International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking (51 papers in press)
Integrating Agile Thinking into Maintenance Strategy Performance Analysis
by Priyank Srivastava, Dinesh Khanduja, V.P Agrawal
Abstract: Machinery, equipment and tooling maintenance cost are amongst the main contributors to cost of production in any manufacturing firm. Reducing cost of maintenance practices by eliminating waste or unwanted intermediate processes and selecting optimum maintenance strategy can result in win win situation to get competitive edge in present day dynamic market where end user requirement is highly specific and rapidly changing. The aim of this paper is to integrate agile thinking with evaluation of different maintenance strategies for different equipment at a selected thermal power station. The paper also explores selection of optimum maintenance strategies at a power plant using extent analysis of fuzzy AHP.
Keywords: Agile thinking, Maintenance strategies; multiple criteria decision making (MCDM); Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process; Extent analysis
A Novel Hybrid model for selection of Benchmarking technique in Indian Service Industries
by Bhupender Singh, Sandeep Grover, Vikram Singh
Abstract: Necessitate of Industries for ascending their standards in competitive market occurs convention of Benchmarking techniques and to adopt new modern methods for effective system. The rationale of this study is to review the Benchmarking technique moreover to rank it on the basis of applications in Service Industries. In this paper, authors have done abundant survey which identifies seven Benchmarking techniques for Indian Service Industries. Thus, it becomes more complex to select the best one of Benchmarking technique for implementation in industries. To rank the different Benchmarking techniques, a hybrid methodology of ANP (Analytical Network Process),TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and MOORA (Multi objective optimization on basis of ratio analysis) is used. A novel hybrid model of these three MCDM is applied for prioritizing the Benchmarking techniques in Indian scenario. With application of hybrid model, ranking of best alternative is obtained with fewer calculations and simply validation. Thus, endeavor has been made by authors to give a model for evaluation of Benchmarking techniques through MCDM approaches which gives confidence for executives to adopt Benchmarking in their Industries for achieving their goals.
Keywords: Benchmarking;Critical Success Factors (CSFs); Analytical Network Process (ANP); Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS); Multi objective optimization on basis of ratio analysis (MOORA)
Workplace Spirituality, Frontline Employee Adaptability and Job Outcomes: An Empirical Study
by Michael Sony, Nandakumar Mekoth
Abstract: The paper aims to study the impact of various dimensions of Workplace spirituality (Compassion, Mindfulness and Meaningful work) on FLE adaptability and Job outcomes (Job Satisfaction and Job Performance). A sample of 517 FLEs working in Power Sector in India participated in this cross sectional study. The research using structural equation modeling, finds a positive relationship between three dimensions of workplace Spirituality on FLE adaptability. Besides, FLE adaptability is found to positively impact Job outcomes (Job Satisfaction and Job Performance). This study also found that FLE Adaptability to be completely mediating the relationship between Workplace spirituality and Job Outcomes. The results and implications are discussed.
Keywords: Workplace spirituality, FLE Adaptability, Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Structural Equation Modeling.
Identification of key barriers affecting the cellular manufacturing system by ISM approach
by Sanjay Kumar, Vasdev Malhotra, Vikas Kumar
Abstract: Abstract: The cellular manufacturing (CM) has been proved as a well-known manufacturing strategy that helps to improve manufacturing efficiency and productivity by utilizing the philosophy of group technology. Cellular Manufacturing (CM) has been emerged as a strong approach for improving operations in batch and job shop environments. In cellular manufacturing, Group Technology is used to form part families based on similar processing requirements. Cellular manufacturing systems (CMSs) are those systems which are capable to meet the requirements of modern manufacturing industries. But adoption and implementation of CMSs is not an easy task. There are certain barriers which not only influence the implementation process but also influence each other. The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyze these barriers. In the present work, these barriers have been identified through the literature, their ranking is done by a questionnaire-based survey and interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach has been utilized in analyzing their mutual interaction.
Keywords: Keywords: Barriers; Manufacturing; Processes; System; ISM.
RULING OUT KEY ENABLERS FOR SOFTWARE PROCESS REENGINEERING IN INDIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES
by Ashima Singh, Himanshu Aggarwal
Abstract: It has been of utmost significance for the software industry to find a way for the successful implementation of Software Process Improvement (SPI). The theme assumes greater importance when we talk about Software Process Improvement in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in India. Majority of the researchers have explored and explained limited resources in terms of cost, time and expertise for the low adoption rate of software process reengineering in Indian SMEs. Last decade evidenced evolvement of small and medium scale software organizations; and the rate of adoption of SPI initiatives realized some appreciation. But the assimilation of SPI has not been up to the extent as expected by the software engineering fraternity. In order to explore the reasons attributing towards the success or failure of SPI, researchers need to focus on the underlying multi-dimensional issues. Other factors like the changing scenario in organizational interest, culture, tools and techniques, vision, software research and existing software processes of software development in SMEs need to be incorporated as well in the measuring instrument while considering the issues related to Software Process Reengineering (SPR) or SPI. In present scenario, Indian SMEs are facing a pronounced grind between their existence and market competitiveness. Sufficient literature is available regarding SPI initiatives of large and triumphant software organizations, but not much has been said about Indian small and medium scale software organizations. And whatever has been explored is not well conclusive. The aim of this exploratory study is to point out the facilitating factors in SPI that can really boost the quality of software processes to provide a competitive edge to the Indian SMEs.
Keywords: Software Process Reengineering (SPR); Software Process Improvement (SPI); Software Processes; Small and Medium Software Organizations; Software Process Maturity; SMEs.
An Estimation Technique in Agile Archetype using Story Points and Function Point Analysis
by Saru Dhir, Deepak Kumar, V.B. Singh
Abstract: Agile approach is responsible to bring out the high quality of deliverable in a shorter period. Agile methods such as scrum, extreme programming, etc. are used for a system in a collaborative way. Most of these methods focus on the practices to reduce the cost and effort during the continuous changes in the software development. Sometimes existing agile methods become unpredictable and inconsistent. However, handling that unpredictability and inconsistency is not easy for the entire development lifecycle, especially at the time of planning a project. It has been observed that existing development methods do not focus on the early stages of estimation of size, cost, effort and time due to uncertainty in requirements. In this paper, an estimation model using agile methodologies has been proposed, so that a development process can be estimated from the initial stage to the delivery of the project. This paper also proposes a new algorithmic approach and is compared with an existing algorithmic approach. Further, this paper discusses the implementation of a project according to the proposed estimation model and new algorithmic approach. At the end of the paper a comparison between existing and proposed model, strengths and its implications of proposed model have been discussed.
Keywords: Feed forward; Feed backward; Agile Methodology; Software Estimation; Story Point; Function Analysis (FPA); Software Estimation; Life Cycle Cost (LCC); Value Adjustment Factor (VAF).
