paper, we develop optimistic and pessimistic models using fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA). We find the fuzzy optimistic and fuzzy pessimistic efficiencies by using the -cut method. By using super-efficiency technique, we develop models to obtain the complete ranking of the DMUs when fuzzy optimistic and pessimistic models are considered separately. Further, to rank the DMUs when both fuzzy optimistic and pessimistic models are taken simultaneously as hybrid approach. To address the overall performance using fuzzy optimistic and pessimistic situations together in FDEA, we propose a hybrid FDEA using -cut efficiencies decision model. Finally, these developed optimistic and pessimistic FDEA models and ranking models are illustrated with two examples. The proposed model is applied to a real world problem of health sector. We determine the performance efficiencies of hospitals in Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh state, India for the calendar year 2013-2014 using the proposed model. Number of health superintendents and number of health workers are taken as input variables, and number of inpatients and number of outpatients as output variables.
Keywords: Hospitals; Performance Efficiency; Optimistic and pessimistic; Super-efficiency; FDEA.
INTEGRATED VENDOR-BUYER INVENTORY MODEL IN A SUPPLY CHAIN WITH VARIABLE LEAD TIME AND SETUP COST REDUCTION
by Uthayakumar R, Hemapriya Selvaraj
Abstract: The single vendor single-buyer integrated production inventory system has been an object of study for a long time but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing setup cost on the integrated inventory models with variable lead time and production lot size dependent lead time and transportation time. A mathematical model is derived to investigate the effects of setup cost reduction on the integrated inventory system by reducing the total cost system. A numerical example is included to illustrate the results of the model. Finally, Graphical representation is presented to illustrate the model. The solution procedure is furnished to determine the optimal solution and the sensitivity analysis has been carried out to illustrate the behaviours of the proposed model.
Keywords: Integrated inventory model; Supply chain management; Setup cost reduction.
Technology push strategies and their consequences on sustainable development in manufacturing industries
by Anuj Singla, I.P.S. Ahuja, A.P.S. Sethi
Abstract: The objective behind the review is to have an insight of Technology Push (TP) activities to escalate the essential capabilities in manufacturing ventures and analyzing the experiences of the developed and developing countries. Themes and relevant articles have been identified from the various journals and linked with issues related to technology push for sustainable development in manufacturing industries. The study reveals that adjustment of viable TP strategies may endow towards reckoning key skills in the framework of a company. In addition to this, the review emphasizes that the TP strategies has significant impact on the sustainable development of the manufacturing industries. It has been observed that the role of TP in manufacturing companies has not been much reported. A synthesis can be established with satisfaction levels of technology push strategies, which may help to secure concrete objectives and interests of an organization. The paper reviews various attributes of TP through a number of publications in this field.
Keywords: Technology push; Sustainable development; Manufacturing industries; Technology management.
Simulation Analysis of Multi-Node Manufacturing System under Design and Scheduling Strategies
by Rajeev Kumar, Madhawanand Mishra
Abstract: To cater to dynamic and variable performance matrices, manufacturing industries use automation tools and technologies to impart manufacturing flexibility in its processes. To successfully cater to its performance, manufacturing requirements should be designed into the system and then appropriate planning and operational policies need to be followed to support it. This research work validates this using an industrial size Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) as a multi node manufacturing framework having eight machines. While FMS design spectrum is modeled by different levels of its Routing Flexibility (RF) and number of pallets (NP), planning and operational strategies are implemented through various combinations of Dispatching and Sequencing rules (DR/SR). This work is a simulation study to evaluate FMS performance for which Make Span Time (MST) and machine utilization have been used as a performance metric. This research provides a framework for the decision makers in identifying the appropriate levels of routing flexibility, number of pallets and appropriate combination of dispatching and sequencing rules for optimizing system performance under a given manufacturing environment.
Keywords: Routing Flexibility; Sequencing Rule; Dispatching Rule; Simulation of FMS.
Hybrid genetic algorithm for multi-objective flow shop scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup time: Parameter design using Taguchi's robust design method
by Sridharan R, V. Anjana, P.N. Ram Kumar
Abstract: This paper focuses on scheduling a permutation flow shop where setup times are sequence dependent. The objectives involved are minimisation of makespan and mean tardiness. A hybrid genetic algorithm is developed to obtain a set of non-dominant solutions to the multi-objective flow shop scheduling problem. Genetic algorithm is used in combination with a local search method to obtain the pareto-optimal solutions. The best parameters of the proposed algorithm are determined using the Taguchis robust design method and the concept of utility index value. The set of parameters corresponding to the highest utility value is selected as the optimal parameters for the proposed algorithm. The algorithm is applied to the benchmark problems of flow shop scheduling with sequence dependent setup time.
