International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking (59 papers in press)
An Experimental Investigation to Optimize Injection Moulding Process Parameters for Plastic Parts by Using Taguchi Method and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm
by Deepak Kumar, G.S. Dangayach, P.N. Rao
Abstract: Plastic injection moulding is a useful method to produce plastic parts with high-quality surface finish. Improper process parameter settings can cause many production troubles namely defective products, reduce dimensional precision and scrap. Thus, determining the optimal processing parameters are regularly performed in injection moulding industry. In this paper, to determine the initial range of process parameters steady state experiments were performed. Taguchi method and Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm are used to optimize the process parameters of electric meter box and to reduce its shrinkage and warpage and to enhance its impact strength. For this purpose L27 orthogonal array was used. The modified linear graph was used with the line separation method to assign the parameters and interactions to various columns of the orthogonal array. The confirmation experiments show that the errors associated with prediction of shrinkage, warpage and impact strength are 5.11%, 5.91% and 1.171 % respectively.
Keywords: Injection moulding; Process parameters; Taguchi method; Multi-objective Genetic algorithm; steady state experiments; modified linear graph; prediction; shrinkage; warpage; impact strength.
The relationship between Workplace Spirituality, Job Satisfaction and Job Performance
by Michael Sony, Nandakumar Mekoth
Abstract: The paper aims to study the impact of four dimensions of workplace spirituality (Compassion, Meaningful work, mindfulness and Transcendence) proposed by (Petchsawang & Duchon, 2009, 2012) on Job Outcomes. The impact of moderating variables like gender, chronological age and Work experience is also considered in this research. Finally Job satisfaction is also studied as a mediating variable between workplace spirituality and Job performance. A cross section research was conducted on 262 employees working in western India which is a non W.E.I.R.D (Western educated industrialized rich democratic) sample. The data is analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The research results indicate that there is a positive relationship between various dimensions of workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. These findings deepen the understanding of Workplace spirituality, Job satisfaction and Job performance. This study brings new insights into the noteworthy role spirituality plays in the context of the workplace.
Keywords: Workplace Spirituality; Job Satisfaction; Job Performance; Compassion; Mindfulness; Meaningful work and Transcendence.
Modeling and Analysis for the Machinability Evaluation of Udimet-L605 in Wire-cut Electric Discharge Machining
by Somvir Singh Nain, Dixit Garg, Sanjeev Kumar
Abstract: The intention of this paper is to examine and analyze the machinability of Udimet-L605 in wire-cut electric discharge machining. Overall six input parameters have been considered as pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff), peak current (IP), wire tension (WT), spark gap voltage (SV), wire feed (WF) and two response variables as material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR). The four models such as support vector machine (SVM) using two different kernels, non-linear regression (NLR) and multi-linear regression (MLR) have been proposed to check the variation among the experimental and predicted outcome. In addition to this, sensitivity analyze test has been performed on prominent model to analyze the significance of each input parameter on MRR and SR of WEDM and suggested that pulse-on time is the momentous parameter for both MRR and SR. The SVM based on polynomial kernel model give enhanced result in contest with others models.
Keywords: Support vector machine; WEDM; Regression; Sensitivity Analysis; Udimet-L605; Material Removal Rate; Surface Roughness.
Designing and planning a sustainable supply chain network considering economic aspects, environmental impact, fixed job opportunities and customer service level
by Alireza Taheri-Moghadam, Jafar Razmi, Mohammed Fazle Baki
Abstract: In this paper, a sustainable supply chain (SSND) problem is developed which contains economic aspects, environmental issues, social impacts and customer service level. The economic objective is minimizing total cost of the whole network (production, transportation, inventory holding/ stock-out and investment). CO2 emission is considered as environmental issue and the social objective is fixed job opportunities. The customer satisfaction objective contains lead time and stock-out ratio. All of the objectives are in contrast and there is a need for using multi-objective approaches for solving the problem. Normalized normal constraint method is used to capture trade-off between objectives. Simulated numerical examples are considered to evaluate the model and solution approach. Impact of some parameters on customer service level is analyzed by sensitivity analysis. The results show that the proposed model performance is acceptable and it can prepare good managerial decisions for real cases by considering four aspects of business environments simultaneously.
Keywords: Sustainable supply chain network design; Multi-objective optimization; Normalized normal constraint; Social impacts; fixed job opportunities; customer service level.
Organizational and inter-organizational competencies for supply chain integration
by Krishnapriya Vankireddy, Rupashree Baral
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to integrate human resource management with supply chain management through examining the role of inter-organizational competencies (information sharing (IS)) as a mediator between the organizational competencies (cross-functional information sharing, participative culture and learning orientation) and supply chain integration (SCI). To test the hypotheses of interest, data were collected on 80 manufacturing firms from India through a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Partial Least Squares method (PLS). The findings revealed that participative culture and learning orientation were positively related to SCI and were fully and partially mediated by IS respectively. The study provides evidence for linking competencies with SCI in the literature that are otherwise scarce in the form of empirical studies in the context of supply chain. It also succeeds in examining the role inter-organizational competencies as a mediator, thus providing insights into such competencies. The study is also one of the first in studying competencies required for supply chain integration in the Indian context.
Keywords: Inter-organizational competencies;Organizational competencies;Supply chain integration;India.
Measuring the Efficiency of Community Colleges Using Super Efficiency Approach for the Case of Non-discretionary Factors in Data Envelopment Analysis with Sensitivity Analysis
by Mushtaq Taleb, Razamin Ramli, Ruzelan Khalid
Abstract: Malaysian community colleges play a significant role in achieving Malaysias vision to be a developed country in 2020. For this reason, their efficiency should appropriately be measured. However, their efficiency measurement using a conventional Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model is not appropriate since some of their inputs; e.g., entrant and enrolment students are non-discretionary while a part of output of their graduate employability is discretionary. This paper thus proposes an alternative approach of super efficiency slack based measure for the case of non-discretionary factors in DEA. The proposed approach was used to evaluate the efficiency of 25 main campuses of Malaysian community colleges from 2012 to 2013. The results support the decision maker of Malaysian community colleges to discriminate and rank efficient and inefficient community colleges in the presence of both super efficiency and non-discretionary factors. The significance of inputs-outputs on efficiency status was tested by sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; Non-discretionary factors; Slack based measure; Super efficiency.
An improvement heuristic for permutation flow shop scheduling
by Kewal Krishan Nailwal, Deepak Gupta, Kawal Jeet , Sameer Sharma
Abstract: An improvement heuristic algorithm is proposed in this paper for solving flow shop scheduling problem. To test its efficiency, firstly the performance of the proposed algorithm is done against the six heuristics existing in the literature including the best NEH heuristic on 120 Taillard benchmarks. Further, this set of 120 Taillard instances is increased to 266 benchmark problem instances which include Carliers, some Reeves and some new hard VRF instances from Vallada et al. [New hard benchmark for flowshop scheduling problems minimizing makespan. European Journal of Operational Research. 2015; 240: 666-677]. On these instances, the performance of the proposed algorithm is tested against the best NEH and the famous CDS heuristic with the best known upper bounds. Further, a brief analysis of the other heuristics and metaheuristics existing in literature is done on Taillard problem instances. The proposed heuristic outperforms all the heuristics reported in this paper.
Keywords: Flow shop scheduling; Makespan; Heuristic; Algorithm.