Lean implementation in traditional distributor warehouse - a case study in a FMCG Company in Indonesia
by Elia Oey, Maulana Nofrimurti
Abstract: Warehouse is a crucial part of firms logistic system and plays an important role in delivering products from manufacturers to end consumers. Lean principles originated from manufacturing practice can be adapted to warehouse environment to enhance its productivity. The study was based on a multinational fast moving consumer good in Indonesia which relied on small and medium enterprises (SME) as their intermediaries to distribute its products throughout Indonesia. Lean warehousing techniques were used as practical tool to introduce a good and efficient warehouse practice for its distributors. As a standardized framework for its distributors, the company introduced 3 stages for Lean warehouse implementation, i.e.: Create stability, Create flow, and Make flow in the warehouse. Implementation was done for the first two stages in one pilot distributor, resulting 26% increase in picking productivity and a more balanced warehouse operation. Result will be used as a baseline and show-case for further implementations to the rest of its distributors.
Keywords: LLean warehouse; Distributors; 5S; Waste; Value Stream Mapping; Muda-Mura-Muri, Indonesia, Visual Management, Create Stability, Create Flow, Make Flow
Impact of policy implementation on telecommunication diffusion in India
by Shailaja Rego, Naresh Kumar, P. N. Mukherjee
Abstract: Telecommunication sector has emerged as a key driver of economic and social development. The thrust to ensure access of telecom services to a common man is a challenging task in a country like India where majority of populations resides in villages. The conducive policy can attracts investments in this sector apart from generating manifold employment opportunities in the telecom sector. India is one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world. The unprecedented increase in teledensity and sharp decline in tariffs in the telecom sector have contributed significantly to the country's economic growth. Besides contributing considerable to India's GDP, telecommunications along with Information Technology, has accelerated the growth of economic and social sectors. The objective of the study is to analyse effect of different policies on the telecommunication diffusion, hence, seven different policies of the telecom sector are analysed to study their impact on growth of telecom sector.
Keywords: Telecommunication, teledensity, GDP, Information technolohu
Application of Interactive Fuzzy Goal Programming for Multi-Objective Integrated Production and Distribution Planning
by Md. Sanowar Hossain, Md.Mosharraf Hossain
Abstract: Integrating two interconnected processes and controlling conflicting goals of a production and distribution problem is necessary for better planning. The aim of integrated production-distribution model is to allocate the limited available resources and equipment to produce the products over the time periods and ensure economical dispatching the products to the distribution centers or retailers. Using deterministic models in such conditions may not lead to fully satisfying results because the related parameters like market demands and capacities in production environment and processing times are frequently fuzzy in nature. In a responsiveness and competitive market, production and distribution planning modules have been considered in the framework of satisfaction level of decision maker. To make such problems realistic, triangular fuzzy numbers and the concept of minimum accepted level method are employed to formulate the problem. Minimum operator and weighted average operator method is used to aggregate all fuzzy set of the problem and solved by three algorithm and goal programming method. The proposed approach aims to formulate a fuzzy multi-objective linear programming model to simultaneously minimize the total production cost, distribution cost and delivery time for multi-product and multi-time period in a supply chain under multiple uncertainty condition. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to rank multiple objectives to make the problem more realistic for the respective case and problem solved by using Matlab software.
Keywords: Supply Chains, Fuzzy Sets, Manufacture/Distribution Planning, Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming and Goal Programming
Prioritizing the performance measures of FMS using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approaches
by Suman Gothwal, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The evaluation of the most appropriate performance measures in the manufacturing sector is one of the strategic issues that may affect the Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). In this paper, five areas of performance measures, i.e., measures related to finance, measures related to customers, measures related to innovation and knowledge, measures related to internal business and miscellaneous measures with their sub-measures are considered. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework to proactively manage performance measures. For this purpose, a comparative study of multi criteria decision making approaches, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) and Weighted Product Method (WIP) are integrated with Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in order to get the best solution. AHP is used to determine the weights of the measures which are used in SAW and WPM approaches, for prioritizing the performance measures so that management could take the decision regarding improvement. Here, fuzzy logic is used to change the qualitative measures into the quantitative measures.
Keywords: Performance Measure; Flexible Manufacturing System; Analytic Hierarchy Process; AHP; Simple Additive Weighting; SAW; Weighted Product Method; WPM
Development of a Validation and Qualification Process for the Manufacturing of Medical Devices: A Case Study Based on Cross-Sector Benchmarking
by Christopher Turner, Ashutosh Tiwari, Yuchun Xu, Hao Chen Chen
Abstract: The validation stage plays a critical role in the development and production of medical devices; it ensures new medical devices meet all the functional, reliability and quality requirements of both customer and regulatory authorities. This paper presents a case study concerning the development, validation and qualification process for medical devices in a UK based medical device manufacturer. The work aims to develop an efficient and highly reliable procedure for the validation of medical devices. A benchmarking study has been performed to identify the best practices in product validation. The existing practices within the case study manufacturer have been reviewed to identify opportunities for validation improvement. New practices have been proposed for the case study manufacturer, and guidelines for implementing the proposed validation procedures have also been developed.
Keywords: Medical Device, Quality Control, Validation, Qualification, Benchmarking
Modelling and Analysis of enablers for successful implementation of Cellular Manufacturing System
by Ankur Sharma, Rajiv Kumar Sharma
Abstract: In recent years, the Cellular Manufacturing System has emerged as an integral part of management ideology and received much recognition and adoration in numerous countries. Many organizations are adapting Cellular Manufacturing Systems to apt the challenges enforced by dynamic customer demands, international competition and assist managers in reiterating to the dynamic environment in an impressive and effectual manner. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a model for the enablers supporting the implementation of Cellular Manufacturing Systems with the help of Interpretive Structural Modelling methodology. These enablers were dissected through literature review and experts opinion. The questionnaire based review has been accomplished for the ranking of these enablers. The MICMAC analysis has been performed to interpret the mutual dependencies of driving enablers (i.e. which help to accomplish other enablers) and dependent enablers (i.e. which are accomplished by driving enablers). From the outcomes, it has been observed that improved production process stability and capability, increased automation, and improved worker skill flexibility forms lowest level in the ISM hierarchy. These enablers have high driving power and low dependence power. So, these enablers may be treated as the key enablers. These key enablers would avail the management in contributing appropriate supervision and guidance during the successful implementation of Cellular Manufacturing System.
Keywords: Group Technology, Cellular Manufacturing System, Interpretive Structural
Modelling, MICMAC, Enablers.
Response surface method based optimization of spray parameters during impingement cooling of hot steel in rolling
by Santosh Kumar Nayak, Purna Chandra Mishra
Abstract: Response surface methodology was employed for optimising the complex air-water spray mechanisms that occur in hot surface cooling processes where forced convection exists. Results from a physical air-water spray cooling experiment were generated and the experimental parameters were optimised for achieving heat flux from the surface of a hot steel test plate of dimension 120 mm X 120 mm. The thickness of the plate was considered as one of the variable (4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm) during the experimentation. The other variables in the problem were the nozzle to plate distance, air pressure and water pressure. The experiments were carried out based on the response surface design of experiments. The heat flux was calculated by using Newtons convection model. The optimization of the controlling parameters was carried out by using the Response Surface Method (RSM). A new mathematical correlation was developed for optimization of the surface heat flux.