Keywords: permutation flow shop; hybrid genetic algorithm; Taguchi method; utility concept.
Quantifying the influence of FMS on the productivity of a firm
by Sandhya Dixit, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The manufacturing organisations adopt Flexible Manufacturing Systems to meet the challenges imposed by todays volatile market standards. An FMS is designed to combine the efficiency of a mass production line and the flexibility of a job shop to produce a variety of products on a group of machines. Productivity is a key factor in a flexible manufacturing system performance. Despite the advantages offered, the implementation of FMS has not been very popular especially in developing countries as it is very difficult to quantify the factors favouring FMS implementation. For its successful implementation, technological considerations, cost justification as well as strategic benefits are to be weighted. Therefore an attempt has been made in the present work to identify and categorize various productivity factors influenced by the implementation of FMS in a firm, further these factors are quantitatively analysed to find their inhibiting strength using Graph Theory Approach (GTA). GTA is a powerful approach which synthesizes the inter-relationship among different variables or subsystems and provides a synthetic score for the entire system. So using this approach a numerical index is proposed in this work to evaluate and rank the various productivity factors so that the practising managers can have better focus.
Keywords: Manufacturing; FMS; Productivity; GTA.
Optimal Sequencing of Part Families and Configuration selection for process improvement in Reconfigurable Manufacturing System
by Kamal Kumar Mittal, Pramod Kumar Jain, Dinesh Kumar
Abstract: Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) are considered as next generation manufacturing systems that are capable of providing the functionality and capacity as and when required. Products are classified into several part families as per customer requirement and each of them are a set of similar products. In a shop floor, the manufacturers have to deal with varied number of orders for multiple part families and after completing the orders of a particular family, they need to change over to the orders of a different part family. Shifting from one part family to another may require the systems reconfiguration, which is a complicated method and requires tremendous cost and efforts. The complexity, effort and cost from changing one configuration to another depends on the existing initial configuration and the new configuration required for subsequent production of orders belonging to a different part family. There are different models available for process improvement This paper focuses on determining optimal sequencing of part families formation and configuration selection for process improvement in RMS on the basis of minimum loss occurred for a given system configuration. The proposed methodology is explained and an example is given for illustration.
Keywords: RMS; configuration selection; part family; reconfiguration cost; process;order state.
Project Behavior In Different Types of Project Management Organizations: A System Dynamics Approach
by Reem Alkadeem, Soheir Backar, Heba Elhaddad, Mohammad El-Dardiry
Abstract: Developing new products is a highly dynamic complex process. Managing such dynamic projects is not an easy task. In this research, different scenarios of NPD projects work systems are examined. The capability of these projects work systems to deal with the dynamic nature of NPD projects to mitigate the negative impacts of this nature on NPD project performance . This study shows that, the most suitable organizational work environment for moderate and high complex projects is the highly flexible work system environment. While it is appropriate for low complex projects to provide a formal work system environment. This study makes an attempt to use systems dynamic modeling to model the work system characteristics and managerial styles in interaction with projects behavior. It provides a step towards the understanding of how both work systems characteristics and managerial styles would influence projects performance and their probability of success. It serves as a guide for projects managers suggesting proper ways to better manage different NPD projects with different levels of complexities.
Keywords: project behavior; work system design; managerial styles; formality; system dynamics; scenario planning.
Metaheuristic algorithms for the generalized cell formation problem considering machine reliability
by Mohammad Mahdi Nasiri, Foruzan Naseri
Abstract: In this paper, we use two metaheuristic algorithms, i.e., artificial bee colony (ABC) and covariance matrix adaptation revolution strategies (CMA-ES), for solving the generalized cell formation problem considering machine reliability. The purpose is to choose the best process routing for each part and to allocate the machines to the manufacturing cells in order to minimize the total cost, which is composed of intracellular movement cost, intercellular movement cost and machines breakdown cost. To evaluate the metaheuristic algorithms, eight numerical examples in three different sizes are solved. The results of the two algorithms are compared with each other and with the results of solving the MIP model. Both the MIP solver and metaheuristics find the optimal solutions for the small size problem instances while by increasing the problem size, metaheuristics show higher performance. The results illustrate that the CMA-ES algorithm outperforms the ABC algorithm in both solution quality and CPU time.
