International Journal of Mobile Communications (38 papers in press)
by Yu-Min Wang, Wei-Cheng Lin
Abstract: Contactless payment is a revolutionary innovation in transaction payments. Little is known, however, about what shapes consumers willingness to use this method. This study investigates the antecedents of consumer intention to pay using contactless credit cards, along with relationships among these antecedents. Based on the technology acceptance model and innovation diffusion theory, eight variables (usefulness, ease of use, perceived behavioural control, compatibility, perceived risk, trust, personal innovativeness, and consumer involvement) are proposed to analyse consumer decisions to pay using contactless credit cards. The model was evaluated using survey data from 246 consumers in Taiwan. The results indicate that compatibility and perceived risk are key determinants of consumers use intention to pay by contactless credit cards. However, consumers do not appear to consider the main constructs of TAM in their use intention. This study extends the knowledge of consumers payment-decision making and provides insights into how to promote contactless credit cards.
Keywords: contactless payment; contactless credit card; consumer use intention; transaction payment.
A Study of the Acceptance and Resistance of Airline Mobile Application Services: With an Emphasis on User Characteristics
by JIN-WOO PARK, Hyo-Seon Yang
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to better understand how three customer characteristics attitude toward change, mobile literacy, and the mental model affect the perceived usefulness and ease of use of airline mobile application services, and how these factors affect customer demand for services. For this purpose, we conduct a targeted survey of passengers who have used an airline mobile application, and analyse 383 copies of this survey using structural equation modelling via a maximum likelihood estimator. The analysis reveals that, of the various user characteristics, a users mental model has the strongest effect on the perceived usefulness and ease of use of the services. In addition, these perceptions have statistically significant effects on customer acceptance and resistance.
Keywords: user characteristics; perceived usefulness; perceived ease of use; acceptance; resistance.
Effect of Regulatory Focus Primed by a Smartphone Application on Calling Plan Satisfaction
by Ji-Hern Kim, Hyun-Chul Bae
Abstract: This research showed that the regulatory focus primed by different types of smartphone applications moderates the relationship between phone usage and calling plan satisfaction through two experiments. Smartphone applications presenting phone usage from zero to maximum minutes (ZTM) (maximum minutes to zero) prime users toward a promotion-focused goal (prevention-focused goal). In case of usage above a preset allowance, consumers with a promotion focus had a higher level of satisfaction with a calling plan than those with a prevention focus. On the other hand, in case of usage below the allowance, the reverse was true. Meanwhile, this research revealed that perceptual fluency affects the moderating effect of regulatory focus on the relationship between phone usage and calling plan satisfaction.
Keywords: Calling Plan; Regulatory Focus; Perceptual Fluency; Information presentation; processing fluency; Pricing; Processing Fluency; Mobile Application; Customer Satisfaction.
Inter-type differences in store personality between department stores, hypermarkets, and mobile commerce.
by Eunhye Kim, Myeong-Cheol Park, YongGu Suh
Abstract: In recent years, the emergence of retailers such as mobile commerce has resulted in fierce competition in the retail market. This study has three objectives. First, it develops store personality scales for a department store, hypermarket, and mobile commerce. Second, it investigates the relationship between store loyalty and store personality. Third, it compares different store personalities of a department store, hypermarket, and mobile commerce. The relationship between store loyalty and store personalities depend on sophistication (department store), excitement (hypermarket), and competence (mobile commerce). These findings might help retailers establish effective communication strategies in competitive differentiation.
Keywords: store personality; retailer type; store loyalty; department store; hypermarket; mobile commerce.
Customer Retention to Mobile Telecommunication Service Providers: The Roles of Perceived Justice and Customer Loyalty Program
by Nedra Bahri-Ammari, Anil Bilgihan
Abstract: In the past decade, the competition has increased in mobile telecommunication services; moreover, a stagnating rate of diffusion suggests that the market may have reached maturity. Thus, customer loyalty has become an important area of research in the mobile telecommunication sector. The goal of this current study is to offer and test a theoretical model of customer retention in the mobile telecommunication context. To test the theoretical model, a self-administrated questionnaire was developed and tested on a sample of 400 customers. The results show that greater levels of satisfaction toward loyalty program lead to greater customer retention. The satisfaction of loyalty program positively impacts customer relationship satisfaction. The mediating effect of relationship satisfaction is supported. Since the majority of research on perceived justice focused on service recovery and complaint outcomes, this framework provides empirical evidence on the direct and indirect effect of procedural, distributive and interactional perceived justice regarding loyalty programs as antecedents of relational satisfaction loyalty/commitment and retention from a consumer's perspective.