Reliability Analysis of Variables of Environmental Management in Indian micro scale industries and SMEs
by D.R. Prajapati, P.J. Singh, Amit Kumar Tanwer
Abstract: Performance parameters of Environmental Management System (EMS); based on HR dimensions and organizational dimension are important measures for the successful implementation of EMS in any manufacturing industry. This paper identifies the various EMS variables for the successful implementation EMS in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of India. Various measures of collected data of survey of Indian micro scale industries and SMEs have been validated and analysed by using SPSS software. The collected data have been analysed by statistical tools like importance-index and Corrected item minus total correlation (CIMTC) methods and reliability of these data has been tested by Cronbachs alpha (α) analysis. The computed results show that the identified measures are highly reliable for implementation of EMS in Indian SMEs. This study shows that 53 items out of 54 items of 9 variables are having the values of Cronbachs alpha (α) more than 0.70 and it shows that the collected data are highly reliable for Indian SMEs. It is also found that the values of Cronbachs alpha for the employees empowermentʼ and ʻTraining and awareness are above 0.80 and rest variables have the values of Cronbachs alpha (α) in the range of 0.50-0.80 for micro scale Indian industries.
Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Environmental Management System (EMS); Environmental Performance (EP); Cronbach’s alpha; Importance-index and CIMTC.
Optimal Reserve Inventory from Output of One Machine to Input of Two Machines when Inter-arrival Breakdowns is a Random Variable
by Nandakumar C D, Srinivasan S, Sathiyamoorthi R
Abstract: In this paper, a two stage production process is considered such that there is only one machine M_1 in the first stage and two machines 〖 M〗_2^',M_2^'' in the second stage. It is assumed that the output of M_(1 )is the input for〖 M〗_2^',M_2^''. During the breakdown time of M_1, a reserve inventory is suggested for〖 M〗_2^',M_2^'' , to prevent the idle time, which is costlier. An inventory model is derived here based on certain assumptions to find the optimum size of the reserve inventory of the semi-finished product of the machine M_1 to supply the machines 〖 M〗_2^',M_2^'' till M_1 resumes the function. Numerical illustrations are provided.
Keywords: breakdowns; repair time; inventory; change point; SCBZ property; production; shortages.
A study on M/G/1 preemptive priority retrial queue with Bernoulli working vacations and vacation interruption
by P. Rajadurai
Abstract: This paper deals with steady state analysis of single server priority retrial queue with Bernoulli working vacation, where the regular busy server can be subjected to breakdown and repair. There are two types of customers are considered, which are priority customers and ordinary customers. As soon as orbit becomes empty, the server goes for a Working Vacation (WV). The server works at a lower service rate during working vacation period. If there are customers in the system at the end of each vacation, the server becomes idle and ready for serving new arrivals with probability p (single WV) or it remains on vacation with probability q (multiple WVs). Using the supplementary variable technique, we obtained the steady state probability generating functions for the system and its orbit. Important system performance measures, the mean busy period and the mean busy cycle are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.
Keywords: retrial queue; preemptive priority queue; working vacations; supplementary variable technique;.
Optimization of WEDM Process Parameters during Machining of HCHCr Steel using TOPSIS Method
by Sarat Kumar Sahoo
Abstract: Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is an advanced non-conventional machining process specifically used for obtaining complex 3D shape objects in hard materials with high accuracy. The present study investigates the effect of various process parameters viz. pulse on time, pulse off time, wire feed and servo voltage on response variables such as cutting speed, material removal rate, kerf width and surface roughness on machining of high carbon high chromium steel. Taguchis L9 orthogonal array for 4 factors and 3 levels has been used for designing the experiment. A novel technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach has been applied to select the optimal level of machining parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been conducted for investigating the effect of process parameters on overall machining performance. The effectiveness of proposed optimal condition is validated through the confirmatory test. The result of this study highlights that the parameters like pulse on time and servo voltage are significantly influencing to the machining performance.
Keywords: Wire EDM; electrical discharge machining; High carbon high chromium steel; Material removal rate; Productivity; Taguchi; TOPSIS; ANOVA; Multi-response Optimization.
Qualitative analysis of drivers of poka yoke in small and medium enterprises of Indian automobile sector
by Sanjay Kumar, Sunil Luthra, Abid Haleem, Dixit Garg
Abstract: Poka-Yoke has been recognized as a proven approach towards achieving error free environment, especially in manufacturing. Automobile industry of India may be considered as backbone of the countrys economic growth with social sustainability. However, we found that the understanding of Poka Yoke is poor especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). A need has been felt to explore possibilities for improvement in Indian automobile sector focusing upon SMEs towards error free manufacturing & assembly practices for enhancing quality with profitability. In this paper, an attempt has been made to justify importance of Poke-yoke in SMEs, identify and analyze important drivers for successful implementation of Poka-Yoke concept. Literature review methodology has been utilized to identify important drivers for successful implementation of Poka-Yoke concept in SMEs of Indian automobile. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology has been used for the ranking of identified drivers. Management Attitude driver has been identified as top ranked driver to responsible to implement Poka Yoke in Indian automobile SMEs. Further, DEMATEL methodology has also been used to understand and categorize these identified drivers of Poka Yoke implementation into cause group and effect group of drivers. Appropriate discussions have helped to conclude this work with directions for future research. This paper may help production engineers and managers to identify errors and further rectify them for gaining competitive advantage over domestic and international automobile market players.
Keywords: Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL); Drivers of Poka Yoke; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Indian Automobile Industry; Poka Yoke; Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).
A comparative study of multi-criteria decision making approaches for prioritizing the manufacturing systems
by Suman Gothwal, Tilak Raj
Abstract: Globalization and modern lifestyle trends have put up tremendous challenge to manufacturing industries. To meet the challenges imposed by todays dynamic market conditions it is the right time for the manufacturing companies to transit from traditional manufacturing system to advance manufacturing system. This paper highlights four areas of manufacturing systems i.e., humanised flexible manufacturing system (HFMS), flexible manufacturing system (FMS), computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and computer numerical control (CNC) systems. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework to proactively select the best manufacturing system. This study is an effort for identifying the factors affecting the manufacturing system and to find out the best manufacturing system. For this purpose a comparative study of multi criteria decision making approaches, analytical network process (ANP) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) techniques have been used for prioritization of alternatives. The shortcomings of the research are stated and future directions are proposed.
Keywords: Measures; humanised flexible manufacturing system; HFMS; flexible manufacturing system; FMS; computer integrated manufacturing; CIM; computer numerical control; CNC; analytical network process; ANP; analytical hierarchy process; AHP;.
Big data and privacy A legal perspective and comparative study of United States and India
by Rupal Rautdesai, Ujwal Nandekar, Aditya Kedari, Yogesh Patil
Abstract: Due to advancement of science and technology a new concept called big data has emerged. Its utility has attracted not only the private companies and organizations but also governmental authorities. But at the same time it has also raised certain ethical, moral and legal concerns. This paper looks at the threats to individuals privacy caused due to big data. This paper compares the U.S. laws with Indian laws with respect to privacy and data protection and attempts to offer a solution to safeguard individuals privacy against such threats. The research methodology used by the researchers is doctrinal method along with arm chair, exploratory, analytical and comparative method. The authors argue that individuals privacy can be safeguarded through a holistic approach wherein apt technology standards, management practices along with force of law are adopted. Companies and organizations should adopt self-regulating operating standards and practices too. The concept of privacy in this paper has been restricted to mean the individual privacy and does not include national security concerns or confidential data of corporations. The authors also suggest a framework for the protection of individual privacy and its implementation in India.
Keywords: Big Data; Privacy laws; Data Protection; Sensitive personal information; Right
to privacy; U.S. and India.
Development of Optimistic and Pessimistic Models using FDEA to Measure Performance Efficiencies of DMUs
by Alka Arya, Shiv Prasad Yadav
Abstract: In this paper, we develop optimistic and pessimistic models using fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA). We find the fuzzy optimistic and fuzzy pessimistic efficiencies by using the -cut method. By using super-efficiency technique, we develop models to obtain the complete ranking of the DMUs when fuzzy optimistic and pessimistic models are considered separately. Further, to rank the DMUs when both fuzzy optimistic and pessimistic models are taken simultaneously as hybrid approach. To address the overall performance using fuzzy optimistic and pessimistic situations together in FDEA, we propose a hybrid FDEA using -cut efficiencies decision model. Finally, these developed optimistic and pessimistic FDEA models and ranking models are illustrated with two examples. The proposed model is applied to a real world problem of health sector. We determine the performance efficiencies of hospitals in Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh state, India for the calendar year 2013-2014 using the proposed model. Number of health superintendents and number of health workers are taken as input variables, and number of inpatients and number of outpatients as output variables.