Keywords: group technology; generalized cell formation problem; reliability; artificial bee colony; covariance matrix adaptation revolution strategies.
Two Levels of Storage Model for Deteriorating Items, Stock Dependent Demand and Partial Backlogging with Both Rented Warehouses
by Shilpy Tayal, S.R. Singh, Amit Kumar Attri
Abstract: In this paper an inventory model for deteriorating items with two warehouses has been developed, where both the warehouses considered are rented. The demand rate for both the warehouses is different. Since the demand for the products increases due to stock up to a certain level and after that it becomes constant. In this model it is assumed that the demand in first warehouse is stock dependent and after that when the extra stock is filled in second warehouse the demand rate becomes constant for that. Due to different storage conditions the deterioration rate is also different in both the warehouse. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis is also presented to illustrate the study. The main objective of this paper is to find out the optimal total cost of the system.
Keywords: Rented Warehouses; Deterioration; Stock Dependent Demand; Partial Backlogging; Inventory.
Forecasting & Aggregate Planning Application a case study of a Small Enterprise in Indonesia
by Elia Oey, Williem Artono Wijaya, Scherly Hansopaheluwakan
Abstract: A good and interconnected demand and supply planning (D&SP) is essential for firms, as it will give better allocation of resource and enabler to stay competitive. The basic and simple applications of D&SP are forecasting and aggregate planning which mainly used in big corporations, but less in small and medium enterprises. The research was a case study in a small firm in Indonesia, which started as small and family-owned company, but can enjoy the benefit of simple demand and supply planning to enhance its cost and productivity. Despite main application of D&SP in every production environment, no vast research has been done in the last couple of decades. The study and the case are thus a refreshment on how application of D&SP still relevant. The case study examined 7 common forecasting tools for demand planning side, and exercised classical chase and level aggregate planning strategy for the supply planning side. It explored 3 possible scenarios, and recommended a better scenario with 3% cost saving for the company.
Keywords: Demand Planning; Supply Planning; Demand and Supply Planning (D&SP); Aggregate planning; Forecasting; Small enterprise.
Prioritization and selection of non-traditional machining processes and their criteria using analytic hierarchy process approach
by Faisal Talib, Mohammad Asjad
Abstract: In order to understand the manufacturing and machining requirements that have been increased sharply due to evolution of newer and difficult to machine materials which are being utilized by the manufacturing industries, a different class of manufacturing and machining process has emerged from past few decades know as non-traditional machining (NTM) processes. These processes have ability to develop intricate and typical shape products with high degree of accuracy and precision, close dimensional tolerance, and good surface finish. On the other hand, NTM processes also consume high power and are too expensive, hence, necessitates in optimum selection of NTM processes and their related criteria. In this study, a model is developed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology to help the process engineers and decision makers in prioritizing and ranking the various NTM processes and their criteria identified from literature review, and selecting the most appropriate NTM process and its criteria for typical machining process. The methodology also assists in identifying the most significant NTM processes and their criteria that could help the process engineers and decision makers for higher productivity and industry performance. Analysis of the present study shows that NTM process "based on the source of energy" has ranked at first place followed by "based on the medium of the energy transfer", "based on the type of energy used", and "based on the mechanism of material removal". Further, the study also prioritized the various NTM processes criteria consisting of 27 criteria. The priority criteria that ranked on top are: voltage, current, ions, and ionised particles. The findings of the present study will help process engineers, decision makers and practitioners in selecting the best NTM process and its criteria, and then implementing them in their industry for improved performance.
Keywords: Non-traditional machining (NTM) processes; criteria; analytic hierarchy process (AHP); voltage; current; and energy.
Quality Edge Extraction of Mechanical CAD Parts for Intelligent Manufacturing
by Tushar Jain, Meenu , H.K. Sardana
Abstract: Computer Aided Testing (CAT) is the latest technique. Its because CAT involve in a different stages of manufacturing like Designing, Production, Quality Control by 3D Measuring Instrument that is time consuming. If the object position is known before examined, time can be managed. Machine vision dependent inspection of mechanical CAD parts has become demanding area in the field of industrial inspection. In this work we developed the procedure to detect the mechanical CAD parts with the edge based algorithms. The data has been taken with 3D model that has been designed using Solid Edge ST8 CAD/CAM PLM software and analyzed using MATLAB for automated production checking system. Our proposed method uses the edge based recognition of CAD object by Fuzzy based approach in order to create image information of shape before it can be used for pose estimation in Computer Aided Testing System. From the experimental results, it has been found that with the proposed vision system more accurate and reliable products can be manufactured intelligently.