Keywords: Mobile communication; loyalty programs; perceived justice; satisfaction; retention; SEM; emerging countries.
Exploring new factors effecting purchase intention of mobile commerce: trust and social benefit as mediators
by Dawei LIU, Meng Li
Abstract: This paper aims to examine the effects of important determinants such as ubiquitous connection, context-aware, reputation and familiarity on consumers purchase intention by the path of trust and social benefit in mobile commerce. Data were collected from an online survey system. The formal questionnaire consisted of two sections. Section 1 measured respondent perceptions of each construct in the research model. Section 2 aimed to understand respondent basic personal data. The study results indicate that both trust and social can positively influence purchase intention in mobile commerce. Ubiquitous connection and familiarity fail to influence trust directly but can influence purchase intention by the path of social benefit as expected. The research extends the literature on consumers purchase intention identifying the importance of ubiquitous connection, context-aware, reputation and familiarity and probing into the relationship of trust, social benefit and purchase intention. The results suggest prescriptive strategies for mobile commerce sellers.
Keywords: mobile commerce; e-commerce; trust; ubiquitous connection; context-aware; reputation; familiarity.
Effects of Personal Motivation and Computing Characteristics on Ubiquitous Mobile Device Usages
by Changsu Kim, Jongheon Kim, Dan J Kim
Abstract: As we experience the pervasive penetration of mobile computing technology in our daily life, knowing the characteristics of ubiquitous computing (UC) and understanding user motivation has become important for facilitating the usage of mobile devices. Extending previous research on the use of UC by introducing a theory from consumer research and uses and gratifications theory, the study focuses on intrinsic and extrinsic values that the mobile user experiences when possessing, interacting with, and using UC enabled mobile devices. This study makes the broad assumption that UC characteristics and user motivation can be considered as the key characteristics of the adoption of UC devices. It also examines the moderating effects of user types of UC-enabled mobile devices. The results indicate that both personal motivation and UC characteristics had positive effects on the users attitude toward the adoption of UC-enabled mobile devices. Additionally, the perceived utility of mobile devices was directly influenced by UC characteristics.
Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing; Mobile Device; User Motivation; Uses and Gratification; Early Adopter.
An Integrated approach for performance measurement of Indian telecom service providers
by Pravin Kumar, Garima Sharma
Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to measure the operational performance of cellular mobile telephone service providers (CMTSP) in India. In this paper, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and preference ranking organisation method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) integrated approach are used to compare the operational performances of CMTSP. This analysis is based on the information gathered by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, for the duration of JanuaryMarch 2016. Three major parameters covering eight criteria: network availability, connection accessibility, and connection retainability are incorporated in this analysis. On the basis of the analysis, it has been observed that Reliance Communication has the first ranking and MTNL has the last ranking. This paper may help the management in the creation of a plan of action to improve the performance of the company by benchmarking the operational parameters on the basis of this model.
Keywords: Cellular mobile telephone service providers; operational performance; service quality; telecom industry; AHP; PROMETHEE.
Predicting Mobile Uses for Big-Event Content: The Role of Active Choice, Habit and Structure
by Tang Tang, Roger Cooper
Abstract: Mobile technologies have substantially changed how people consume media content, in particular during big events. This study examined audiences mobile experience with the first mobile Olympics and found that motivations, preference, perceived usefulness, access to media technologies, and media use routine significantly predicted mobile use for big-event content. Additionally, findings suggest that compared to nonusers, mobile Olympics users were more intensely engaged and involved in sports and the Olympics overall, enjoyed a broader range of Olympics sports, and were more accustomed to using online and mobile sources to view media content. Television was still the dominant platform for big-event viewing, however, mobile consumption increased dramatically during the London Olympics, and indicated a need for more personalised, multifaceted programming with mobility and immediacy.
Keywords: Mobile use; Olympics; Survey; Audience behavior; Technology adoption.
How online social ties and product related factors influence purchasing intention in mobile social commerce context?
by HongQian Wang, Zheng Zhang
Abstract: With the rapid growth of social media platforms and mobile devices, the mobile social commerce changes consumers purchasing behaviour. A theoretical model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and perceived value theory is developed to investigate the purchasing intention within mobile social commerce context. The stated preference (SP) survey is conducted to collect data through nine hypothetical scenarios generated by the orthogonal configuration of four control factors. We targeted at people with WeChat account and total 1809 observations have been gathered. The results indicate that perceived social tie strength and social influence positively affect the intention to purchase. Furthermore, there exists an inverse U-shaped relationship between perceived usefulness and purchasing intention. The practical model further demonstrates that the purchasing intention is relatively high when perceived usefulness is moderate and the factors of perceived social tie strength, social influence and product price could slightly influence purchasing intention in the condition of low level perceived usefulness.