Keywords: response surface method; spray cooling; steel rolling; heat flux and optimization
Efficiency Measurement of Emergency Departments in Isfahan, Iran
by Saeedeh Ketabi, Ehsan Teimouri, Mohammad Ketabi
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of emergency departments. The multi-criteria comparison between the wards of different hospitals is not only useful for the patients but also important for the hospitals management to improve their performance and for the medical policy makers to plan strategic decisions. In this paper, it is intended to consider the aspects of efficiency beyond the traditional evaluation of check list. The factors which have been chosen are divided into two subsets: first, input factors consisting of no. of active beds, no. of physicians, no. of nurses and medical equipment and second, output factors including no. of discharge, percentage of revival, average waiting time and patient satisfaction. The input oriented and constant returns to scale model of Data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique is used to evaluate the efficiency of each Emergency department. The model can be used to find out the causes of inefficiency and how to improve the performance. The method has been applied to evaluate and compare 24 ED of hospitals in Isfahan. DEA model reveals that 37 percent of them are inefficient. The results may be then used to suggest the improvement strategies based on the input factors.
Keywords: Emergency Department; performance evaluation; Data Envelopment Analysis; Efficiency; Resource Utilization.
Prediction of remaining useful life of cutting tools : A Comparative study using soft computing methods
by J. Gokulachandran, R Padmanaban
Abstract: Predicting the remaining useful life of the partially degraded components and putting them to use will help to save natural resources to a great extent. This will reduce the overall cost , energy and protects environment. High productivity cutting tools used in manufacturing industry are generally expensive. As such, the accurate assessment of remaining useful life (for reuse) of any given tool is of great significance in any manufacturing industry.
The main objective of this research is to develop a comprehensive methodology to assess the reuse potential of carbide-tipped tools. This paper presents the use of three soft computing methods, namely, artificial neural network, neuro fuzzy logic and support vector regression methods for the assessment of remaining useful life (RUL) of cutting tools. In this work, experiments are conducted based on Taguchi approach and tool life values are obtained. Tool life values are predicted using the aforesaid three soft computing methods and RUL obtained from these values are compared. It is found that the predictive neuro fuzzy method is capable of giving a better prediction of remaining useful tool life than the other methods.
Keywords: Remaining useful life. Reuse, Cutting tools, Tool life, Artificial neural network, Neuro fuzzy logic, Support vector regression.
Optimization of AGVs path layout in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) using 0-1 Linear Integer Programming
by Suman Gothwal, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The use of AGVs has grown enormously since their introduction. The number of areas of application and variation in types has increased significantly. Flow path design is an important factor in the design of automated guided vehicle systems (AGVs). In this paper, problem of optimal flow path layout design of automated guided vehicles in the flexible manufacturing system is discussed. The problem is analysed and formulated as 0-1 linear integer programming model with the objective of minimizing the total distance travelled by individual loaded AGV. An illustrative example of a layout consisting of four manufacturing cells with 16 nodes and 19 arcs is discussed to demonstrate the approach. In this approach only the movement of loaded vehicles with the unidirectional flow is considered. A general linear optimization computer software package, named LINGO 14 is used to find out the optimal flow path for the layout.
Keywords: Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV); Optimization; Flow path layout; Linear integer programming; Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS); LINGO 14;
The Application of Overall Equipment Effectiveness to Support the Development of a Steamless Nut-Separated Palm Oil Mill
by Tanakorn Tantanawat, Nuttharporn Puckdeesorasuk, Arkom Haewchin, Ekkarut Viyanit
Abstract: A steamless nut-separated palm oil mill has been developed based on small-scale communitys requirements with the purpose to overcome constraints faced by a conventional palm oil mill. The current paper discusses challenges in the development and technology transfer of the steamless nut-separated palm oil mill, including communication about technology performance, uncategorized problems, and limited flow of financial information. To overcome these challenges, the proposed approach is to use OEE-based plant performance indices and its estimated corresponding financial performance indices to communicate about the technology performance. In this work, the calculation of OEE was derived based on data obtained from palm oil mills. In addition, the performance factor was sub-categorized into the reception and extraction factors to relate the plant performance to the mill capacity and oil extraction rate, which are common variables used in palm oil mills. Moreover, the quality factor was derived based on free fatty acid of crude palm oil. A simulated plant operating data was used for the purpose of demonstrating the proposed approach. The figures of world-class OEE and its components were also used to identify the area for initiating process improvement activities and estimate the potential performance of the technology.
Keywords: OEE, Overall equipment effectiveness; Performance measurement; Palm oil extraction system; Steamless nut-separated palm oil mill
Measurement of Overall Equipment Effectiveness to Improve Operational Efficiency
by Rohit Kr Singh, Elvin Clements, Vandana Sonwney
Abstract: This paper presents measurement of OEE which serves a basis for analyzing operational efficiency in a manufacturing unit. Initially, measure of overall equipment effectiveness is described which explains what metrics make up this OEE and the losses that are classified under each of the metrics. Then it focuses on how OEE forms an integral part of the total productive maintenance activity. Its use and implementation in the manufacturing unit are analysed by calculating the OEE before and after making some modifications in the process by considering the case of die manufacturing equipment. Later, the significant benefits of developing OEE as basis for operational measure are described. The purpose of the paper is to explore the use of OEE not just as an operational measure but also as an indicator of process improvisation within a manufacturing environment. The losses of the equipment are identified and measures are suggested to improve it. The methodology adopted for this paper tries to provide an independent assessment of OEE effectiveness as a measure of operational improvement. This case study with longitudinal approach includes data collection and analysis of the process followed in a manufacturing unit. The operational data of OEE variables is collected that contribute in calculating availability, performance and quality which are the criteria for measuring OEE. It also illustrates how the three OEE factors are determined and splits them into the specific constituents that are needed to develop the OEE percentage. The OEE measure is analyzed but assessed from an overall systems level. It illustrates how the three OEE Factors are calculated and breaks them into the specific elements that are required to develop the OEE percentage. The equipment effectiveness is calculated before the implementation of the TPM and after the implementation. The method is divided into steps which bring improved maintenance policies. The continuous and thorough inspection of the production procedure is achieved through measurements of the overall equipment effectiveness. The OEE thus obtained is compared with World class OEE and measures are suggested to attain on par OEE level. The Current study will enable industry to monitor the OEE and the suggested steps if implemented will lead to improved process and performance of the equipment.
Keywords: Performance measurement, OEE, Manufacturing, Equipment, losses, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
An Automated Method for the Construction of Semantic Business Process Patterns
by Makni Lobna
Abstract: The effectiveness of reuse in the development of software prompted
researchers to look for reuse techniques for business process modeling. Indeed,
a variety of reusable business artifact types has been proposed during the last
decade. Among the recently proposed reuse artifact types, Semantic Business
Process Patterns (SB2P) offer process patterns that encapsulate knowledge and
commonly used practices in a particular domain. The design using an SB2P
provides for the adaptation of these practices and it offers guidance on possible
variations. This paper presents an automated method to construct SB2P starting
from a set of process models in a given domain. The proposed method has
the merit of accounting for the semantic, structural and behavioral information
of the initial models. In addition, it produces process patterns where common
fragments are distinguished from variation points, which assists business process
designers in reusing an SB2P to meet their requirements. The method is
illustrated through a case study in the cost accounting domain.