Keywords: Computer Aided Testing (CAT); Machine vision; Image processing; CAD/CAM; Fuzzy logic; Intelligent Manufacturing; Edge extraction; STL format.
Towards a new model of industrial performance improvement for SMEs: A case study of TPM implementation in an industrial SME
by Badr Elwardi, Anwar Meddaoui, Ahmed Mouchtachi
Abstract: In a competitive economic environment, manufacturers are forced to face delay, quality and cost challenges. Hence, emergence of lean manufacturing and total productive maintenance (TPM) concepts came to resolve this problem by improving productivity. However, for many manufacturers, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), these concepts remain very difficult to implement and maintain. In this perspective, this work aims at clarifying some failure factors and proposes a model to improve both productivity and performance. This model has been implemented in the plastics industry through a case study relating basic concepts of TPM and Management by Objectives (MBO). Nevertheless, few research works are interested to develop lean model for manufacturing SMEs. This paper aims to enrich this research axis by an industrial case study in a Moroccan SME. Further researches can exploit the findings of this work in order to implement the proposed model in other industries.
Keywords: Total productive maintenance; lean manufacturing; key performance indicators; data collection; small and medium-sized enterprises.
Consequences of knowledge processes in small businesses: The role of knowledge acquisition, dynamic capabilities, knowledge sharing and creativity
by Sayyed Mohsen Allameh, Masoud Kiani Khozani, Behzad Baniasadi
Abstract: Creativity has found a leading strategic position in service industries, and companies have increasingly implemented knowledge management practices and dynamic capabilities in their organizations over the past decade. Realizing the importance of knowledge acquisition from social media, knowledge sharing, and dynamic capabilities in employee creativity, we have made an attempt in this research to propose a conceptual framework. Drawing from the organizational behavior literature, we hypothesize and test the relationship among knowledge acquisition, dynamic capabilities, knowledge sharing and employee creativity. We performed a structural equation model (SEM) test with maximum likelihood estimation to test the relationship among the research variables with a sample of 293 participants. The empirical results from the structural model suggest that knowledge acquisition positively influences both dynamic capabilities and knowledge sharing, and knowledge sharing has a direct effect on dynamic capabilities. Furthermore, dynamic capabilities and knowledge sharing were shown to be direct antecedents of employee creativity.
Keywords: Knowledge processes; Innovation; Creativity; Social media; Knowledge acquisition; Dynamic capabilities; Knowledge sharing; Small businesses.
Parametric Non-linear Programming for Fuzzified Queueing Systems with Catastrophe
by Chandra Shekhar, Amit Kumar, Shreekant Varshney
Abstract: The concept of catastrophe, happening at random and leading to force to abandon all present customers, data, machines immediately and the instantly inoperative of the service facilities until a new arrival of the customer is not uncommon in many practical problems of the computer and communication systems. In this research article, we present a process to frame the membership function of queueing system' characteristics of the classical single server $M/M/1$ fuzzy queueing model having fuzzified exponentially distributed inter-arrival time and service time with fuzzy catastrophe. We employ the $\alpha$-cut approach to transform fuzzy queues into a family of the conventional crisp intervals for the queueing characteristics which are computed with a set of the parametric non-linear program using their membership functions. In a $FM/FM/1$ fuzzy queueing model with fuzzy catastrophe, we characterized an arrival rate, and service rate with fuzzy numbers with fuzzy catastrophe which is also represented by a fuzzy number. We employ basic fuzzy arithmetic fundamental, Zadeh's extension principle, Yager's ranking index to establish fuzzy relation among different rates and to compute corresponding defuzzify values. We present an illustrative example to show practicality and tractability of the process in detail. We also derived the informative membership function of queueing system characteristics using fuzzy operations and arithmetic and results are depicted in tables and graphs for providing better insight to management along with their sensitivity to parameters.
Keywords: Fuzzy sets; $alpha$-cut; FM/FM/1 queueing system; Catastrophe.