Keywords: mobile social commerce; purchasing intention: theory of planned behaviour; TPB; perceived value; social tie; perceived usefulness; social influence; experience; stated preference survey; SP survey.
The Determinants of Trust Transfer on Mobile Shopping Decision: Flow Experience as a Moderator
by Hsin Hsin Chang, Kit Hong Wong, Pin Wei Ho
Abstract: This study tended to develop a trust transfer model and examine the effect of trust transference among trust in physical stores, e-service and mobile shopping (m-shopping) service on m-shopping decisions. Characteristics of trustworthiness (ability, integrity and benevolence) were tested as antecedents, and flow experience was adopted as a moderator in the model. 419 valid questionnaires were collected from e-survey. The analytical results indicated that ability, integrity and benevolence increased customer trust in physical stores and e-service, and trust transference existed among different shopping channels; all three types of trust positively influenced m-shopping decision; flow experience significantly moderated the relationship between trust in physical stores and m-shopping decisions. The study suggested that managers should equally value all the shopping channels and improve its e-service quality by providing an aesthetic, secure and usable website, and dedicating their efforts to environmentally-friendly and community activities to show corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Keywords: Trust transfer; trustworthiness; flow experience; mobile shopping.
Factors Affecting Smartphone Dependency of Media Consumers
by Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, Min Xiao
Abstract: To examine the phenomenon of smartphone dependency in the context of media consumption, this study explores the roles of dependency on and usage of other media platforms, multiplatform media use, mobile ownership and perceptions, smartphone functions, and various consumer characteristics. The regression result suggests that dependency on computer and television, perceived smartphone fluidity, the smartphone as a primary platform during multiplatform media use, and smartphones social and mobile-specific functions all play a significant role in the smartphone dependency of young adult media consumers.
Keywords: smartphone dependency; media dependency; multiplatform media use; digital media use; mobile devices; smartphone functions; consumer characteristics; media consumers.
Mobile Shopper Typology
by Michael Groß
Abstract: Since m-shopping has gained widespread popularity in society, it has become mainstream in many parts of the world. Consumers not only use mobile devices during their entire path-to-purchase in and around the brick-and-mortar business, but they also increasingly make direct internet purchases with their mobile devices. Consequently, one can expect the shopping behaviour of consumers to be diverse. Therefore, based on a typology approach, this study provides a detailed insight into the different buying routines of m-shoppers. Using a sample of 799 consumers, in a first step this study extracts and verifies three m-shopper clusters: while motivated shoppers and casual shoppers are located at the extremes of the cluster profiles, smart shoppers are somewhere in the middle. Then, in a second step, the empirical findings reveal further significant differences between all three m-shopper types in terms of their individual path-to-purchase, thereby confirming diverse consumption patterns where the m-channel is used.
Keywords: Mobile shopping; m-shopping; mobile purchasing; shopping motive; shopper segmentation; consumer typology; path-to-purchase; shopping behaviour; mobile shopper; cluster analysis.
The Impact of Mobile Communication Uses on Civic Engagement: Moderating Effects of Exposure to Politically Diverse and Weak-Tie Networks
by Chang Sup Park, Homero Gil De Zuñiga
Abstract: Based on a nationally representative survey (N = 1,540) of mobile phone users, this study investigates how diverse types of mobile phone use relate to exposure to different political and social views (i.e., crosscutting exposure), attributes of people's discussion network (i.e., weak-tie contacts), and civic engagement. Results indicate that using mobile phones for informational and expressive purposes is closely linked to exposure to diverse viewpoints through mobile communication and engagement in civic affairs. Recreational use of the mobile phone has a statistically significant link to crosscutting exposure. Further, both crosscutting exposure and weak-tie contacts moderate the association between mobile phone use for informational and recreational purposes and civic engagement. In a three-way interaction, crosscutting exposure and weak-tie contacts moderate the relationship between informational mobile phone use and civic engagement.
Keywords: mobile phone; civic engagement; crosscutting exposure; weak ties.