Keywords: Business process modeling; Semantic Business Process Pattern; business object ontology; semantic rules; mandatory activities; variation points.
A farmland choice based on hesitant fuzzy linguistic preferences relations
by Nesrin Halouani, Sonia Hajlaoui
Abstract: A new type of fuzzy preference structure, called hesitant linguistic preference relations is developed in order to describe uncertain evaluation information in group decision making (GDM) farmland choice. Moreover, it allows decision makers to offer all possible linguistic terms that are not accounted in current preference structure types when we compare two alternatives. Systematic aggregation operators are proposed to aggregate hesitant fuzzy linguistic information. In addition, an approach to GDM based on PROMETHEE method concepts and hesitant linguistic preference relations is developed to take into account the differences in opinions between individual decision makers. An agriculture real case study is implemented to demonstrate the practicability of the proposed method. Also, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to reveal the effect of the criteria weighting variations on the originally obtained ranking.
Keywords: MCDA; preference relations; fuzzy sets; linguistic terms; hesitant fuzzy sets; hesitant linguistic terms; PROMETHEE method; farmland choice.
A Reliability Centered Maintenance Approach for Assessing the Impact of Maintenance for Availability Improvement of Carding Machine
by Aniket Thawkar, Pravin Tambe, Vishwas Deshpande
Abstract: The complex nature of modern equipment and systems often leads to failures and as a consequence increase in machine downtime, thus affecting production. The failures of machines cause disruptions in production, resulting in the loss of availability of the system and increase the cost of maintenance. This paper presents a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodology to improve the availability of carding machine in textile industry. The main objective of this paper is to present a RCM approach for improving the availability of the carding machine and thus maximize the production output. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is used for analyzing the failures in the machine. The preventive measure to reduce the failure frequency and its impact are proposed. The proposed preventive measures results in reduction of about 26 % of the total downtime and availability improvement of approximately 1.7 %, as compared with the availability due to current maintenance practices.
Keywords: Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM); Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA); Availability; Textile industry; Carding machine.
A graph-theoretic based meta-heuristic algorithm for solving cooperative dynamic facility layout problems
by Masume Messi Bidgoli
Abstract: The Dynamic Facility Layout Problem (DFLP) is related to location of all facilities of a plant in a dynamic environment. Most of the existing models for this problem ignore competitive or cooperative reactions to ones action.
In a recent work, the assumption of independency between parameters of material handling cost function has been relaxed and a game model has been presented. Two main shortcomings exist in this work. In one side, cooperation between decision makers is ignored. This matter could result to remove some better solutions that are not Nash equilibrium. In other hand, computing Nash equilibrium takes much time. Then, Nash equilibrium maybe results in expensive solutions in cooperative conditions.
In this paper, this real assumption is considered and by modeling the problem as a multi-criteria shortest path problem, a Pareto optimal solution is obtained. The numerical experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution method.
Keywords: Dynamic Facility layout design; Material Handling System design; Graph theory; Multi-criteria shortest path; Simulated annealing.
A Framework to Enhance Cellular Manufacturing System: A Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) Approach
by Sanjay Kumar, Vasdev Malhotra, Vikas Kumar
Abstract: The cellular manufacturing (CM) has been proved as a well-known manufacturing strategy that helps to improve manufacturing efficiency and productivity by utilizing the philosophy of group technology. Cellular Manufacturing (CM) has been emerged as a strong approach for improving operations in batch and job shop environments. In cellular manufacturing, Group Technology is used to form part families based on similar processing requirements. It has often been said that the strength of any country resides in the strength of its industrial sector and progress in industrial society has been accomplished by the creation of new technologies. The implementation of cellular manufacturing system (CMS) requires careful planning at all levels of the organisation to ensure that the implementation will achieve the intended goals considering the multiple criteria. Purpose- To identify and analyze the interactions among different enablers of cellular manufacturing system (CMS). The existing enablers available in the past literature are scattered and not able to meet specific requirements of the customers. So, it becomes a necessity to encapsulate these enablers in appropriate proportions to enable traditional organizations to CMS. To fill this gap total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) and MICMAC analysis based framework model has been developed to understand the mutual interactions between among the enablers. Design/methodology/approach- Identification of enablers followed by application of TISM which is an innovative version of ISM and MICMAC analysis used to study and analyze the mutual interactions between identified enablers. Findings- The result reveals that top management support, organizational structure and information technology integration have strong driving power and weak dependence power and are at the lowest level in the TISM model hierarchy, while the outcome enablers of CMS have low driving power but have high dependence power. Research limitations/implications This model is developed on the basis of inputs from few experts and may not reflect the opinion of whole industry community. Practical implications Top management must stress on enablers having strong driving power for efficient implementation of CMS. Managers in the area of manufacturing may drive useful insights from the empirical study presented in this paper. Managers should plan an effective strategy for proper implementation of CMS which make organization more flexible, productive, competitive and profitable. Originality/value TISM based framework structural model have been proposed for industry or organization which is a new effort for implementation of CMS.
Keywords: Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS); Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM); MICMAC Analysis; Ranking; Interaction; Enablers.
EVALUATING JUST IN TIME IMPLEMENTATION IMPLICATIONS IN AN INDIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
by I.P.S. Ahuja, Sukhjinder Singh, Gurinder Singh
Abstract: The manufacturing sector has witnessed severe challenges due to increasing customer demand, cost competitiveness and rapid innovations in processes and technologies. This has forced the manufacturing industries to look out for innovative process management tools and techniques having competencies to drastically transform the manufacturing operations to significantly enhance the business operations capabilities. Just-in-time (JIT) production systems, International Standards Organization (ISO) 9000 certifications and total quality management (TQM) are few major techniques adopted by manufacturing organizations to cater to aforesaid business objectives. JIT is a technique of producing product at high quality at a rapid response by considering the various strategies during the implementation in the company. The research presents a detailed case study in Indian manufacturing organization to depict the JIT initiatives taken by organization for realizing significant manufacturing performance improvements for meeting stringent competition. This case study reveals that JIT implementation has facilitated the manufacturing organization to reap significant benefits like productivity enhancement in various plants, removing congestion in parking areas, difficulties in loading and unloading products from the trucks, difficulties in quality check of product while unloading and ensuring on time delivery of the raw materials when needed.
Keywords: Just in Time; Manufacturing Industry; manufacturing performance; plant productivity.
AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IN INDIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
by I.P.S. Ahuja, Jaspreet Singh, Gurinder Singh
Abstract: At current situation, LM has grown to be a worldwide trend. This is a tentative study of lean manufacturing implementation in Indian industries. A questionnaire survey has been deployed to evaluate the contributions of lean manufacturing in Indian Manufacturing Industry. The analysis was executed on thirty four Indian manufacturing organizations. All the respondents were selected from those organizations that are committed to imbibe various lean manufacturing practices. The study reveals that nearly all of the selected respondent firms are categorized as an evolution on the way to lean manufacturing practice and the organizations have paid more attention towards organization operation and management, narrate to external relationships with suppliers and customers through various parameters. Such organizations think that the issues that drive lean manufacturing implementation include customer focus and organizations ability to holistically imbibe continuous improvement initiatives. The results of this study have revealed that the major difficulty to implement lean manufacturing system in an organization is the lack of understanding lean concepts and lack of appropriate understanding about lean techniques adopted by the organizations.
Keywords: Lean Manufacturing; Performance Measures; Indian Manufacturing Industry; Waste Elimination; Total Quality Management; 5S; Kaizen; Kanban.
Multi-objective Municipal solid Waste Management Recycling Problem in Fuzzy-Rough Environment.
by Kalipada Maity
Abstract: In municipal solid waste (MSW) management, not only economicrnobjectives but also environmental objectives are consideredrnsimultaneously. In this paper, a fuzzy rough(Fu-Ro) multi-objective Municipal solid Waste Management Problem (MMSWMP) is developed for supporting MSW management, associated Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission control and Recycling. Here, for the first time, three conflicting objectives are integrally considered, including minimization of total system cost, minimization of total GHG emissions from waste management facilities and maximization of total revenue. The present MMSWMP improves upon the existing single or double objectives waste management optimization models.rnHere uncertainties costs of the models are expressed as Fu-Rornparameters, Some constraints of the system are expressed as chancernconstraints and Fu-Ro constraints. Multi-objective problem isrntransformed to single objective one through incorporation of fuzzyrnsatisfying technique. Then it is solved as a general mixed-integerrnmulti-objective linear programming problem using a gradient basedrnoptimization technique-Generalized Reduced GradientrnMethod(Lingo-11.0). Representing different preferences of therndecision makers for economic development and environmental-impact,rnfour different planning models are formulated, analyzed andrncompared. The models are numerically illustrated and somernsensitivity analysis are presented. The results indicate thatrnuncertainties and complexities plays effectively roles for thernsystem and useful information are generated for providing decisionrnsupport.
Keywords: Municipal solid wasternmanagement; Greenhouse gas emission control; Recycling; FuzzyrnRough; Fuzzy satisfying method; Chance-constrained.
Identification of performance variables which affect the FMS: a state of art review
by Vineet Jain, Tilak Raj
Abstract: The aim of this research is the identification of performance variables which affect the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). The study was performed to find the variables especially for performance, productivity and flexibility of FMS. Recognition of variables took place from the literature and experts opinions from the manufacturing industry. The fifteen performance variables were identified and three factors, i.e. Quality, Productivity and Flexibility, were extracted, which involves the performance of FMS. The twenty productivity variables were identified and four factors, i.e. People, Quality, Machine, and Flexibility, were extracted, which involves the productivity of FMS. Fifteen variables were identified and four factors, i.e. Production Flexibility, Machine Flexibility, Product Flexibility, and Volume Flexibility, were extracted, which affect the flexibility of FMS. This research provides the opportunity to management for understanding the factors or variables for enhancement of performance of their manufacturing firms.
Keywords: FMS; performance; productivity; flexibility; factors; variables.
Solving a multi-manned assembly line balancing problem in a Pareto sense
by Parames Chutima, Krit Prasert
Abstract: This paper presents a novel algorithm which modifies the coincident algorithm (COIN), namely the adaptive extended coincident algorithm (AE-COIN), to solve a multi-manned assembly line balancing problem (MALBP). The multiple objectives are optimised in a hierarchical manner comprising of the following objectives: (1) minimise the number of workers, (2) minimise the number of stations, and (3) balance workloads between stations and maximise work relatedness. The objectives in the third hierarchy are optimised in a Pareto sense since they are conflicting in nature. The performances of AE-COIN are compared against well-known algorithms, i.e. BBO, NSGA II and DPSO. The experimental results show that AE-COIN outperforms its contestants in both solution quality and diversity.
Keywords: Assembly line balancing; multi-manned; coincident algorithm.
An Experimental Investigation to Optimize Injection Moulding Process Parameters for Plastic Parts by Using Taguchi Method and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm
by Deepak Kumar, G.S. Dangayach, P.N. Rao
Abstract: Plastic injection moulding is a useful method to produce plastic parts with high-quality surface finish. Improper process parameter settings can cause many production troubles namely defective products, reduce dimensional precision and scrap. Thus, determining the optimal processing parameters are regularly performed in injection moulding industry. In this paper, to determine the initial range of process parameters steady state experiments were performed. Taguchi method and Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm are used to optimize the process parameters of electric meter box and to reduce its shrinkage and warpage and to enhance its impact strength. For this purpose L27 orthogonal array was used. The modified linear graph was used with the line separation method to assign the parameters and interactions to various columns of the orthogonal array. The confirmation experiments show that the errors associated with prediction of shrinkage, warpage and impact strength are 5.11%, 5.91% and 1.171 % respectively.
Keywords: Injection moulding; Process parameters; Taguchi method; Multi-objective Genetic algorithm; steady state experiments; modified linear graph; prediction; shrinkage; warpage; impact strength.
The relationship between Workplace Spirituality, Job Satisfaction and Job Performance
by Michael Sony, Nandakumar Mekoth
Abstract: The paper aims to study the impact of four dimensions of workplace spirituality (Compassion, Meaningful work, mindfulness and Transcendence) proposed by (Petchsawang & Duchon, 2009, 2012) on Job Outcomes. The impact of moderating variables like gender, chronological age and Work experience is also considered in this research. Finally Job satisfaction is also studied as a mediating variable between workplace spirituality and Job performance. A cross section research was conducted on 262 employees working in western India which is a non W.E.I.R.D (Western educated industrialized rich democratic) sample. The data is analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The research results indicate that there is a positive relationship between various dimensions of workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. These findings deepen the understanding of Workplace spirituality, Job satisfaction and Job performance. This study brings new insights into the noteworthy role spirituality plays in the context of the workplace.
Keywords: Workplace Spirituality; Job Satisfaction; Job Performance; Compassion; Mindfulness; Meaningful work and Transcendence.
Modeling and Analysis for the Machinability Evaluation of Udimet-L605 in Wire-cut Electric Discharge Machining
by Somvir Singh Nain, Dixit Garg, Sanjeev Kumar
Abstract: The intention of this paper is to examine and analyze the machinability of Udimet-L605 in wire-cut electric discharge machining. Overall six input parameters have been considered as pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff), peak current (IP), wire tension (WT), spark gap voltage (SV), wire feed (WF) and two response variables as material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR). The four models such as support vector machine (SVM) using two different kernels, non-linear regression (NLR) and multi-linear regression (MLR) have been proposed to check the variation among the experimental and predicted outcome. In addition to this, sensitivity analyze test has been performed on prominent model to analyze the significance of each input parameter on MRR and SR of WEDM and suggested that pulse-on time is the momentous parameter for both MRR and SR. The SVM based on polynomial kernel model give enhanced result in contest with others models.