Optimization of WEDM parameters in a gear cutting process using MOORA based GA
by Kasinath Das Mohapatra
Abstract: The present paper deals with multi objective optimization of Wire EDM process parameters in a gear cutting process of Titanium alloy Grade 5 using MOORA based GA methodology. The objective of the present research is to optimize the response parameters using hybrid technique for a gear tooth in order to obtain an optimized setting and to study the effect of process parameters on the output responses. In the present study, Combii Wire (Brass with diffused Zinc) of 0.25 mm diameter was machined with a 2 mm thickness of Titanium plate in the shape of a gear. The process was carried out using full factorial design of experiments having 81 combinations. ANOVA table reveals that Pulse on time and Wire feed rate are the significant process parameters affecting the responses in WEDM process. The optimized setting obtained can be further used to produce high quality miniature gears.
Keywords: ANOVA; Brass; Full factorial; Gear; MOORA; Titanium; Pulse on time; Wire EDM; Wire feed rate.
Lean Six Sigma Implementation in an OEM: A Case based approach
by Raja Sreedharan V, Rajeev Trehan, Dhanya M, Arunprasad P
Abstract: Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is wide accepted as a successful quality improvement program. However, many literatures have reported that companies have struggled with LSS projects and Indian manufacturing firms are no exception to this scenario. Therefore, the article provides a description of LSS implementation at a manufacturing company. The company manufactures PTO (Power Take Off) shafts for tractors. Nevertheless, the company was receiving high non-conformance resulting in part rejection. Therefore, the study deals with the defect reduction through LSS implementation. Using, the DMAIC approach with suitable tools, statistical analysis were performed to identify the bottleneck in the operations and the corrective measure were taken to the improve quality of PTO. In addition, the researchers proposed preventive methods for reoccurring issues and developed a plan to sustain the project to find the required results. At the end of the project, the researchers yielded considerable cost saving and defect reduction. The study concludes with the managerial implications and contribution to the society with the limitations of the study.
Keywords: Lean Six Sigma (LSS); Force Field Analysis; Cost Savings; Process Improvement.
A novel approach for benchmarking maintenance based on Fuzzy reliability index for the replacement of street lights under uncertainty
by Atul Kumar Sahu, Harendra Kumar Narang, Mridul Singh Rajput
Abstract: In this study; the authors consider the context of such products; whose component failures cannot be rectified through repair actions, but can only be fixed by replacement. The authors develop a cost effective decision model based on reliability for the replacement of street lights in this study. The direction to benchmark maintenance time for operating the street lights with minimum expenditure is discussed by the authors. The replacement policy based on fuzzy reliability index; which can effectively deal with uncertainty and vagueness is proposed in this study. The theoretical model is proposed and explained with a numerical procedure to illustrate the applicability of the proposed study. The study determined the link amongst individual replacement and the group replacement policies by defining the economic instant for replacing street lights. A decision support model incorporating uncertainty and impreciseness is presented to estimate and plan prior maintenance efforts. The individual and the group replacement policies are exposed in this study by housing a subjective theoretical framework that defines their monetary contribution. The study provides valuable insight for using the real time data information for designing a replacement model using fuzzy logic. The authors proposed a fuzzy reliability approach to check the optimality of the group replacement policy.
Keywords: Maintenance; Generalized Trapezoidal Fuzzy Number set (GTFNs); Replacement; Uncertainty; Economic Life; Reliability.
Analysis of M[X]/Gk/1 retrial queue with Bernoulli - 2 vacation, search for customers and hot stand-by
by J. Radha, K. Indhira, V.M. Chandrasekaran
Abstract: A batch arrival retrial queueing model with k optional stages of service, extended Bernoulli vacation and stand-by is studied. After completion of the ith stage of service, the customer may have the option to choose (i+1)th stage of service with probability θi or may leave the system with probability 1-θi, i=1,2,...,k-1 and 1 for i=k. After service completion of each customer, the server may take a vacation with probability v1 and extend a vacation with probability v2 or rejoins the system after the first vacation with probability 1-v2. Busy server may get to breakdown and the stand-by server provides service only during the repair times. At the completion of service, vacation or repair, the server searches for the customer in the orbit (if any) with probability α or remains idle with probability 1-α. By using the supplementary variable method, steady state probability generating function for system size, some system performance measures like Ls, Lq, Ws and Wq are discussed. Simulation results are given using MATLAB.
