Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation


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International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation (34 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • The gothic arcade of Santa Maria Incoronata in Naples. Equilibrium of gothic arches.   Order a copy of this article
    by Concetta Cusano, Claudia Cennamo 
    Abstract: The paper is an application of the structural theory for masonries to a historic building through a static analysis of the shape and stability of the arches of the Incoronata Church in Naples. The previous history of the interventions has been thoroughly investigated by checking the consistency of decisions made over time by engineers and architects who, despite not having modern tools of calculation, designed only by using geometric rules and professional experience. So, a stability analysis is centered on the Gothic Arcade, which has the singularity of a non-symmetrical front and has suffered restoration interventions whose results can be debatable. The analysis conducted is both analytical and graphical, by using the well-known concept of the line of thrust. The obtained equilibrium solution explains the suitability of the arches and the rationality of the intervention in the context of the history of constructions. Although limited to one building, the approach could be applied more generally, with the aim to afford a contribution to the structural knowledge of architectural heritage.
    Keywords: masonry; gothic architecture; limit analysis; equilibrium approach.

  • Sensitivity analyses of seismic performance of ancient mixed masonry-RC buildings in Lisbon   Order a copy of this article
    by Jelena Milosevic, Serena Cattari, Rita Bento 
    Abstract: In the first half of the twentieth century, the mixed masonry-RC buildings were introduced in Lisbon; they were typically designed without strictly considering seismic-design requirements. To assess their potential seismic vulnerability, it is crucial to simulate adequately their actual response by: (i) explicitly considering their characteristics, and (ii) identifying the main parameters that affect their seismic performance. In this context, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, the structural elements are characterized in detail. This first study includes the proposal of reference values for the main mechanical parameters, which are defined by combining various data available in the literature adopting a Bayesian approach. Secondly, to identify the main parameters that affect the seismic response of one type of the ancient mixed masonry-RC buildings, a sensitivity analyses is adopted and implemented; within this context, the influence of different material properties and the quality of connections among structural walls are considered.
    Keywords: aleatory and epistemic uncertainties; Bayesian approach; mixed masonry-RC “Placa” buildings; nonlinear static; seismic performance; sensitivity analysis.

  • Approaches to strongly local phenomena in dry masonry structures   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernando Magdalena Layos, Julian Garcia Munoz 
    Abstract: Sliding collapse tests performed on dry-stack masonry structures show a statistical dispersion in the results that cannot be explained by the dispersion in the properties of its constituent materials, but may correspond to an uneven distribution of stresses at the contact surfaces or within the constituent elements. In order to study these local phenomena, a method of numerical analysis of rigid blocks in unilateral contact is implemented and confronted with two types of benchmark tests: load tests and photoelastic tests. Comparing the results will allow stating that the random irregularities in contact surfaces play an important role in local behaviour. The results are very encouraging and suggest that this type of approach, common in the field of granular media but not in orthotropic media, can provide interesting insights for the analysis of local phenomena in historical masonry structures.
    Keywords: masonry structures; numerical analysis; discontinuous media photoelasticity; rigid blocks; unilateral contact; friction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMRI.2018.10009097
    by Julian Thamboo, Manicka Dhanasekar 
    Abstract: Thin layered masonry employs 1 mm 3 mm thick mortar joints laid using simple tools with minimal skilled masons and hence achieve significant saving in the cost of construction. However, the applicability of this masonry system relies on units made with tighter control of their height. Currently unit height variation is tolerated up to
    Keywords: Unit height tolerance; thin layer mortared masonry; Shear bond strength; polymer-cement mortar; digital image correlation.

  • Behaviour of block masonry under in-plane loading   Order a copy of this article
    by Roberto Capozucca, Erica Magagnini 
    Abstract: Knowledge about the behaviour of masonry has increased during the last decades so that codes of practice adopted in many countries allow designing masonry structures on the base of well-defined principles and rules. In the design of buildings, strength of modern masonry under compression and shear is crucial for safety in seismic areas. Modern unreinforced masonry (MURM) built with perforated clay blocks may also be considered adequate in terms of withstanding seismic action without relevant damages. However, the performance of MURM is influenced by many parameters such as solid or perforated units and strength, deformability and thickness of mortar joints. rnIn this paper, the strength of blockwork walls built with two types of perforated clay blocks, lateral surfaces toothed and smooth, and different mortar joints - unfilled vertical joints, shell bedded joints and continuous joints - has been experimentally tested under loading in-plane. An extensive investigation based on compression tests and diagonal compression tests of blockwork walls has been carried out. The experimental results are presented and discussed. In particular, the response of blockwork walls under diagonal tests have been analysed comparing experimental data with that obtained with finite element method (FEM) by macro and micro-modelling, assuming masonry both as an isotropic and orthotropic linear elastic material. rn
    Keywords: Blockwork masonry wall; experimental test; shear strength; FE analysis.