Keywords: Hospitals; Performance Efficiency; Optimistic and pessimistic; Super-efficiency; FDEA.
INTEGRATED VENDOR-BUYER INVENTORY MODEL IN A SUPPLY CHAIN WITH VARIABLE LEAD TIME AND SETUP COST REDUCTION
by Uthayakumar R, Hemapriya Selvaraj
Abstract: The single vendor single-buyer integrated production inventory system has been an object of study for a long time but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing setup cost on the integrated inventory models with variable lead time and production lot size dependent lead time and transportation time. A mathematical model is derived to investigate the effects of setup cost reduction on the integrated inventory system by reducing the total cost system. A numerical example is included to illustrate the results of the model. Finally, Graphical representation is presented to illustrate the model. The solution procedure is furnished to determine the optimal solution and the sensitivity analysis has been carried out to illustrate the behaviours of the proposed model.
Keywords: Integrated inventory model; Supply chain management; Setup cost reduction.
Technology push strategies and their consequences on sustainable development in manufacturing industries
by Anuj Singla, I.P.S. Ahuja, A.P.S. Sethi
Abstract: The objective behind the review is to have an insight of Technology Push (TP) activities to escalate the essential capabilities in manufacturing ventures and analyzing the experiences of the developed and developing countries. Themes and relevant articles have been identified from the various journals and linked with issues related to technology push for sustainable development in manufacturing industries. The study reveals that adjustment of viable TP strategies may endow towards reckoning key skills in the framework of a company. In addition to this, the review emphasizes that the TP strategies has significant impact on the sustainable development of the manufacturing industries. It has been observed that the role of TP in manufacturing companies has not been much reported. A synthesis can be established with satisfaction levels of technology push strategies, which may help to secure concrete objectives and interests of an organization. The paper reviews various attributes of TP through a number of publications in this field.
Keywords: Technology push; Sustainable development; Manufacturing industries; Technology management.
Simulation Analysis of Multi-Node Manufacturing System under Design and Scheduling Strategies
by Rajeev Kumar, Madhawanand Mishra
Abstract: To cater to dynamic and variable performance matrices, manufacturing industries use automation tools and technologies to impart manufacturing flexibility in its processes. To successfully cater to its performance, manufacturing requirements should be designed into the system and then appropriate planning and operational policies need to be followed to support it. This research work validates this using an industrial size Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) as a multi node manufacturing framework having eight machines. While FMS design spectrum is modeled by different levels of its Routing Flexibility (RF) and number of pallets (NP), planning and operational strategies are implemented through various combinations of Dispatching and Sequencing rules (DR/SR). This work is a simulation study to evaluate FMS performance for which Make Span Time (MST) and machine utilization have been used as a performance metric. This research provides a framework for the decision makers in identifying the appropriate levels of routing flexibility, number of pallets and appropriate combination of dispatching and sequencing rules for optimizing system performance under a given manufacturing environment.
Keywords: Routing Flexibility; Sequencing Rule; Dispatching Rule; Simulation of FMS.
Hybrid genetic algorithm for multi-objective flow shop scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup time: Parameter design using Taguchi's robust design method
by Sridharan R, V. Anjana, P.N. Ram Kumar
Abstract: This paper focuses on scheduling a permutation flow shop where setup times are sequence dependent. The objectives involved are minimisation of makespan and mean tardiness. A hybrid genetic algorithm is developed to obtain a set of non-dominant solutions to the multi-objective flow shop scheduling problem. Genetic algorithm is used in combination with a local search method to obtain the pareto-optimal solutions. The best parameters of the proposed algorithm are determined using the Taguchis robust design method and the concept of utility index value. The set of parameters corresponding to the highest utility value is selected as the optimal parameters for the proposed algorithm. The algorithm is applied to the benchmark problems of flow shop scheduling with sequence dependent setup time.
Keywords: permutation flow shop; hybrid genetic algorithm; Taguchi method; utility concept.
Quantifying the influence of FMS on the productivity of a firm
by Sandhya Dixit, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The manufacturing organisations adopt Flexible Manufacturing Systems to meet the challenges imposed by todays volatile market standards. An FMS is designed to combine the efficiency of a mass production line and the flexibility of a job shop to produce a variety of products on a group of machines. Productivity is a key factor in a flexible manufacturing system performance. Despite the advantages offered, the implementation of FMS has not been very popular especially in developing countries as it is very difficult to quantify the factors favouring FMS implementation. For its successful implementation, technological considerations, cost justification as well as strategic benefits are to be weighted. Therefore an attempt has been made in the present work to identify and categorize various productivity factors influenced by the implementation of FMS in a firm, further these factors are quantitatively analysed to find their inhibiting strength using Graph Theory Approach (GTA). GTA is a powerful approach which synthesizes the inter-relationship among different variables or subsystems and provides a synthetic score for the entire system. So using this approach a numerical index is proposed in this work to evaluate and rank the various productivity factors so that the practising managers can have better focus.
Keywords: Manufacturing; FMS; Productivity; GTA.
Optimal Sequencing of Part Families and Configuration selection for process improvement in Reconfigurable Manufacturing System
by Kamal Kumar Mittal, Pramod Kumar Jain, Dinesh Kumar
Abstract: Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) are considered as next generation manufacturing systems that are capable of providing the functionality and capacity as and when required. Products are classified into several part families as per customer requirement and each of them are a set of similar products. In a shop floor, the manufacturers have to deal with varied number of orders for multiple part families and after completing the orders of a particular family, they need to change over to the orders of a different part family. Shifting from one part family to another may require the systems reconfiguration, which is a complicated method and requires tremendous cost and efforts. The complexity, effort and cost from changing one configuration to another depends on the existing initial configuration and the new configuration required for subsequent production of orders belonging to a different part family. There are different models available for process improvement This paper focuses on determining optimal sequencing of part families formation and configuration selection for process improvement in RMS on the basis of minimum loss occurred for a given system configuration. The proposed methodology is explained and an example is given for illustration.
Keywords: RMS; configuration selection; part family; reconfiguration cost; process;order state.
Project Behavior In Different Types of Project Management Organizations: A System Dynamics Approach
by Reem Alkadeem, Soheir Backar, Heba Elhaddad, Mohammad El-Dardiry
Abstract: Developing new products is a highly dynamic complex process. Managing such dynamic projects is not an easy task. In this research, different scenarios of NPD projects work systems are examined. The capability of these projects work systems to deal with the dynamic nature of NPD projects to mitigate the negative impacts of this nature on NPD project performance . This study shows that, the most suitable organizational work environment for moderate and high complex projects is the highly flexible work system environment. While it is appropriate for low complex projects to provide a formal work system environment. This study makes an attempt to use systems dynamic modeling to model the work system characteristics and managerial styles in interaction with projects behavior. It provides a step towards the understanding of how both work systems characteristics and managerial styles would influence projects performance and their probability of success. It serves as a guide for projects managers suggesting proper ways to better manage different NPD projects with different levels of complexities.
Keywords: project behavior; work system design; managerial styles; formality; system dynamics; scenario planning.
Metaheuristic algorithms for the generalized cell formation problem considering machine reliability
by Mohammad Mahdi Nasiri, Foruzan Naseri
Abstract: In this paper, we use two metaheuristic algorithms, i.e., artificial bee colony (ABC) and covariance matrix adaptation revolution strategies (CMA-ES), for solving the generalized cell formation problem considering machine reliability. The purpose is to choose the best process routing for each part and to allocate the machines to the manufacturing cells in order to minimize the total cost, which is composed of intracellular movement cost, intercellular movement cost and machines breakdown cost. To evaluate the metaheuristic algorithms, eight numerical examples in three different sizes are solved. The results of the two algorithms are compared with each other and with the results of solving the MIP model. Both the MIP solver and metaheuristics find the optimal solutions for the small size problem instances while by increasing the problem size, metaheuristics show higher performance. The results illustrate that the CMA-ES algorithm outperforms the ABC algorithm in both solution quality and CPU time.