APPLYING FUZZY AHP TO ANALYZE THE CRITICAL FACTORS OF ADOPTING SOLOMO SERVICES
by HengLi Yang, Shiang-Lin Lin
Abstract: Social-local-mobile (SoLoMo) refers to a variety of innovative mobile app services that enable users to obtain location-based information at any time and place, as well as to interact with others in real-time. It would be important for service providers and government to understand consumers' requirement priorities for these newly developed technological services. In this study, we employed the consumption value model and fashion theory as the basis to establish the evaluation hierarchical structure. Further, we applied fuzzy AHP method to find out the critical positive and negative evaluation factors while users adopting SoLoMo services. The results indicate that privacy risk, information accuracy, location-based store information search, maintaining affection and friendship with others, and real-time direction and distance to destination are the top five critical factors. In addition, this study also finds the priority differences between users using 3/4G mobile internet access and users using Wi-Fi fixed internet.
Keywords: SoLoMo; Mobile social service; Local-based service; AHP; Fuzzy theory.
Students Expectations from Mobile Devices for Mobile Learning
by Elif Ozturk
Abstract: Mobile devices are becoming ever more widely available, with growing functionality, giving students access to educational material anytime and anywhere. Thus, mobile devices have become more attractive for education. However, owing to the nature of mobile devices, such as small screen size, it poses number of challenges to create a usable learning environment. Therefore, it becomes noteworthy to explore usability of these devices and the students' expectations. The present empirical study regarding the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) aimed to explore expectations of students from mobile devices in order to support mobile learning. Data was collected from 30 university students through pre and post interviews while students were conducting a set of e-learning actions, such as uploading files, communicating and acquiring course contents, on a mobile device. With the analyses of interviews using constant comparative approach, expectations of the students were classified into 11 categories which are related to interaction and usability.
Keywords: Mobile learning; Mobile devices; Mobile usability; Usability; User experiences; Human-computer interaction.
The effect of social interaction on users'social commerce intention
by Tao Zhou
Abstract: Social commerce enables users to conduct frequent social interactions, which may strengthen their social relationships and affect their behavioural decision. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of social interaction on users' social commerce intention. Social interaction consists of human-human interaction and human-computer interaction. Human-human interaction includes informational interaction and emotional interaction, whereas human-computer interaction includes perceived control, perceived responsiveness and perceived personalisation. Structural equation modelling was adopted to conduct data analysis. The results indicated that social interaction affects trust in other members and trust in community, both of which further determine social commerce intention. The results indicated that service providers need to facilitate social interaction in order to promote users' social commerce intention.
Keywords: social interaction; social commerce; trust; informational interaction; perceived personalization.
Understanding the continuous usage in wireless sensor networks of wisdom agriculture
by Tinggui Chen, Bing Wang
Abstract: With the development of sensor technology, wireless sensor networks have been paid great attention in many fields. Agriculture is one of such domains where wireless sensor networks are successfully used for the monitoring and protection of agricultural environment. In order to bring out the wild applications of wireless sensor networks in wisdom agriculture, this paper mainly examined the factors affecting user continuous adoption of wireless sensor networks based on extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Through the employment of structural equation model technology, a continuous adoption model of wireless sensor networks is proposed and assessed based on the statistical data from 256 questionnaires. The results shows that flow experience and user satisfaction have direct influences on the continuous usage of wireless sensor networks. Additionally, social norms and perceived cost, as the critical independent variables, significantly affect flow experience which further has an influence on the continuous usage intention of mobile games. Finally, this study also provides practical suggestions for wireless sensor networks vendors to facilitate the continuous usage of agricultural wireless sensor networks.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; continuous adoption behavior; flow experience; social norms; perceived cost.
Social Attachment, Life Satisfaction, and SNS Continuance: A Dual-Role Perspective
by Yongqiang Sun, Nan Wang, Xiao-Liang Shen, Liuhan Zhan
Abstract: As the sustainability of social networking sites (SNS for short) heavily relies on the content generated by users, it is important to understand the factors driving users' continuous participation. Considering that SNS has permeated almost every facet of people's lives, this study proposes to understand SNS continuance from the life-oriented perspective beyond the technology-oriented perspective. Further, due to the social nature of SNS, we propose to understand the antecedents of life satisfaction by considering the dual role of social attachment. It is posited to directly enhance individuals' life satisfaction and negatively influence life satisfaction through the mediating effect of envy. An online survey among WeChat Moments users in China was conducted to validate the proposed research model and hypotheses. The data analysis results based on partial least squares approach confirm all the hypotheses.