Keywords: Retrial; k - optional service; orbital search; standby; extended vacation; Supplementary Variable Technique.
Service identification by Enhanced K Mean Algorithm in service oriented architecture
by Anurag Shashwat, Deepak Kumar
Abstract: Service Oriented Architecture is widely accepted approach that facilitates business agility by aligning IT with business. Service Identification with right level of granularity is the most critical aspect in service oriented architecture. It is considered as first steps in the Service Oriented Development life cycle. The services must be defined or identified keeping service reuse in different business contexts. Service identification is challenging to application development team due to several reasons such as lack of business process documentation, lack of expert analyst, and lack of business executive involvement, lack of reuse of services, lack of right decision to choose the appropriate service. Service oriented architectural project uses large repository, where in services are stored randomly in the repository. This causes considerable amount of search time when service is searched from the database. In case of trigger based application, current service storage process will not be much effective due to inadequacy in service level agreement. In this regard, the author(s) explored the possibilities of service identification using k-means clustering. This paper suggests an approach to identify the appropriate service using distributed repository based on enhanced k mean algorithm. The Creation of distributed repository based on business service functionality will reduce search time, service replication and increase the performance and reliability of the service. Proposed Model has been experimentally validated and author(s) found significant decrease in service search time. This Model will be helpful in building the applications with minimum service level agreement.
Keywords: Service-oriented architecture; K- Mean; Service Identification; Cluster.
Response surface method-based optimisation of spray parameters during impingement cooling of hot steel in rolling
by Santosh Kumar Nayak, Purna Chandra Mishra
Abstract: Response surface methodology was employed for optimising the complex air-water spray mechanisms that occur in hot surface cooling processes where forced convection exists. Results from a physical air-water spray cooling experiment were generated and the experimental parameters were optimised for achieving heat flux from the surface of a hot steel test plate of dimension 120 mm × 120 mm. The thickness of the plate was considered as one of the variable (4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm) during the experimentation. The other variables in the problem were the nozzle to plate distance, air pressure and water pressure. The experiments were carried out based on the response surface design of experiments. The heat flux was calculated by using Newton's convection model. The optimisation of the controlling parameters was carried out by using the response surface method (RSM). A new mathematical correlation was developed for optimisation of the surface heat flux.
Keywords: response surface method; RSM; spray cooling; steel rolling; heat flux and optimisation.
Efficiency measurement of emergency departments in Isfahan, Iran
by Saeedeh Ketabi, Ehsan Teymouri, Mohammad Ketabi
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of emergency departments. The multi-criteria comparison between the wards of different hospitals is not only useful for the patients but also important for the hospital's management to improve their performance and for the medical policy makers to plan strategic decisions. In this paper, it is intended to consider the aspects of efficiency beyond the traditional evaluation of check list. The factors which have been chosen are divided into two subsets: first, input factors consisting of no. of active beds, no. of physicians, no. of nurses and medical equipment and second, output factors including no. of discharge, percentage of revival, average waiting time and patient satisfaction. The input oriented and constant returns to scale model of data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique is used to evaluate the efficiency of each emergency department. The model can be used to find out the causes of inefficiency and how to improve the performance. The method has been applied to evaluate and compare 24 EDs of hospitals in Isfahan. DEA model reveals that 37% of them are inefficient. The results may be then used to suggest the improvement strategies based on the input factors.
Keywords: emergency department; performance evaluation; data envelopment analysis; DEA; efficiency; resource utilisation; Iran.
Prediction of remaining useful life of cutting tools: a comparative study using soft computing methods
by J. Gokulachandran, R. Padmanaban
Abstract: Predicting the remaining useful life of the partially degraded components and putting them to use will help to save natural resources to a great extent. This will reduce the overall cost, energy and protects environment. High productivity cutting tools used in manufacturing industry are generally expensive. As such, the accurate assessment of remaining useful life (for reuse) of any given tool is of great significance in any manufacturing industry. The main objective of this research is to develop a comprehensive methodology to assess the reuse potential of carbide-tipped tools. This paper presents the use of three soft computing methods, namely, artificial neural network, neuro fuzzy logic and support vector regression methods for the assessment of remaining useful life (RUL) of cutting tools. In this work, experiments are conducted based on Taguchi approach and tool life values are obtained. Tool life values are predicted using the aforesaid three soft computing methods and RUL obtained from these values are compared. It is found that the predictive neuro fuzzy method is capable of giving a better prediction of remaining useful tool life than the other methods.