Keywords: group technology; generalized cell formation problem; reliability; artificial bee colony; covariance matrix adaptation revolution strategies.
Two Levels of Storage Model for Deteriorating Items, Stock Dependent Demand and Partial Backlogging with Both Rented Warehouses
by Shilpy Tayal, S.R. Singh, Amit Kumar Attri
Abstract: In this paper an inventory model for deteriorating items with two warehouses has been developed, where both the warehouses considered are rented. The demand rate for both the warehouses is different. Since the demand for the products increases due to stock up to a certain level and after that it becomes constant. In this model it is assumed that the demand in first warehouse is stock dependent and after that when the extra stock is filled in second warehouse the demand rate becomes constant for that. Due to different storage conditions the deterioration rate is also different in both the warehouse. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis is also presented to illustrate the study. The main objective of this paper is to find out the optimal total cost of the system.
Keywords: Rented Warehouses; Deterioration; Stock Dependent Demand; Partial Backlogging; Inventory.
Forecasting & Aggregate Planning Application a case study of a Small Enterprise in Indonesia
by Elia Oey, Williem Artono Wijaya, Scherly Hansopaheluwakan
Abstract: A good and interconnected demand and supply planning (D&SP) is essential for firms, as it will give better allocation of resource and enabler to stay competitive. The basic and simple applications of D&SP are forecasting and aggregate planning which mainly used in big corporations, but less in small and medium enterprises. The research was a case study in a small firm in Indonesia, which started as small and family-owned company, but can enjoy the benefit of simple demand and supply planning to enhance its cost and productivity. Despite main application of D&SP in every production environment, no vast research has been done in the last couple of decades. The study and the case are thus a refreshment on how application of D&SP still relevant. The case study examined 7 common forecasting tools for demand planning side, and exercised classical chase and level aggregate planning strategy for the supply planning side. It explored 3 possible scenarios, and recommended a better scenario with 3% cost saving for the company.
Keywords: Demand Planning; Supply Planning; Demand and Supply Planning (D&SP); Aggregate planning; Forecasting; Small enterprise.
Prioritization and selection of non-traditional machining processes and their criteria using analytic hierarchy process approach
by Faisal Talib, Mohammad Asjad
Abstract: In order to understand the manufacturing and machining requirements that have been increased sharply due to evolution of newer and difficult to machine materials which are being utilized by the manufacturing industries, a different class of manufacturing and machining process has emerged from past few decades know as non-traditional machining (NTM) processes. These processes have ability to develop intricate and typical shape products with high degree of accuracy and precision, close dimensional tolerance, and good surface finish. On the other hand, NTM processes also consume high power and are too expensive, hence, necessitates in optimum selection of NTM processes and their related criteria. In this study, a model is developed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology to help the process engineers and decision makers in prioritizing and ranking the various NTM processes and their criteria identified from literature review, and selecting the most appropriate NTM process and its criteria for typical machining process. The methodology also assists in identifying the most significant NTM processes and their criteria that could help the process engineers and decision makers for higher productivity and industry performance. Analysis of the present study shows that NTM process "based on the source of energy" has ranked at first place followed by "based on the medium of the energy transfer", "based on the type of energy used", and "based on the mechanism of material removal". Further, the study also prioritized the various NTM processes criteria consisting of 27 criteria. The priority criteria that ranked on top are: voltage, current, ions, and ionised particles. The findings of the present study will help process engineers, decision makers and practitioners in selecting the best NTM process and its criteria, and then implementing them in their industry for improved performance.
Keywords: Non-traditional machining (NTM) processes; criteria; analytic hierarchy process (AHP); voltage; current; and energy.
Quality Edge Extraction of Mechanical CAD Parts for Intelligent Manufacturing
by Tushar Jain, Meenu , H.K. Sardana
Abstract: Computer Aided Testing (CAT) is the latest technique. Its because CAT involve in a different stages of manufacturing like Designing, Production, Quality Control by 3D Measuring Instrument that is time consuming. If the object position is known before examined, time can be managed. Machine vision dependent inspection of mechanical CAD parts has become demanding area in the field of industrial inspection. In this work we developed the procedure to detect the mechanical CAD parts with the edge based algorithms. The data has been taken with 3D model that has been designed using Solid Edge ST8 CAD/CAM PLM software and analyzed using MATLAB for automated production checking system. Our proposed method uses the edge based recognition of CAD object by Fuzzy based approach in order to create image information of shape before it can be used for pose estimation in Computer Aided Testing System. From the experimental results, it has been found that with the proposed vision system more accurate and reliable products can be manufactured intelligently.
Keywords: Computer Aided Testing (CAT); Machine vision; Image processing; CAD/CAM; Fuzzy logic; Intelligent Manufacturing; Edge extraction; STL format.
Towards a new model of industrial performance improvement for SMEs: A case study of TPM implementation in an industrial SME
by Badr Elwardi, Anwar Meddaoui, Ahmed Mouchtachi
Abstract: In a competitive economic environment, manufacturers are forced to face delay, quality and cost challenges. Hence, emergence of lean manufacturing and total productive maintenance (TPM) concepts came to resolve this problem by improving productivity. However, for many manufacturers, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), these concepts remain very difficult to implement and maintain. In this perspective, this work aims at clarifying some failure factors and proposes a model to improve both productivity and performance. This model has been implemented in the plastics industry through a case study relating basic concepts of TPM and Management by Objectives (MBO). Nevertheless, few research works are interested to develop lean model for manufacturing SMEs. This paper aims to enrich this research axis by an industrial case study in a Moroccan SME. Further researches can exploit the findings of this work in order to implement the proposed model in other industries.
Keywords: Total productive maintenance; lean manufacturing; key performance indicators; data collection; small and medium-sized enterprises.
Consequences of knowledge processes in small businesses: The role of knowledge acquisition, dynamic capabilities, knowledge sharing and creativity
by Sayyed Mohsen Allameh, Masoud Kiani Khozani, Behzad Baniasadi
Abstract: Creativity has found a leading strategic position in service industries, and companies have increasingly implemented knowledge management practices and dynamic capabilities in their organizations over the past decade. Realizing the importance of knowledge acquisition from social media, knowledge sharing, and dynamic capabilities in employee creativity, we have made an attempt in this research to propose a conceptual framework. Drawing from the organizational behavior literature, we hypothesize and test the relationship among knowledge acquisition, dynamic capabilities, knowledge sharing and employee creativity. We performed a structural equation model (SEM) test with maximum likelihood estimation to test the relationship among the research variables with a sample of 293 participants. The empirical results from the structural model suggest that knowledge acquisition positively influences both dynamic capabilities and knowledge sharing, and knowledge sharing has a direct effect on dynamic capabilities. Furthermore, dynamic capabilities and knowledge sharing were shown to be direct antecedents of employee creativity.
Keywords: Knowledge processes; Innovation; Creativity; Social media; Knowledge acquisition; Dynamic capabilities; Knowledge sharing; Small businesses.