  • Rigid block models for masonry structures   Order a copy of this article
    by Maurizio Angelillo, Antonio Fortunato, Antonio Gesualdo, Antonino Iannuzzo 
    Abstract: The study of masonry mechanics and the modelling of masonry structures requires a methodological approach radically different from the ones used for metallic and concrete structures. The main criteria adopted for the design of the latter, such as strength, stiffness and elastic stability, have a minor role when dealing with masonry structures. Even if this peculiar behaviour, confirmed though a careful historical critique by several authors, such as Heyman with his seminal work of 1966, followed in the 80s and 90 by Di Pasquale, Como, Benvenuto, Huerta, is rather evident, this point of view is far from manifesting itself among structural architects and engineers. Indeed the theory of Heyman, giving a modern turn to the old approach to masonry design by means of clear cut simplifications, is in sharp contrast with the sophisticated constitutive theories made possible by Finite Element methods and the use of super-computers. In these notes, the basic ingredients of a new method based on unilateral equilibrium and rigid block kinematics, which may allow the implementation of Heymans model for masonry on a computer, is introduced. In particular we describe a simple method based on energy minimization allowing the evaluation of the combined effect of loads and settlements on real masonry structures.
    Keywords: masonry structures; unilateral constraints; unilateral materials; multi-body structures; contact and friction.

  • The Response of Concrete Masonry with WidelySpaced Reinforcement to In-plane Shear State of the Art and Research Needs   Order a copy of this article
    by Nigel Shrive, Manicka Dhanasekar, Mark Masia, Adrian Page 
    Abstract: Wide-spaced partially grouted reinforced masonry has vertical reinforcement placed at intervals of more than 800 mm. This type of masonry can fail in additional modes compared to plain unreinforced masonry and masonry where the vertical reinforcement is placed at spacings of 800 mm or less when subject to in-plane shear. We review what is known about the in-plane shear failure of concrete block masonry and the factors that affect the mode of failure. We explain the additional failure mode that wide-spaced reinforcement introduces and review what little is known about that failure and how to predict it. Current codes of practice severely overestimate the in-plane shear strength of this type of masonry. We show that some progress has been made in gaining understanding of the behaviour of wide-spaced reinforced masonry and assess what needs to be investigated in order for design rules to be developed.
    Keywords: KEY WORDS: Concrete masonry; wide spaced reinforcement; failure mode; strength.

  • Surveys on the Jagannath Temple's seismic response in Kathmandu   Order a copy of this article
    by Salvatore Russo, Giosuè Boscato, Eleonora Spoldi 
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to identify the mechanisms of collapse of the Nepalese wood-masonry monuments damaged by the 2015 seismic event that struck Kathmandu and its valley. The research analyzes the case study "Jagannath Temple" located on Durbar Square in Kathmandu. After a careful anamnesis based on visual inspection and hypotheses on the temple's structural behavior local non-destructive testing (sonic, endoscopic, rebound hammer) was carried out for qualitative characterization of the structural system. These tests have been aimed at a qualitative characterization of the structural structure prior to the study of the collapse mechanisms that characterize the response to the earthquake of these monuments. Specifically, the modal analysis has allowed to characterize the soil-structure restraint while the linear dynamic analysis has highlighted the main criticalities, which characterize the historic construction.
    Keywords: Finite Element Analysis; non-destructive test; seismic vulnerability; Nepalese wood-masonry monument; Modal analysis; Linear dynamic analysis.