Keywords: Support vector machine; WEDM; Regression; Sensitivity Analysis; Udimet-L605; Material Removal Rate; Surface Roughness.
Experimental investigation on surface integrity in machining of Inconel X750 with WEDM using Taguchi Technique
by Mandeep Kumar, Hari Singh
Abstract: The objective of the present work is to investigate the effects of various WEDM process parameters such as pulse on time, pulse off time, servo voltage, peak current, wire tension and wire feed rate on the Surface Roughness of the machined samples. The analysis of variance was carried out for raw data as well as for signal to noise ratio. Four input parameters have been found to be statistically significant for their effects on the response of interest. The optimum value of surface roughness was obtained at pulse on time-110; pulse off time-51; spark gap voltage-65 V; peak current- 90 A; wire feed-11; wire tension-5. The confirmation experiments were also performed for validating the predicted results. Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed on the machined samples to investigate the effect and microstructure of the samples after machining.
Keywords: Machining; Optimization; ANOVA; SR; Inconel; Taguchi; WEDM; GRA; SEM; Recast layer.
Designing and planning a sustainable supply chain network considering economic aspects, environmental impact, fixed job opportunities and customer service level
by Alireza Taheri-Moghadam, Jafar Razmi, Mohammed Fazle Baki
Abstract: In this paper, a sustainable supply chain (SSND) problem is developed which contains economic aspects, environmental issues, social impacts and customer service level. The economic objective is minimizing total cost of the whole network (production, transportation, inventory holding/ stock-out and investment). CO2 emission is considered as environmental issue and the social objective is fixed job opportunities. The customer satisfaction objective contains lead time and stock-out ratio. All of the objectives are in contrast and there is a need for using multi-objective approaches for solving the problem. Normalized normal constraint method is used to capture trade-off between objectives. Simulated numerical examples are considered to evaluate the model and solution approach. Impact of some parameters on customer service level is analyzed by sensitivity analysis. The results show that the proposed model performance is acceptable and it can prepare good managerial decisions for real cases by considering four aspects of business environments simultaneously.
Keywords: Sustainable supply chain network design; Multi-objective optimization; Normalized normal constraint; Social impacts; fixed job opportunities; customer service level.
Organizational and inter-organizational competencies for supply chain integration
by Krishnapriya Vankireddy, Rupashree Baral
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to integrate human resource management with supply chain management through examining the role of inter-organizational competencies (information sharing (IS)) as a mediator between the organizational competencies (cross-functional information sharing, participative culture and learning orientation) and supply chain integration (SCI). To test the hypotheses of interest, data were collected on 80 manufacturing firms from India through a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Partial Least Squares method (PLS). The findings revealed that participative culture and learning orientation were positively related to SCI and were fully and partially mediated by IS respectively. The study provides evidence for linking competencies with SCI in the literature that are otherwise scarce in the form of empirical studies in the context of supply chain. It also succeeds in examining the role inter-organizational competencies as a mediator, thus providing insights into such competencies. The study is also one of the first in studying competencies required for supply chain integration in the Indian context.
Keywords: Inter-organizational competencies;Organizational competencies;Supply chain integration;India.
Measuring the Efficiency of Community Colleges Using Super Efficiency Approach for the Case of Non-discretionary Factors in Data Envelopment Analysis with Sensitivity Analysis
by Mushtaq Taleb, Razamin Ramli, Ruzelan Khalid
Abstract: Malaysian community colleges play a significant role in achieving Malaysias vision to be a developed country in 2020. For this reason, their efficiency should appropriately be measured. However, their efficiency measurement using a conventional Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model is not appropriate since some of their inputs; e.g., entrant and enrolment students are non-discretionary while a part of output of their graduate employability is discretionary. This paper thus proposes an alternative approach of super efficiency slack based measure for the case of non-discretionary factors in DEA. The proposed approach was used to evaluate the efficiency of 25 main campuses of Malaysian community colleges from 2012 to 2013. The results support the decision maker of Malaysian community colleges to discriminate and rank efficient and inefficient community colleges in the presence of both super efficiency and non-discretionary factors. The significance of inputs-outputs on efficiency status was tested by sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: Data envelopment analysis; Non-discretionary factors; Slack based measure; Super efficiency.
An improvement heuristic for permutation flow shop scheduling
by Kewal Krishan Nailwal, Deepak Gupta, Kawal Jeet , Sameer Sharma
Abstract: An improvement heuristic algorithm is proposed in this paper for solving flow shop scheduling problem. To test its efficiency, firstly the performance of the proposed algorithm is done against the six heuristics existing in the literature including the best NEH heuristic on 120 Taillard benchmarks. Further, this set of 120 Taillard instances is increased to 266 benchmark problem instances which include Carliers, some Reeves and some new hard VRF instances from Vallada et al. [New hard benchmark for flowshop scheduling problems minimizing makespan. European Journal of Operational Research. 2015; 240: 666-677]. On these instances, the performance of the proposed algorithm is tested against the best NEH and the famous CDS heuristic with the best known upper bounds. Further, a brief analysis of the other heuristics and metaheuristics existing in literature is done on Taillard problem instances. The proposed heuristic outperforms all the heuristics reported in this paper.
Keywords: Flow shop scheduling; Makespan; Heuristic; Algorithm.
Reliability Analysis of Variables of Environmental Management in Indian micro scale industries and SMEs
by D.R. Prajapati, P.J. Singh, Amit Kumar Tanwer
Abstract: Performance parameters of Environmental Management System (EMS); based on HR dimensions and organizational dimension are important measures for the successful implementation of EMS in any manufacturing industry. This paper identifies the various EMS variables for the successful implementation EMS in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of India. Various measures of collected data of survey of Indian micro scale industries and SMEs have been validated and analysed by using SPSS software. The collected data have been analysed by statistical tools like importance-index and Corrected item minus total correlation (CIMTC) methods and reliability of these data has been tested by Cronbachs alpha (α) analysis. The computed results show that the identified measures are highly reliable for implementation of EMS in Indian SMEs. This study shows that 53 items out of 54 items of 9 variables are having the values of Cronbachs alpha (α) more than 0.70 and it shows that the collected data are highly reliable for Indian SMEs. It is also found that the values of Cronbachs alpha for the employees empowermentʼ and ʻTraining and awareness are above 0.80 and rest variables have the values of Cronbachs alpha (α) in the range of 0.50-0.80 for micro scale Indian industries.
Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs); Environmental Management System (EMS); Environmental Performance (EP); Cronbach’s alpha; Importance-index and CIMTC.