Parametric Non-linear Programming for Fuzzified Queueing Systems with Catastrophe
by Chandra Shekhar, Amit Kumar, Shreekant Varshney
Abstract: The concept of catastrophe, happening at random and leading to force to abandon all present customers, data, machines immediately and the instantly inoperative of the service facilities until a new arrival of the customer is not uncommon in many practical problems of the computer and communication systems. In this research article, we present a process to frame the membership function of queueing system' characteristics of the classical single server $M/M/1$ fuzzy queueing model having fuzzified exponentially distributed inter-arrival time and service time with fuzzy catastrophe. We employ the $\alpha$-cut approach to transform fuzzy queues into a family of the conventional crisp intervals for the queueing characteristics which are computed with a set of the parametric non-linear program using their membership functions. In a $FM/FM/1$ fuzzy queueing model with fuzzy catastrophe, we characterized an arrival rate, and service rate with fuzzy numbers with fuzzy catastrophe which is also represented by a fuzzy number. We employ basic fuzzy arithmetic fundamental, Zadeh's extension principle, Yager's ranking index to establish fuzzy relation among different rates and to compute corresponding defuzzify values. We present an illustrative example to show practicality and tractability of the process in detail. We also derived the informative membership function of queueing system characteristics using fuzzy operations and arithmetic and results are depicted in tables and graphs for providing better insight to management along with their sensitivity to parameters.
Keywords: Fuzzy sets; $alpha$-cut; FM/FM/1 queueing system; Catastrophe.
Optimization of WEDM parameters in a gear cutting process using MOORA based GA
by Kasinath Das Mohapatra
Abstract: The present paper deals with multi objective optimization of Wire EDM process parameters in a gear cutting process of Titanium alloy Grade 5 using MOORA based GA methodology. The objective of the present research is to optimize the response parameters using hybrid technique for a gear tooth in order to obtain an optimized setting and to study the effect of process parameters on the output responses. In the present study, Combii Wire (Brass with diffused Zinc) of 0.25 mm diameter was machined with a 2 mm thickness of Titanium plate in the shape of a gear. The process was carried out using full factorial design of experiments having 81 combinations. ANOVA table reveals that Pulse on time and Wire feed rate are the significant process parameters affecting the responses in WEDM process. The optimized setting obtained can be further used to produce high quality miniature gears.
Keywords: ANOVA; Brass; Full factorial; Gear; MOORA; Titanium; Pulse on time; Wire EDM; Wire feed rate.
Lean Six Sigma Implementation in an OEM: A Case based approach
by Raja Sreedharan V, Rajeev Trehan, Dhanya M, Arunprasad P
Abstract: Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is wide accepted as a successful quality improvement program. However, many literatures have reported that companies have struggled with LSS projects and Indian manufacturing firms are no exception to this scenario. Therefore, the article provides a description of LSS implementation at a manufacturing company. The company manufactures PTO (Power Take Off) shafts for tractors. Nevertheless, the company was receiving high non-conformance resulting in part rejection. Therefore, the study deals with the defect reduction through LSS implementation. Using, the DMAIC approach with suitable tools, statistical analysis were performed to identify the bottleneck in the operations and the corrective measure were taken to the improve quality of PTO. In addition, the researchers proposed preventive methods for reoccurring issues and developed a plan to sustain the project to find the required results. At the end of the project, the researchers yielded considerable cost saving and defect reduction. The study concludes with the managerial implications and contribution to the society with the limitations of the study.
Keywords: Lean Six Sigma (LSS); Force Field Analysis; Cost Savings; Process Improvement.
A novel approach for benchmarking maintenance based on Fuzzy reliability index for the replacement of street lights under uncertainty
by Atul Kumar Sahu, Harendra Kumar Narang, Mridul Singh Rajput
Abstract: In this study; the authors consider the context of such products; whose component failures cannot be rectified through repair actions, but can only be fixed by replacement. The authors develop a cost effective decision model based on reliability for the replacement of street lights in this study. The direction to benchmark maintenance time for operating the street lights with minimum expenditure is discussed by the authors. The replacement policy based on fuzzy reliability index; which can effectively deal with uncertainty and vagueness is proposed in this study. The theoretical model is proposed and explained with a numerical procedure to illustrate the applicability of the proposed study. The study determined the link amongst individual replacement and the group replacement policies by defining the economic instant for replacing street lights. A decision support model incorporating uncertainty and impreciseness is presented to estimate and plan prior maintenance efforts. The individual and the group replacement policies are exposed in this study by housing a subjective theoretical framework that defines their monetary contribution. The study provides valuable insight for using the real time data information for designing a replacement model using fuzzy logic. The authors proposed a fuzzy reliability approach to check the optimality of the group replacement policy.
Keywords: Maintenance; Generalized Trapezoidal Fuzzy Number set (GTFNs); Replacement; Uncertainty; Economic Life; Reliability.
Analysis of M[X]/Gk/1 retrial queue with Bernoulli - 2 vacation, search for customers and hot stand-by
by J. Radha, K. Indhira, V.M. Chandrasekaran
Abstract: A batch arrival retrial queueing model with k optional stages of service, extended Bernoulli vacation and stand-by is studied. After completion of the ith stage of service, the customer may have the option to choose (i+1)th stage of service with probability θi or may leave the system with probability 1-θi, i=1,2,...,k-1 and 1 for i=k. After service completion of each customer, the server may take a vacation with probability v1 and extend a vacation with probability v2 or rejoins the system after the first vacation with probability 1-v2. Busy server may get to breakdown and the stand-by server provides service only during the repair times. At the completion of service, vacation or repair, the server searches for the customer in the orbit (if any) with probability α or remains idle with probability 1-α. By using the supplementary variable method, steady state probability generating function for system size, some system performance measures like Ls, Lq, Ws and Wq are discussed. Simulation results are given using MATLAB.
Keywords: Retrial; k - optional service; orbital search; standby; extended vacation; Supplementary Variable Technique.
Service identification by Enhanced K Mean Algorithm in service oriented architecture
by Anurag Shashwat, Deepak Kumar
Abstract: Service Oriented Architecture is widely accepted approach that facilitates business agility by aligning IT with business. Service Identification with right level of granularity is the most critical aspect in service oriented architecture. It is considered as first steps in the Service Oriented Development life cycle. The services must be defined or identified keeping service reuse in different business contexts. Service identification is challenging to application development team due to several reasons such as lack of business process documentation, lack of expert analyst, and lack of business executive involvement, lack of reuse of services, lack of right decision to choose the appropriate service. Service oriented architectural project uses large repository, where in services are stored randomly in the repository. This causes considerable amount of search time when service is searched from the database. In case of trigger based application, current service storage process will not be much effective due to inadequacy in service level agreement. In this regard, the author(s) explored the possibilities of service identification using k-means clustering. This paper suggests an approach to identify the appropriate service using distributed repository based on enhanced k mean algorithm. The Creation of distributed repository based on business service functionality will reduce search time, service replication and increase the performance and reliability of the service. Proposed Model has been experimentally validated and author(s) found significant decrease in service search time. This Model will be helpful in building the applications with minimum service level agreement.
Keywords: Service-oriented architecture; K- Mean; Service Identification; Cluster.
A new mathematical modeling for relief operation based on stochastic programming
by M.B. Fakhrzad, H. Hasanzadeh
Abstract: Number of natural disasters and the people affected by them has been increased over recent years. In the last two decades, the field of disaster management and humanitarian logistics has earned more attention. Design of relief logistic network as a strategic decision and relief distribution as an operational decision are the most important activities for disaster operation management before and after a disaster. Since related information can be updated after disaster, we consider a relief helicopter to satisfy the lack of inventory in different depots. In the proposed mathematical model, pre-disaster decisions are determined according to different scenarios in a two stage optimization scheme. Moreover, we present a meta-heuristic algorithm based on particle swarm optimization as a solution method. Finally, the model for two stages of disaster management is testified by several instances. Computational results based on three approaches confirm that the proposed model has proper performance.
Keywords: Disaster management; Scenario based; Relief distribution; facility location problem.
Productivity and profitability of process industry using TDABC: A case study
by Ashwin Ganorkar, Ramesh Lakhe, Kamalkishor Agrawal
Abstract: The global competition in the international market is forcing industries to increase the productivity and profitability. Time driven activity based costing (TDABC) is newly developed approach in the field of cost accounting. Companies are more interested in increasing productivity and profitability rather than assigning the cost on the product. This paper presents an approach to estimate the cost of process industry using TDABC and how it is useful in increasing productivity and profitability. The approach is explained with the help of case study in the process industry. The results indicate that TDABC provides the useful information for identifying the areas for improving the productivity of the industry and its effect on profitability. This paper also discusses how TDABC helps in taking the decision for improving productivity and profitability.