  • Comparative analysis of thermal characterization methodologies of a historical double leaf masonry wall   Order a copy of this article
    by Cristian Carmona, Gabriel Horrach, Francisco Masdeu, Joan Munoz 
    Abstract: Energy consumption for heating and air conditioning is one of the main factors to consider in the energy efficiency of buildings. Correctly assessing thermal losses in the envelope is essential for decision making when it comes to minimizing the cost of using thermal installations and improving the thermal comfort of a building. This paper presents a comparative analysis between different thermal transmittance characterization methodologies. The comparison is carried out between different quantitative methodologies, including that which is described in the Spanish Technical Building Code CTE DB-HE, direct measurement methodologies through an analysis of materials, and in-situ measurements based on the recording of heat flux and temperature differentials as described in ISO 9869. The results of the application of these methodologies on a traditional Mediterranean wall reveal significant differences between each of them. Further, the discrepancies between the default transmittance values and the values obtained through direct measurement of the envelope are determined.
    Keywords: thermal characterization; double leaf masonry wall; heat flux analysis; thermal analysis methodologies.

  • Effects of date palm fibres on the mechanical behaviour of stabilized earth blocks: Case study: Ksar of Kenadsa, province of Bechar (south-west Algeria)   Order a copy of this article
    by FOUCHAL Fazia, ZEBAIR Assia, ABDELDJEBAR Rabiâ, HAMOUINE ‎ Abdelmadjid 
    Abstract: In the field of construction based on raw clay, there is an active search for less costly;stabilizing materials, where exploitation of natural resources for construction has become a ;major concern due to the comon problems of degradation of stabilized earth blocks such those; used in ksour constructions. However, despite the technical, economic and ecological;advantages reported using the stabilized earth blocks (SEB), they remain associated with numerous disadvantages due to the lack of research data in this field, particularly on the ksour constructions located in the saharan region in Algeria. This study contributes to a better understanding of the SEB used in the Kenadsa site, specifically, which are characterized by a mixture of vegetation fibres such as date palm fibres. An analysis is conducted to studying the mechanical properties of specimens prepared from clay collected on the site and mixed to different amounts of fibres and to two different types of stabilizers (cement and / or lime). These two mixtures will enable the selection of optimum fibre dosage and identification of the;most effective stabilizer based on their mechanical strength. The most important points to retain from this contribution are use lime as a stabilizer instead of white cement and the;unfavourable effect of the introduction of date palm fibres into the earth material on the;compressive strength of stabilized earth blocks.
    Keywords: Stabilized Earth Blocks; Lime; Cement; Fibres; compression and tensile strength; masonry.

  • Influence of Amorfous nano-silica addition on properties of fresh cement paste and hardened cement mortar   Order a copy of this article
    by Belkessam-Hamzi Samia, Abdelbaki Benmounah, Brahim SAFI 
    Abstract: the objective of this study is to explore the effect of incorporating nano-silica to local cement on consistency, setting time of the cement paste and and the properties of hardened mortars. Ordinary portland cement was replaced with an amorphous nano-silica (NS) with average particle size of 12 nm (Aerosil 200 type) or micro silica fume (FS) with average particle size of 0.1
    Keywords: Nano-silica; Silica fume; cement paste; mortar; DTA-GTA; XRD; mechanical strength; flexural strength.

  • Natural Properties of Confined Masonry Buildings-- Experimental Case Studies and Possible Inferences   Order a copy of this article
    by Harshit Nema, Dhiman Basu 
    Abstract: Construction of faculty housing and students hostels in a fully-residential 400-acre academic campus of Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar(IITGN) in the State of Gujarat, India is the first large scale confined masonry construction in the country. Knowledge of dynamic properties of these buildings will provide valuable inputs to the seismic design recommendations of confined masonry buildings. Ambient and forced vibration tests (AVT and FVT) are conducted in some of the constructed buildings for the natural period and damping ratio. This paper presents the details of such case studies and compares the experimental results with general expectation considering reinforced concrete buildings with infilled masonry wall as the basis. Also recommended in this paper are some of the fine tuning in the experimental framework of conducting AVT and FVT, and processing the recorded data to identify the natural frequency with greater confidence level.
    Keywords: Ambient vibration testing (AVT); Forced vibration testing (FVT); Confined masonry buildings; Dynamic properties;.