Supply Chain Functions Developing the Performance Measures and Improving the Organizational Strategy
by Malek Al-Bakri, Ibrahim Rawabdeh, Anas AlBakri
Abstract: This paper aimed to develop a systematic approach of selecting and prioritizing its performance measures that aligned and serve the organizational strategy. The developed approach is a house of quality (HOQ)-based model, in which the WHATs are the types of strategies, and the HOWs are the supply chain operations reference (SCOR) performance attributes / measures. The questionnaire designed to get the views of SC practitioners about the relativeness of SCOR attributes to the strategy types. It has proven by results that SC performance attributes are relating to achieving strategies with different levels of importance. Responsiveness, reliability and flexibility are most relative to the growth strategies, which been integration, intensive and diversification, while in defensive strategies the costs and assets management become the relative SC attributes. For the correlation matrix, it been found through discussion that cost of SC negatively related to its responsiveness, reliability and flexibility, while positively related to the assets management.
Keywords: Supply chain; Strategy; Performance measures; House of Quality; Performance attributes; supply chain operations; Organizational Strategy; Strategic Management; Growth Strategies; and Integration.
Optimal Reserve Inventory from Output of One Machine to Input of Two Machines when Inter-arrival Breakdowns is a Random Variable
by Nandakumar C D, Srinivasan S, Sathiyamoorthi R
Abstract: In this paper, a two stage production process is considered such that there is only one machine M_1 in the first stage and two machines 〖 M〗_2^',M_2^'' in the second stage. It is assumed that the output of M_(1 )is the input for〖 M〗_2^',M_2^''. During the breakdown time of M_1, a reserve inventory is suggested for〖 M〗_2^',M_2^'' , to prevent the idle time, which is costlier. An inventory model is derived here based on certain assumptions to find the optimum size of the reserve inventory of the semi-finished product of the machine M_1 to supply the machines 〖 M〗_2^',M_2^'' till M_1 resumes the function. Numerical illustrations are provided.
Keywords: breakdowns; repair time; inventory; change point; SCBZ property; production; shortages.
A study on M/G/1 preemptive priority retrial queue with Bernoulli working vacations and vacation interruption
by P. Rajadurai
Abstract: This paper deals with steady state analysis of single server priority retrial queue with Bernoulli working vacation, where the regular busy server can be subjected to breakdown and repair. There are two types of customers are considered, which are priority customers and ordinary customers. As soon as orbit becomes empty, the server goes for a Working Vacation (WV). The server works at a lower service rate during working vacation period. If there are customers in the system at the end of each vacation, the server becomes idle and ready for serving new arrivals with probability p (single WV) or it remains on vacation with probability q (multiple WVs). Using the supplementary variable technique, we obtained the steady state probability generating functions for the system and its orbit. Important system performance measures, the mean busy period and the mean busy cycle are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.
Keywords: retrial queue; preemptive priority queue; working vacations; supplementary variable technique;.
Optimization of WEDM Process Parameters during Machining of HCHCr Steel using TOPSIS Method
by Sarat Kumar Sahoo
Abstract: Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is an advanced non-conventional machining process specifically used for obtaining complex 3D shape objects in hard materials with high accuracy. The present study investigates the effect of various process parameters viz. pulse on time, pulse off time, wire feed and servo voltage on response variables such as cutting speed, material removal rate, kerf width and surface roughness on machining of high carbon high chromium steel. Taguchis L9 orthogonal array for 4 factors and 3 levels has been used for designing the experiment. A novel technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach has been applied to select the optimal level of machining parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been conducted for investigating the effect of process parameters on overall machining performance. The effectiveness of proposed optimal condition is validated through the confirmatory test. The result of this study highlights that the parameters like pulse on time and servo voltage are significantly influencing to the machining performance.
Keywords: Wire EDM; electrical discharge machining; High carbon high chromium steel; Material removal rate; Productivity; Taguchi; TOPSIS; ANOVA; Multi-response Optimization.
Qualitative analysis of drivers of poka yoke in small and medium enterprises of Indian automobile sector
by Sanjay Kumar, Sunil Luthra, Abid Haleem, Dixit Garg
Abstract: Poka-Yoke has been recognized as a proven approach towards achieving error free environment, especially in manufacturing. Automobile industry of India may be considered as backbone of the countrys economic growth with social sustainability. However, we found that the understanding of Poka Yoke is poor especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). A need has been felt to explore possibilities for improvement in Indian automobile sector focusing upon SMEs towards error free manufacturing & assembly practices for enhancing quality with profitability. In this paper, an attempt has been made to justify importance of Poke-yoke in SMEs, identify and analyze important drivers for successful implementation of Poka-Yoke concept. Literature review methodology has been utilized to identify important drivers for successful implementation of Poka-Yoke concept in SMEs of Indian automobile. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology has been used for the ranking of identified drivers. Management Attitude driver has been identified as top ranked driver to responsible to implement Poka Yoke in Indian automobile SMEs. Further, DEMATEL methodology has also been used to understand and categorize these identified drivers of Poka Yoke implementation into cause group and effect group of drivers. Appropriate discussions have helped to conclude this work with directions for future research. This paper may help production engineers and managers to identify errors and further rectify them for gaining competitive advantage over domestic and international automobile market players.
Keywords: Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL); Drivers of Poka Yoke; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Indian Automobile Industry; Poka Yoke; Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).
A comparative study of multi-criteria decision making approaches for prioritizing the manufacturing systems
by Suman Gothwal, Tilak Raj
Abstract: Globalization and modern lifestyle trends have put up tremendous challenge to manufacturing industries. To meet the challenges imposed by todays dynamic market conditions it is the right time for the manufacturing companies to transit from traditional manufacturing system to advance manufacturing system. This paper highlights four areas of manufacturing systems i.e., humanised flexible manufacturing system (HFMS), flexible manufacturing system (FMS), computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) and computer numerical control (CNC) systems. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework to proactively select the best manufacturing system. This study is an effort for identifying the factors affecting the manufacturing system and to find out the best manufacturing system. For this purpose a comparative study of multi criteria decision making approaches, analytical network process (ANP) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) techniques have been used for prioritization of alternatives. The shortcomings of the research are stated and future directions are proposed.
Keywords: Measures; humanised flexible manufacturing system; HFMS; flexible manufacturing system; FMS; computer integrated manufacturing; CIM; computer numerical control; CNC; analytical network process; ANP; analytical hierarchy process; AHP;.
Big data and privacy A legal perspective and comparative study of United States and India
by Rupal Rautdesai, Ujwal Nandekar, Aditya Kedari, Yogesh Patil
Abstract: Due to advancement of science and technology a new concept called big data has emerged. Its utility has attracted not only the private companies and organizations but also governmental authorities. But at the same time it has also raised certain ethical, moral and legal concerns. This paper looks at the threats to individuals privacy caused due to big data. This paper compares the U.S. laws with Indian laws with respect to privacy and data protection and attempts to offer a solution to safeguard individuals privacy against such threats. The research methodology used by the researchers is doctrinal method along with arm chair, exploratory, analytical and comparative method. The authors argue that individuals privacy can be safeguarded through a holistic approach wherein apt technology standards, management practices along with force of law are adopted. Companies and organizations should adopt self-regulating operating standards and practices too. The concept of privacy in this paper has been restricted to mean the individual privacy and does not include national security concerns or confidential data of corporations. The authors also suggest a framework for the protection of individual privacy and its implementation in India.