Keywords: TDABC; process industry; productivity; profitability.
A two-phase simulated annealing algorithm to minimise the completion time variance of jobs in flowshops
by J. Krishnaraj, S. Thiagarajan
Abstract: In this paper, simulated annealing (SA) algorithm is employed to solve the flowshop scheduling problem with the objective of minimising the completion time variance (CTV) of jobs. Four variants of the two-phase SA algorithm (SA-I to SA-IV) are proposed to solve flowshop scheduling problem with the objective of minimising the CTV of jobs without considering the right shifting of completion time of jobs on the last machine. The proposed SA algorithms have been tested on 90 benchmark flowshop scheduling problems. The solutions yielded by the proposed SA variants are compared with the best CTV of jobs reported in the literature, and the proposed SA-III is found to perform well in minimising the chosen performance measure (CTV) particularly in medium and large size problems.
Keywords: scheduling; permutation flowshop; simulated annealing algorithm; completion time variance; CTV.
A neural network based algorithm for flow shop scheduling problems under fuzzy environment
by Harendra Kumar, Shailendra Giri
Abstract: Scheduling is very complex but important problem in the real world environment applications. Production scheduling with the objective of minimizing the makespan is an important task in manufacturing systems. For most of scheduling problem made so far, the processing time of each job on each machine have been assumed as a real number. However in real world applications the processing time is often imprecise which means the processing time may vary dynamically because of some human factor or operating faults. This paper considers an n jobs and m machines flow shop scheduling problem of minimizing the makespan. In this work fuzzy numbers are used to represent the processing times in the flow shop scheduling. Fuzzy and neural network based concept are applied to the flow shop scheduling problems to determine an optimal job sequence with the objective of minimize the makespan. The performance of our proposed hybrid model is compared with the existing methods selected from different papers. Some problems are solved with the present method and it is found suitable and workable in all the cases. A comparison of our present method with the existing methods is also provided in this work.
Keywords: Flow shop scheduling; sequence; fuzzy number; defuzzification; artificial neural network; makespan.
Enhancing enterprise resource planning and manufacturing execution system efficiency: A simulation-based decision support approach
by Arnesh Telukdarie, Chuks Medoh
Abstract: Business units inclusive of large, medium and small-scale entities conventionally conducts activities based on business processes. Globalization has resulted in the gradual introduction of various automation systems at various levels of the business enterprise, specifically focussed on capturing essential business activities across the entity. These systems, inclusive of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) and Plant Systems (PS) has been adopted by larger corporates in executing and optimizing business functions. These large multinationals are described as complex entities with complex business structures inclusive of business processes. The quantification of automation, escalations and critical variables of these business processes has not been effectively conducted. A systems thinking approach adds the complexity of integrating all enterprise functions and creates a framework for evaluating the limitations and synergies so as to optimize these processes. This research focuses on the development, and configuration, of a simulation model for modelling enterprise maturity via business processes. This research approach includes hierarchical layout and segregation of these business processes, exploring these enterprise operations adopting business process tools, techniques, and methodologies aligned with a systems thinking approach. A simulation framework is configured and tested. The results prove that a simulation model potentially benefits a complex organization specific to evaluating time taken to execute business processes. The results indicate that interdependent processes can be modelled together by determining impacts of multiple critical variables in minimizing business process execution times.
Keywords: simulation-based approach; manufacturing execution system; enterprise resource planning; Plant Systems; business process optimization; systems thinking.
FANTASY SPORTS OUTCOMES AS CONTROVERSIAL ISSUE FROM A GENDER PERSPECTIVE
by Alan D. Smith, Amber Smith-Ditizio, Walter Kendall
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore and test certain assumptions concerning the fantasy sports industry as an enabler for quick, accurate, and descriptive information to its fan from a gender perspective. However, there are distinct disadvantages that seriously active user may have on sports fantasy gambling addiction and excessive wagering may have on society in general and this study should help provide a base line for future studies. Therefore, to explore the differences, the authors sought to provide statistical evidence that collaborate differences among gender based on technology acceptance models. The sample consisted of relatively well-paid professionals who many routinely engage in fantasy sports via a personal interview procedure was implemented and highly representative of the service industry located in the metropolitan section of Pittsburgh, PA. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test the hypotheses in determine significant gender differences. It was found that those male professionals who were intensely engaged fantasy sports respondents and who spent considerable amount of money on fantasy leagues, found fantasy guides, expert opinions, and related information helpful in changing rosters, and were intensive users of mobile technology for personal use were significant and negatively related to the dependent variables, with significant gender differences. Such respondents did not perceive there was a global concern for fantasy gambling activities, although a considerable portion of the sample felt otherwise.
Keywords: customer relations management (CRM); empirical; fantasy sports; gender; information technology; market strategy.
Optimisation of cutting force using metaheuristics
by Vineet Jain, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The significance of this research is to optimize the cutting force in turning by optimizing the cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. Cutting force is one of the important characteristic variables to be watch and controlled in the cutting processes to optimize tool life and surface roughness of the work piece. The principal presumption was that the cutting forces increase due to the wearing of the tool. Cutting force is optimized by the metaheuristic i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm. The analysis of the result shows that the optimal combination for low resultant cutting force is low cutting speed, low feed and low depth of cut. This study finds that by adjusting machining parameters tool life can be enhanced because cutting forces increase due to the wearing of the tool. So, cutting forces have been used to maximize the tool life because cutting force increased rapidly as tool life finished. As a result, the production cost can be minimized and be extending the tool usage and subsequently, the machining time is reduced and the tool usage can be extended.
Keywords: Optimisation; cutting force; Tool life; metaheuristic; GA; TLBO.
TO FIND THE SUITABILITY OF CMS IN INDIAN INDUSTRIES IN COMPARISON OF OTHER MANUFACTURING SYSTEM USING AHP TECHNIQUE.
by Sanjay Kumar, Vasdev Malhotra, Vikas Kumar
Abstract: The cellular manufacturing (CM) is a well known manufacturing technology that helps to improve manufacturing flexibility and productivity by maximum utilization of available resources. Cellular Manufacturing (CM) has been derived as a strong tool for increasing production in batches and job shop production. In cellular manufacturing, similar machines are grouped in machine cells and same processing parts are gathered in part families. In this paper factors of CMS are identified through AHP technique. Decisions involve many hypothetical factors that should be traded off. For doing that, they have to be measured along side factual factors whose estimation must also be evaluated as such, how well, they achieves the aim of the decision maker. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and depends on the decision of experts to find out priority scales. These are the scales that measure hypothetical factors in relative terms. The comparisons are made using a scale of absolute judgments that represents, how much; one element leads another with respect to a given aspect. The judgments may be scattered, and how to measure incoherency and improve the judgements, when possible to obtain better coherency is a concern of the AHP. The derived priority scales are synthesized by multiplying them by the priority of their parent nodes and adding for all such nodes.
It has been a fact that the stability of any country depends on the stability of its production area and progress in industrial society has been accompanied by the development of new technologies. The analytic hierarchy process has the strength to build complex, multi-person, multi-attribute and multi-period problems hierarchically. In this paper, a decision-making model is being proposed for CMS evaluation and selection. This strategic decision-making model is based on both hypothetical and factual criteria and uses the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach.
Keywords: AHP; Analytic hierarchy process; CMS; cellular manufacturing system.