  • A limit analysis approach for masonry domes: the basilica of San Francesco di Paola in Naples   Order a copy of this article
    by Concetta Cusano, Claudia Cennamo, Maurizio Angelillo 
    Abstract: The object of the present study is the basilica of San Francesco di Paola, an historical structure that well lends itself to use the graphic method of statics to analyse its stability for a twofold reason: on the one hand it is an interesting structure being dominated by a dome of considerable size with a solid appearance, and on the other, it is an entirely masonry structure for which no consolidation interventions with different materials have been necessary so far. This paper applies Limit Analysis based on the geometric equilibrium of the dome starting from detailed surveys of the church, from the knowledge of its history construction to the comprehension of the entire building. In a further analysis we go on to examine its structural behaviour through combined methods of graphic statics such as the slicing technique and the thrust line, which are far beyond the issues inherent to resistance, but rather refer to the methods of the ancient builders. Through the case study, this research demonstrates the potential of the graphical method of statics as a mean to understand the equilibrium of compression-only structures, such as masonry domes whose geometry constitutes the structure as an important role in the safety evaluation. The study carried out enriches previous researches developed around the same case study, and the new contribution is integrated by the analysis of stability of the buttress system that completes the work on the vertical loads, providing a more detailed assessment of the safety level of the structure.
    Keywords: masonry domes behaviour; limit analysis; safety evaluation.

  • Monotonic tests on masonry elements with different angles of inclination of the bed joints under uniaxial compression   Order a copy of this article
    by Weber Marius 
    Abstract: This paper describes the results from monotonic tests performed on masonry elements with different angles of inclination of the bed joints relative to the horizontal under uniaxial compression. Two different types of bricks (calcium-silicate and clay bricks) were tested under uniaxial compression stress state. The main test parameter was the angle of inclination of the bed joints, which was varied between 0 and 90 degrees in the interval of 15 degrees. The tests were performed in displacement control in order to capture the post-peak response of the masonry elements as well. The applied displacements were increased monotonically. During the tests, main measurements were performed to measure the edge deformation, detection of strain on the masonry surface using a photogrammetric method, and documentation of the crack propagation and fracture behavior. The strength and the stiffness properties, as well as stress-strain relationships as a function of the angle of inclination of the bed joints and the comparison between the principle directions of stresses and strains is reported here.
    Keywords: compression test; inclined bed joints; monotonic loading; macromodel.

  • Validation of a two-step simplified compatible homogenization approach extended to out-plane loaded masonries   Order a copy of this article
    by Elisa Bertolesi, Luis Silva, Gabriele Milani 
    Abstract: A two step homogenization model already formulated by the authors for the non-linear analysis of full scale structures in-plane loaded is herein extended to out of plane loaded masonries. A rectangular running bond elementary cell is discretized by means of twenty-four elastic CST elements and inelastic zero-thickness interfaces. In the present paper, the mechanical problem at the meso-scale is briefly recalled, whereas the out of plane homogenized stress-strain behaviour is evaluated by means of a simple on-thickness integration of the in plane homogenized curves deduced at the level of the elementary cell. At the macro-scale, the Rigid Body and Spring model is slightly modified in order to allow the development of both flexural (vertical and horizontal) and torsional failure mechanisms. The paper discusses the extension of the two step in-plane homogenization procedure to out of plane loaded masonries. A validation of the numerical outcomes is achieved adopting some full-scale masonry panels tested by Griffith and co-workers. To this scope, a series of non-linear structural analyses are conducted taking into account different parameters which have been varied during the experimental campaign. The numerical outcomes showed a satisfactory agreement in all the proposed simulations and evidenced the capability of the proposed approach to deal with different failure mechanisms as result of a combination of various experimental aspects.
    Keywords: Masonry; in-plane loads; out of plane loads; semi-analytical approach; compatible model of homogenization.

  • Macroelement and dynamic seismic analysis of the medieval government building of Perugia, Italy   Order a copy of this article
    by Marco Corradi 
    Abstract: This paper emphasizes the actual structural analysis of a multistory medieval building, located in Perugia, Italy, for seismic resistance. This is the local Governor building of the capital city of Umbria, known as Palazzo dei Priori, an iconic grade-I stone masonry construction. Strong emphasis is placed on specific issues, critical for the structural response of the building under the seismic action. Fundamental assessment methods are presented and discussed to find vulnerabilities and defects that affect its seismic response. The discussion includes the analysis by macro-elements (local analysis), leading to the identification to the most likely collapse mechanisms of the building under the seismic action. In addition to the macro-element method, a non-linear analysis is given for the whole building. All the used analyses are carried out with reference to the Italian guidelines for heritage protection and conservation and by considering the architectural and artistic assets of the building.
    Keywords: Historic masonry; earthquake engineering; numerical modelling; seismic assessment.