Keywords: Big Data; Privacy laws; Data Protection; Sensitive personal information; Right
to privacy; U.S. and India.
Development of Optimistic and Pessimistic Models using FDEA to Measure Performance Efficiencies of DMUs
by Alka Arya, Shiv Prasad Yadav
Abstract: In this paper, we develop optimistic and pessimistic models using fuzzy data envelopment analysis (FDEA). We find the fuzzy optimistic and fuzzy pessimistic efficiencies by using the -cut method. By using super-efficiency technique, we develop models to obtain the complete ranking of the DMUs when fuzzy optimistic and pessimistic models are considered separately. Further, to rank the DMUs when both fuzzy optimistic and pessimistic models are taken simultaneously as hybrid approach. To address the overall performance using fuzzy optimistic and pessimistic situations together in FDEA, we propose a hybrid FDEA using -cut efficiencies decision model. Finally, these developed optimistic and pessimistic FDEA models and ranking models are illustrated with two examples. The proposed model is applied to a real world problem of health sector. We determine the performance efficiencies of hospitals in Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh state, India for the calendar year 2013-2014 using the proposed model. Number of health superintendents and number of health workers are taken as input variables, and number of inpatients and number of outpatients as output variables.
Keywords: Hospitals; Performance Efficiency; Optimistic and pessimistic; Super-efficiency; FDEA.
A green supply chain production inventory model with uncertain holding cost
by Debnarayan Khatua, Gourisankar Roymahapatra, Kalipada Maity
Abstract: A green supply chain (GrSC) model with two plants facilities is formulated under uncertain environment. At first suppliers receive the deteriorating items in a lot and supplies the fresh units to manufacturer for production. Manufacturer has two plants: plant-1 and plant-2. Manufacturer purchases these fresh raw materials at a constant rate from supplier to manufacture the main product in plant-1. Retailer-I has purchased this product from manufacturer of plant-1 to sale it to the customers. The residue units of plant-1 has transferred to plant-2 with constant rate to manufacture another usable by-product. Retailer-II then purchases usable by-product and sales to the customers. Ideal costs of suppliers, manufacturer and retailers have been taken into account. Due to complexity of market situation, all inventory holding costs are considered as uncertain variables and these are reduced to crisp ones using uncertain theory. Supply rate, production rate and by-production rates are assumed as decision variables. Integrated model has been developed and solved analytically in crisp and uncertain environments to find the optimum value of the decision variables. Finally corresponding individual profits are calculated through numerical and graphical methods.
Keywords: green supply chain; GSC; two plant facilities; production and by-production; uncertain variable.
Benchmarking Indian SMEs: a DEA approach
by Rohita Kumar Mishra, Sanjay Pal
Abstract: The study is to benchmark Indian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) through data envelopment analysis (DEA) to predict the performance of SMEs for effective decision making. Forty-one Indian SMEs who are producing auto components are chosen for benchmarking purpose. The peer group and peer weights for the inefficient SMEs have been identified. This is useful for benchmarking for the inefficient DMUs. The SMEs can identify the parameters in which they lack and take necessary steps for improvement. The peer group for the inefficient SMEs indicates the efficient SMEs to which the inefficient SMEs are closer in its combination of inputs and outputs. It assist the managers to predict the performance of individual DMU based on input consumed and generate various 'what-if' scenarios. It provides a comprehensive methodology for improving the performance of SMEs in India.
Keywords: benchmarking; data envelopment analysis; DEA; decision making units; small and medium enterprises; SMEs.
Quantitative analysis of drivers affecting green supply chain management in Rajasthan SMEs
by Preetam Singh, Vivek Kumar
Abstract: The escalating deterioration of the environment is a major concern for business organisations today. Green is a strategy implemented to improve the environmental sustainability and with supply chains evolving dynamically towards competitive advantage, A green supply chain aim at confining the waste within the industrial system so as to conserve energy and prevent the dissipations of harmful materials into the environmental. The main objectives of this paper are quantitave analysis of drivers affect green supply chain management in small and medium enterprises in Rajasthan, India. The research proposes a model that demonstrates the relationship between green SCM and various drivers in small and medium enterprises. An empirical study was conducted through survey method in small and medium enterprises in Rajasthan, India and analysed using SPSS. Mean T-test, correlation and regression analysis develops and used to establish the affect of drivers on green supply chain management. The study established that the drivers has positively affected of green supply chain management.
Keywords: drivers; green supply chain management; small and medium enterprises; SMEs.
Demographic factors contributing to online movie piracy of Hindi films produced in Mumbai
by Pradeep Kumar Gupta, Bhama Venkataramani
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the demographic factors contributing to online movie piracy. Does the age play any role, or is it occupation that drives people to resort at online piracy through downloading movies or file sharing? Is there any difference between the piracy behaviour of males and females? These three demographic factors have been taken to examine their impact on piracy behaviour of individuals. The primary data collected administering a questionnaire on 515 respondents between the ages of 16 to 60 years with the aim to identify the factors namely age, occupation, and gender. The respondents were moviegoers. Using chi-square test and Yule's coefficient of association we are able to predict the factors responsible for online movie piracy.
Keywords: file-sharing; piracy; intellectual property; information goods; box office; p2p.
Solving the straddle carrier routing problem using Six Sigma methodology
by Khaled Mili
Abstract: The straddle carrier routing problem is solved in the context of optimising transport operations at a container terminal. The contribution of this paper lies in the formulation and subsequent development of a Six Sigma approach solution for the problem. This work aims to develop a novel method based on a combined ANP and DEMATEL techniques to help container terminals determine critical Six Sigma transportation plans. An empirical case study is used to explore the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: container terminal optimisation; Six Sigma approach; Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory; DEMATEL; analytic network process; ANP; routing straddle carrier.
A hybrid FMEA-TOPSIS method for risk management, case study: Esfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company
by Mehdi Ahmadi, Seyyed Mohammad Hadji Molana, Sayed Mojtaba Sajadi
Abstract: Risk management is an inevitable way for an organisation to survive in such a competitive market. Big industries are exposed of so many modes of failure in their production processes that it makes difficult and baffling for a manager to decide which modes are of high priorities to diminish or prevent. Methods like FMEA can provide a way but not guarantee good results, because of high dependency on perception of the experts at the moment of evaluating the risks. The main objective of this paper is to eliminate the effects sentimentality and it presents a new method of FMEA to evaluate the risks of an organisation, in which TOPSIS help the method assess both the severity of the effects and the detection possibility of the failure modes with very low error. The method has been successfully implemented in a large Iranian company - Esfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company - before. The results show the most important risk among 645 failure modes in 21 production lines, only in one of the five industrial regions, is the adherence of box in box annealing line.
Keywords: risk management; failure modes effects analysis; FMEA; technique of ordering preferences based on similarity to ideal solutions; TOPSIS; Esfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company; EMSC.