Keywords: remaining useful life; reuse; cutting tools; tool life; artificial neural network; ANN; neuro fuzzy logic; support vector regression; SVR.
Optimisation of AGVs path layout in flexible manufacturing system using 0-1 linear integer programming
by Suman Gothwal, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The use of AGVs has grown enormously since their introduction. The number of areas of application and variation in types has increased significantly. Flow path design is an important factor in the design of automated guided vehicle systems (AGVS). In this paper, problem of optimal flow path layout design of automated guided vehicles in the flexible manufacturing system is discussed. The problem is analysed and formulated as 0-1 linear integer programming model with the objective of minimising the total distance travelled by individual loaded AGV. An illustrative example of a layout consisting of four manufacturing cells with 16 nodes and 19 arcs is discussed to demonstrate the approach. In this approach only the movement of loaded vehicles with the unidirectional flow is considered. A general linear optimisation computer software package, named LINGO 14 is used to find out the optimal flow path for the layout.
Keywords: automated guided vehicle; AGV; optimisation; flow path layout; linear integer programming; flexible manufacturing system; FMS; LINGO 14.
The application of overall equipment effectiveness to support the development of a steamless nut-separated palm oil mill
by Tanakorn Tantanawat, Nuttharporn Puckdeesorasuk, Arkom Haewchin, Ekkarut Viyanit
Abstract: A steamless nut-separated palm oil mill has been developed based on small-scale community's requirements with the purpose to overcome constraints faced by a conventional palm oil mill. The current paper discusses challenges in the development and technology transfer of the steamless nut-separated palm oil mill, including communication about technology performance, uncategorised problems, and limited flow of financial information. To overcome these challenges, the proposed approach is to use OEE-based plant performance indices and its estimated corresponding financial performance indices to communicate about the technology performance. In this work, the calculation of OEE was derived based on data obtained from palm oil mills. In addition, the performance factor was sub-categorised into the reception and extraction factors to relate the plant performance to the mill capacity and oil extraction rate, which are common variables used in palm oil mills. Moreover, the quality factor was derived based on free fatty acid of crude palm oil. A simulated plant operating data was used for the purpose of demonstrating the proposed approach. The figures of world-class OEE and its components were also used to identify the area for initiating process improvement activities and estimate the potential performance of the technology.
Keywords: overall equipment effectiveness; OEE; performance measurement; palm oil extraction system; steamless nut-separated palm oil mill.
Integrating agile thinking into maintenance strategy performance analysis
by Priyank Srivastava, Dinesh Khanduja, Vishnu P. Agrawal
Abstract: Machinery, equipment and tooling maintenance cost are amongst the main contributors to cost of production in any manufacturing firm. Reducing cost of maintenance practices by eliminating waste or unwanted intermediate processes and selecting optimum maintenance strategy can result in win-win situation to get competitive edge in present day dynamic market where end user requirement is highly specific and rapidly changing. The aim of this paper is to integrate agile thinking with evaluation of different maintenance strategies for different equipment at a selected thermal power station. The paper also explores selection of optimum maintenance strategies at a power plant using extent analysis of fuzzy AHP.
Keywords: agile thinking; maintenance strategies; multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; fuzzy analytic hierarchy process; extent analysis.
Measurement of overall equipment effectiveness to improve operational efficiency
by Rohit Kumar Singh, Elvin Joseph Clements, Vandana Sonwaney
Abstract: This study presents measurement of OEE which serves a basis for analysing operational efficiency in a manufacturing unit. Initially, measure of overall equipment effectiveness is described which explains what metrics make up this OEE and the losses that are classified under each of the metrics. Then it focuses on how OEE forms an integral part of the total productive maintenance activity. Its use and implementation in the manufacturing unit are analysed by calculating the OEE before and after making some modifications in the process by considering the case of die manufacturing equipment. This case study with longitudinal approach includes data collection and analysis of the process followed in a manufacturing unit. The operational data of OEE variables collected contribute in calculating availability, performance and quality, dimensions for measuring OEE. It also illustrates how the three OEE factors are determined and splits them into the specific constituents that are needed to develop the OEE percentage.
Keywords: performance measurement; OEE; manufacturing; equipment; losses; total productive maintenance; TPM.