Special Issue on: Seismic Analysis and Rehabilitation Methods of Monumental Masonry Constructions From Past Procedures to Future Advances

  • Numerical modeling of a Composite pentamode comprising a shear-thickening fluid   Order a copy of this article
    by Federico Cecchini, Valeria Cherubini, Francesco Fabbrocino, Francesca Nanni 
    Abstract: In this work, we developed a novel numerical approach for the analysis of the displacement field of a Composite pentamode material. Two different approaches to the solution of the equations system are taken into account: the first is an exact iterative approach, the second is a discrete one, based on finite element modeling.rnThe single beam elements that materialize the composite pentamode are hollow and comprise a Non-Newtonian fluid (NNF) Core. In particular, Shear-thickening fluids (STFs) were selected as the materials for the core, as they are capable of converting a large quantity of the kinetic energy deriving from the forces applied to the structure into heat.rnIn order to analyze the rheological properties of the material considered, we carried out a two-step rheological analysis.rnFinally, the previous equations were solved and the results obtained for the various solution approaches were compared.rn
    Keywords: pentamode; seismic; metamaterial; shear-thickening fluids; constrained layer damping; FEM; viscoelastic damping.

  • Textile Reinforced Mortars systems: a sustainable way to retrofit structural masonry walls under tsunami loads   Order a copy of this article
    by Stefano Belliazzi, Gian Piero Lignola, Andrea Prota 
    Abstract: Retrofit of existing structures is one of the most demanding and challenging task for practitioners. This is particularly true when dealing with ancient masonry structures and the actions are intense as tsunami loads after an earthquake. The research community is providing newer solutions and systems on the shelf are rapidly changing, in particular improving the compatibility and sustainability both in environmental and conservation fields. Textile Reinforced Mortars (TRMs) represents a good balance between strength provided by fibers and compatibility of mortars by matrix. Main aim of the paper is to provide fast assessment tools for the effects of tsunami actions on masonry structures, assuming as main parameter the inundation depth, and to provide a comparably fast tool to design retrofit interventions with innovative strengthening systems. The peculiar multilinear behaviour of fibrous systems with inorganic matrices, i.e. TRM, is accounted for and some design equations and charts are provided, discussing the peculiarities of the material property variability to orient the designer to coherent and effective decisions, potential uncertainty and variability of substrate masonry are taken into account, too.
    Keywords: Charts; Collapse mechanism; Design; Fiber grids; Masonry; Modelling; Mortar matrix; Retrofit; Strength evaluations; Tsunami.

    by Antonio Formisano, Gianmaria Di Lorenzo, Raffaele Landolfo, Federico M. Mazzolani 
    Abstract: In this paper, the seismic and volcanic vulnerability of a monumental masonry building in the Vesuvius area is assessed in order to setup maintenance and retrofitting measures for upgrading its structural safety. First, the construction seismic behaviour is investigated through modal dynamic and pushover analyses developed by two different computer programs, namely AEDES and SAP 2000, aiming at better understanding the most probable response under earthquake.rnLater on, volcanic analyses under quake and tephra loading conditions have been performed through static non-linear and linear analyses, respectively, with the purpose to implement a building multi-risk investigation. Finally, aiming at removing the detected seismic and volcanic deficiencies, retrofitting and energetic interventions based on the use of metal elements and rock wool insulator, respectively, have been designed and applied to the inspected building. The effectiveness of such interventions has been proved by numerical analyses on the retrofitted building, whose global structural behaviour is resulted to be considerably improved from environmental and seismic points of view.
    Keywords: Seismic vulnerability; monumental building; FEM model; metal-based retrofitting techniques; ash fall deposits.

    by Antonio Formisano, Lidija Krstevska, Gianmaria Di Lorenzo, Raffaele Landolfo, Ljubomir Tashkov 
    Abstract: In the present paper the experimental and numerical activities related to in-situ Ambient Vibration Tests performed on a monumental masonry building placed in Castelnuovo of San Pio (Italy) are presented. rnThe obtained experimental results, able to identify the dynamic characteristics of the investigated palace, have been successively reproduced by means of a building FEM model through the ABAQUS calculation code. rnNumerical frequency analysis has been also performed on the original building aiming at evaluating its reduction in stiffness due to earthquake. rnFinally, appropriate retrofitting interventions have been proposed, their effectiveness being proved by numerical analyses on the improved palace FEM model.rn
    Keywords: Abruzzo earthquake; Ambient Vibration Test (AVT); monumental masonry building; FEM model; vulnerability curves; retrofitting interventions.