A model for operational budgeting by the application of interpretive structural modeling approach: A case of Saipa Investment Group Co.
by Mohsen Vaez-Ghasemi, Mohammad Taleghani, Mohsen Shafieyan
Abstract: The operational budgeting system is a managerial system considered by governments at national and local levels for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the resource consumption in organizations. This system bases the budget credit allocation on the performance of organizational units with the aim of generating outputs (products/services), i.e. short-term objectives, and/or achieving long-term goals. Then, executive agencies are led towards transparency in the resource consumption, attempts to achieve their goals and strategies, and more accountability. The present research was aimed to present a model of operational budgeting based on interpretive structural model (ISM) in Saipa Co. So, 46 factors underpinning operational budgeting were identified by literature review, experts were surveyed to derive the most important factors resulting in 14 factors, and an ISM-based structured matrix questionnaire was designed to find out the interrelations of these factors. The data collected by the questionnaire were analyzed by ISM and were mapped out at seven levels in an interactive network in that shareholders and accounting and financial reporting systems were placed at the highest level. The results revealed that the most effective factor in driving power-dependence matrix was annual budget and the five-year development plan so that the operational budgeting of Saipa Investment Co. was dependent on this factor.
Keywords: budget; budgeting; operational budgeting; interpretive structural model.
Benchmarking in the Hotel Industry: the use of USALI
by Catarina Nunes, Maria Joao Machado
Abstract: The specific objectives of this study are the following: to analyse the association between the hotel features and the use of the Uniform System of Accounts for the Lodging Industry (USALI); to analyse whether the use of this system is associated with the price charged by the hotels. Data collection began with a survey addressed to the financial managers of 241 4-star and 5-star hotels located in Portugal. To meet the objectives proposed, information on the price charged by the responding hotels was also collected from the Booking.com online platform. The results obtained allow us to indicate as main contributions the following: evidence of the existence of associations between hotel features and the use of USALI; evidence that the use of USALI influences the price practiced.
Keywords: Uniform System of Accounts for the Lodging Industry; USALI; hotel features; hotel price; contingency variables.
Brand switching through marketing mix: the role of brand effect on smartphone users
by Salmi Mohd Isa, Lai Kelly, Shaian Kiumarsi
Abstract: This study examines the role of marketing mix on brand switching among Malaysian smartphone users. It also investigates the mediating role of brand effect on the relationship between marketing mix (namely product, price, place and promotion), service, and brand switching. It uses a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 304 participants, and their responses were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Partial Least Squares (Smart-PLS). Evidence from the study reveals that price and promotion have effects on brand switching towards smartphones. It also shows that brand effect partly mediates the connections between product, price and brand switching towards smartphones. Although the Samsung brand remains the market leader in the smartphone industry in Malaysia, empirical research on the nexus between marketing mix and brand switching in Malaysia remains very scanty. Despite some limitations of this study that could affect its generalisability, it enhances marketers understanding of the marketing mix, which should receive adequate attention to attract smartphone users to switch to their brands. It also provides marketers with the knowledge of usage behaviours of Malaysia smartphone users which could be useful for launching new models that suit the preferences of smartphone users.
Keywords: Marketing Mix; Brand Effect; Brand Switch; Smartphone.
Developing a Commercialization Model for Innovative Products and Processes in a Petroleum Firm
by Parames Chutima, Soranart Ngamcachonkulkid, Somboon Chuaykoblap
Abstract: In Thailand, the petroleum industry is a major contributor to the economy as a supplier of crucial petroleum products. However, due to its geographical location, many multinational oil and gas companies have established their operations in the country. For Thai petroleum firms to remain competitive in the industry, effective commercialization strategies of inventions to innovations can bring firms competitive advantages in terms of financial returns, business opportunities for partnerships, and advanced operations. Nonetheless, commercialization of inventions is becoming increasingly difficult due to changes in the market. Firms operating without an explicitly established commercialization process are at a disadvantage. The objective of this research is to develop a formal commercialization model suitable for commercializing product and process inventions in Thailands petroleum industry. The methodology used in this research consists of three stages, i.e. 1) develop a preliminary commercialization model, 2) refine the model, and 3) apply the model to a Thai petroleum firm as a case study. As a result, two commercialization models are developed, namely an industrial commercialization model and a company commercialization model.
Keywords: Commercialization Model; Innovative Products; Petroleum Firm.
Replenishment policy for deteriorating items with trade credit and allowable shortages under inflationary environment
by S.R. Singh, Shilpy Tayal, Anjali Gaur
Abstract: In this paper we have developed an inventory model for deteriorating items in which demand of the product is a function of expiration date. In such cases the demand for the product generally decreases as the product is nearer to its expiration date. The different cases based on the allowed trade credit period have been discussed under inflationary environment. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. To exemplify this model numerical examples for all the cases and sensitivity analysis with respect to important parameters have been provided. The convexities graphs and the variation in total cost with the changes in parameters are represented with the help of the graph. The objective of this paper is to find out the optimal ordering quantity by which one can minimize the total associated cost of the system.
Keywords: Deterioration; Trade credit period; Inflation; Shortages; Partial Backlogging.
What can we learn from Process Maturity Models?
- A literature review of models addressing Process Maturity
by Gunnar Dahlin
Abstract: The article provides an updated extensive literature review on Process Maturity. On a general level Process Maturity could be defined as the degree to which a process is defined, managed, measured, and continuously improved, where the aim of working with maturity is twofold, either to measure the level of maturity in order to compare with other processes or to identify improvement areas. According to the findings of this study there are areas indicating needs of further research. Firstly, the fundamentals of Process Management seem to be missing when describing the work with Process Maturity, which could affect the quality of maturity models. A second area of further research is related to the absence of approaches and methods for improving Process Maturity, since improving maturity is often addressed as what to do, not how to do.
Keywords: maturity; process maturity; processes; maturity model; process management; quality management; total quality management; process improvement; business process management; quality maturity.
A study on the performance measures of the non-Markovian model of optional types of service with extended vacation, reneging process and service interruption followed by phases of repair
by S. Maragatha Sundari, N. Murugeswari, P. Manigandan
Abstract: In this study a non-Markovian queuing model is considered for our examination. In this queuing framework, clients arriving in batches follow a poisson distribution. All the arriving clients have the alternative of picking any of the N sorts of services rendered. Service time follows general distribution. In addition, the system breaks down at random. Hence the server gets into repair process of two phases Based on the fault, in first phase general repair is carried out. Then in the second phase repair based on the category is followed. Likewise after the system ends up with service ,the server will go for a necessary vacation. In addition, an optional extended vacation is followed. Also an idea of vacation to be a maintenance time in which the support work required for the server will be completed. A concept of reneging is an additional aspect in this model which happens during the time of break down and vacation. This happens due to Impatience of the customers. By the use of birth and death queuing process the conditions overseeing the model is framed. The probability generating queue size and queuing execution measures of the model are derived. The legitimisation of the model is finished by methods for numerical illustration. Also the unmistakable investigation of the graphical portrayal gives a reasonable picture about the procedure completed in versatile communication process. Also it gives significant thoughts for decrease the system break down, reneging and for the advance of the system speedier.
Keywords: non-Markovian queue; optional types of service; service interference; optional extended vacation; maintenance work; revamp process of two stages.
Determinants of Switching Intention towards Mobile Number Portability
by Anil Kumar Agrawal, Monica Sharma, Praveen Kumar Mehrotra
Abstract: India has the second largest telecom network in the world after China with about 1,206 million subscribers. The sharp increase in the teledensity and further decline in the tariffs in telecom sector has contributed significantly in Indias economic growth. Mobile number portability (MNP) was introduced in India in 2011 but was limited to licensed service area (LSA). Countrywide MNP was launched in India in 2015. By March 2017, MNP requests were 23.3% of mobile subscriber base in India. In this paper Indian Telecom sector, MNP progress in India, MNP implementation around the world, benefits of MNP and various studies on MNP have been discussed. Porting fees, porting speed, service quality, price, switching cost, satisfaction have been found the determinants of switching based on different studies carried around the world.
Keywords: mobile number portability; MNP; switching intention; Indian telecom sector; mnp benefits; telecom operators; determinants of switching.