  • Crack patterns identification in masonry structures with a C0 displacement energy method   Order a copy of this article
    by Antonino Iannuzzo, Fabiana De Serio, Antonio Fortunato, Antonio Gesualdo, Giulio Zuccaro, Maurizio Angelillo 
    Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis of fracture identification of a generic masonry structure subjected to loads and to kinematical actions (settlements, distorsions). The masonry is composed of Normal Rigid No-Tension material (NRNT), that is a Heyman's material treated as a continuous body. An energy minimum criterion is used to solve the equilibrium problem, using continuous (C0) displacement fields and adopting a classical Finite Element approximation for the geometrical description. Some examples illustrate the way in which our approximate method detects crack patterns in some simple cases. The C0 method, though more cumbersome form the numerical point of view, exhibits great efficiency in the identification of the exact location and orientation of the crack system, compared to methods based on discontinuous displacement fields.
    Keywords: Masonry; No-Tension material; Settlements and distorsions; C0 displacement field; Smeared cracks.

  • From 2D digital imaging to finite element analysis using the ENEAGRID high performance computing infrastructure for the preservation of historical masonry structures   Order a copy of this article
    by Marialuisa Mongelli, Irene Bellagamba, Francesco Iannone, Giovanni Bracco 
    Abstract: To improve the collaboration between scientific communities working within geographically distributed laboratories, its increasingly necessary to take into account the complexity of data streaming process and the difficulties with integrating heterogeneous instruments of different groups of researchers. This paper shows the ENEA Staging Storage Sharing(E3S) architecture developed within the COBRA project which promotes the technology transfer to small and medium-sized companies for the conservation of cultural heritage. This architecture was set up for the shaking tables at the Sustainable Innovation TEChnologies (SITEC) ENEA Casaccia R.C. laboratory and it was used during experimental tests on two masonry walls made up of stone and tuff blocks, that represent the poor Italian masonry of historical buildings, to verify the behavior of innovative techniques of anti-seismic reinforcement. E3S supports the whole experimental process, from photogrammetric reconstruction to FEM calibration, reducing time needed to obtain experimental results by means real time data streaming functions
    Keywords: sharing experiments; near real time results; high performance computing; seismic protection; numerical models; FEM calibration.

Special Issue on: Special Issue by Professor Elio Sacco

  • An enriched 2D finite element for the nonlinear analysis of masonry walls
    by Daniela Addessi, Elio Sacco 
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  • The model of Heyman and the statical and kinematical problems for masonry structures
    by Maurizio Angelillo 
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  • On the analysis of masonry arches
    by Nicola Maria Auciello 
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  • The spandrel of masonry buildings: experimental tests and numerical analysis
    by Bruno Calderoni, Emilia Angela Cordasco, Gaetana Pacella, Paolo Simoniello 
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  • Thrust evaluations of masonry domes. An application to the St. Peters Dome
    by Mario Como 
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  • Seismic vulnerability assessment of churches at regional scale after the 2009 LAquila earthquake
    by Gianfranco De Matteis, Giuseppe Brando, Valentina Corlito, Emanuela Criber, Mariateresa Guadagnuolo 
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  • On the shape optimization of the force networks of masonry structures
    by Giuseppe Rocchetta, Mariella De Piano, Valentino P. Berardi, Fernando Fraternali 
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  • Palazzo Ducale in Parete: remarks on code provisions
    by Giorgio Frunzio, Luciana Di Gennaro, Mariateresa Guadagnuolo 
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  • Some laser-scanner applications in structural analysis
    by Claudio Alessandri, Vincenzo Mallardo 
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  • Thrust network analysis of masonry vaults
    by Francesco Marmo, Daniele Masi, Daniele Mase, Luciano Rosati 
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  • Lateral torsional buckling of compressed open thin walled beams: experimental confirmations
    by Ida Mascolo, Marcello Fulgione, Mario Pasquino 
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  • Wall structure finite-element by BEM coupling
    by Vincenzo Minutolo, Eugenio Ruocco 
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