Using AHP and TOPSIS techniques for assessment of multi-skilled workforce in manufacturing industry
by Abdelhamid Zaki, Bahia Benchekroun, Mohammed Benbrahim
Abstract: Companies are always looking for optimizing the use of their material resources and human resources. Nowadays, the issue of competency is important and crucial in industry. To perform a given task by two operators having the same qualification, performance achievement varies, which introduces the concept of individual competence level. This article presents an assessment method of multi-skilled workforce. In this paper, we provide a useful model to solve workforce assessment problems. We discuss how to consider the differences and similarities between acquired level and required level. The objective of our method is to present a combination of AHP technique and TOPSIS technique to assess the individual competence level.
Keywords: Multi-skilled workforce; activities; assessment; individual competence level; FMEA; AHP; TOPSIS.
Analyzing organizational competitiveness through sustainable manufacturing using a hierarchical approach
by Vimal KEK, Sivakumar K. K, R. Jeyapaul
Abstract: The paper proposes a framework for evaluating the organisational competitiveness attained through sustainable manufacturing. An assessment model using analytical hierarchal process (AHP) has been adopted for the evaluation of organisational competitiveness. A conceptual model is developed to understand the interrelationship between seven sustainable manufacturing practices and five organisational competitiveness with 14 sustainable manufacturing outputs at the intermediate level. The attainment of six organisational competitiveness is evaluated by computing the global priority scores of practices and outputs of sustainable manufacturing. The linkage matrix developed between the practices and the output of sustainable manufacturing and the output and organisational competitiveness is the significant contribution of this work that can be used by practicing managers/researchers to understand the various interactions and hence, promote the research in the field of sustainable manufacturing.
Keywords: organizational competitiveness; sustainable manufacturing practices; sustainable manufacturing output; decision making; linkage matrix.
A framework to enhance cellular manufacturing system: a total interpretive structural modelling approach
by Sanjay Kumar, Vasdev Malhotra, Vikas Kumar
Abstract: The cellular manufacturing is a well known manufacturing technology that helps to improve manufacturing flexibility and productivity by maximum utilisation of available resources. Cellular manufacturing has been derived as a strong tool for increasing production in batches and job shop production. In cellular manufacturing, similar machines are grouped in machine cells and same processing parts are gathered in part families. Cellular manufacturing systems are those systems which are capable to meet the requirements of modern industries. There are certain enablers which help into the implementation process but also influence each other. The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyse these enablers. In the present work, these enablers have been identified through the questionnaire based literature survey and total interpretive structural modelling approach has been utilised in analysing their mutual interaction.
Keywords: manufacturing; total interpretive structural modelling; TISM; analysis; interaction; enablers.
An investigative study to evaluate the impact of lean manufacturing in Indian manufacturing industry
by Inderpreet Singh Ahuja, Jaspreet Singh, Gurinder Singh
Abstract: At the current situation, LM has grown to be a worldwide trend. This is a tentative study of lean manufacturing implementation in Indian industries. A questionnaire survey has been deployed to evaluate the contributions of lean manufacturing in Indian manufacturing industry. The analysis was executed on 34 Indian manufacturing organisations. All the respondents were selected from those organisations that are committed to imbibe various lean manufacturing practices. The study reveals that nearly all of the selected respondent firms are categorised as an evolution on the way to lean manufacturing practice and the organisations have paid more attention towards organisation operation and management, narrate to external relationships with suppliers and customers through various parameters. Such organisations think that the issues that drive lean manufacturing implementation include customer focus and organisation's ability to holistically imbibe continuous improvement initiatives. The results of this study have revealed that the major difficulty to implement lean manufacturing system in an organisation is the lack of understanding lean concepts and lack of appropriate understanding about lean techniques adopted by the organisations.
Keywords: lean manufacturing; performance measures; Indian manufacturing industry; waste elimination; total quality management; 5S; Kaizen; Kanban.
Multi-objective municipal solid waste management recycling problem in fuzzy-rough environment
by Sutapa Pramanik, Kalipada Maity, Dipak Kumar Jana, Anupam Mukherjee
Abstract: In municipal solid waste (MSW) management, not only economic objectives but also environmental objectives are considered simultaneously. In this paper, a fuzzy rough (Fu-Ro) multi-objective municipal solid waste management problem (MMSWMP) is developed for supporting MSW management, associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission control and recycling. Here, for the first time, three conflicting objectives are integrally considered, including minimisation of total system cost, minimisation of total GHG emissions from waste management facilities and maximisation of total revenue. The present MMSWMP improves upon the existing single or double objectives waste management optimisation models. Here imprecise cost parameters of the models are expressed as Fu-Ro variables. Some constraints of the system are expressed as chance constraints and Fu-Ro constraints. Multi-objective problem is transformed to single objective one through incorporation of fuzzy satisfying technique. Then it is solved as a general mixed-integer single-objective linear programming problem using a gradient-based optimisation technique - generalised reduced gradient method (Lingo-14.0). Representing different preferences of the decision makers for economic development and environmental-impact, four different planning models are formulated, solved, analysed and compared. The models are numerically illustrated and some sensitivity analysis are presented.
Keywords: municipal solid waste management; greenhouse gas emission control; recycling; fuzzy rough; fuzzy satisfying method.
Identification of performance variables which affect the FMS: a state-of-the-art review
by Vineet Jain, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The aim of this research is the identification of performance variables which affect the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). The study was performed to find the variables especially for performance, productivity and flexibility of FMS. Recognition of variables took place from the literature and experts opinions from the manufacturing industry. The 15 performance variables were identified and three factors, i.e., quality, productivity and flexibility, were extracted, which involves the performance of FMS. The 20 productivity variables were identified and four factors, i.e., people, quality, machine, and flexibility, were extracted, which involves the productivity of FMS. Fifteen variables were identified and four factors, i.e., production flexibility, machine flexibility, product flexibility, and volume flexibility, were extracted, which affect the flexibility of FMS. This research provides the opportunity to management for understanding the factors or variables for enhancement of performance of their manufacturing firms.
Keywords: flexible manufacturing system; FMS; performance; productivity; flexibility; factors; variables.
Solving a multi-manned assembly line balancing problem in a Pareto sense
by Parames Chutima, Krit Prasert
Abstract: This paper presents a novel algorithm which modifies the coincident algorithm (COIN), namely the adaptive extended coincident algorithm (AE-COIN), to solve a multi-manned assembly line balancing problem (MALBP). The multiple objectives are optimised in a hierarchical manner comprising of the following objectives: 1) minimise the number of workers; 2) minimise the number of stations; 3) balance workloads between stations and maximise work relatedness. The objectives in the third hierarchy are optimised in a Pareto sense since they are conflicting in nature. The performances of AE-COIN are compared against well-known algorithms, i.e., BBO, NSGA II and DPSO. The experimental results show that AE-COIN outperforms its contestants in both solution quality and diversity.
Keywords: assembly line balancing; ALB; multi-manned; coincident algorithm.
Experimental investigation on surface integrity in machining of Inconel X750 with WEDM using Taguchi technique
by Mandeep Kumar, Hari Singh
Abstract: The objective of the present work is to investigate the effects of various WEDM process parameters such as pulse on time, pulse off time, servo voltage, peak current, wire tension and wire feed rate on the surface roughness of the machined samples. The analysis of variance was carried out for raw data as well as for signal to noise ratio. Four input parameters have been found to be statistically significant for their effects on the response of interest. The optimum value of surface roughness was obtained at pulse on time - 110; pulse off time - 51; spark gap voltage - 65 V; peak current - 90 A; wire feed - 11; wire tension - 5. The confirmation experiments were also performed for validating the predicted results. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the machined samples to investigate the effect and microstructure of the samples after machining.
Keywords: machining; optimisation; ANOVA; SR; Inconel; Taguchi; WEDM; GRA; scanned electron microscopy; SEM; recast layer.