Keywords: Social networking sites; continuance intention; life satisfaction; social attachment; envy.
Examining the Impact of Mobile App Features on Impulsiveness: The Moderating Role of Pay More Get More Promotion
by Priyanka Gupta, Sanjeev Parashar, Chandan Parsad, T. Sai Vijay
Abstract: With the exponential growth of smart phone users, mobile applications (apps) have become an essential platform for electronic retailers. Considering the research gap in the existing literature on shoppers' impulsiveness in the context of mobile medium, the present study investigates the effect of various antecedents in triggering impulsiveness in mobile apps shopping and inducing continuous purchases. The pioneer study used the structural equation modelling to test the hypothesised research model. It is observed that antecedents like effort expectancy, apps atmosphere, user experience and user satisfaction, price and discount have influence on impulse buying intention of shoppers. The study also confirms the moderating role of 'pay-more-get-more' promotional offers. The paper concludes with theoretical and managerial implications.
Keywords: Mobile application; Impulse buying intention; Effort expectancy; App atmosphere; User satisfaction; User experience.
The impact of trust, security, and privacy on individuals use of the internet for online shopping and social media: a multi-cultural study
by Khaled Alshare, Murad Moqbel, Mohammed Al-Garni
Abstract: This paper examines through the lens of expectancy-valence theory the impact of trust, privacy, and security on the decision to use the internet for online shopping and social media. It also investigates the moderating impact of Hofstedes cultural dimensions on the hypothesised relationships. The comparative analysis of 302 surveys from users in the USA and Qatar revealed that trust in internet technology and trust in vendors are the strongest two factors in making decisions to use the internet for online shopping and social media. The results indicated that the cultural dimensions moderated the hypothesised relationships. Surprisingly, Qataris respondents, compared to US respondents, were more influenced by privacy concerns when making decisions to use the internet for online shopping or social media. Implications for researchers and practitioners are reported.
Keywords: trust; security; privacy; social media; online shopping; expectancy-valence theory; Hofstedes cultural dimensions.
Characterizing Mobile-Enhanced Cognitive Abilities: Implications for Accounting Jobs
by Hannah J. Ji, Gavriel Salvendy
Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to characterise mobile-enhanced cognitive job requirements and analyse implications on accounting jobs for performance improvement and human resource management. This paper first develops a mobile cognitive task analysis (MCTA) model based on the human information processing theory, which identifies the cognitive abilities that can be enhanced by mobile devices when performing cognitive-intensive jobs. Second, these mobile cognitive abilities are decomposed into 52 measurable items and assessed by surveys. Data were collected for 50 cognitive-oriented jobs from 400 surveys with 368 valid surveys (92% of valid survey). Third, results from factor analysis indicate that there are nine dimensions of mobile-enhanced cognitive abilities. Fourth, the mobile-enhanced cognitive ability topographies on three accounting jobs (Accountant, Auditor, and Tax Accountant) were constructed based on the weighted factor score analysis, which indicate that the accounting jobs have different requirements on the derived mobile-enhanced cognitive ability intensities. Finally, theoretical and practical implications are also presented in this paper.
Keywords: mobility; accounting jobs; cognitive ability requirements; aptitude test; cognitive task analysis.
Design alternative evaluation based on Social Utility and Market Share Prediction
by Kyungdoh Kim, Seokcheon Lee, Gavriel Salvendy
Abstract: In new product or service development, design alternatives are generally evaluated by subjective rating, and the one with the highest average score is often chosen. However, the public might not prefer an alternative as much as its average rating suggests. The main objective of this study is to examine the possibility of identifying a predictive function that can accurately represent the products that most people want to purchase in the context of mobile phone products. This paper introduces social welfare functions for developing predictive functions and several metrics to evaluate the functions. Two case studies were performed to determine predictive function for mobile phones. In both case studies, the Atkinson welfare function with a parameter value of 2.5 predicted subjects purchase decisions and market sales the most. The commonly used average function was not as good as the Atkinson function.
Keywords: design evaluation; social utility; mobile phone; predictive function; atkinson function; market share.
Effects of Personal Innovativeness on Mobile Device Adoption by Older Adults in South Korea: The Moderation Effect of Mobile Device Use Experience
by Misook Lee
Abstract: This paper examines mobile device adoption by older adults in South Korea, one of the fastest ageing countries in Asia. It is important to understand how older adults perceive the use of mobile devices and the extent of their intention to continuously (or newly) use them. This paper includes personal innovativeness in the technology acceptance model (TAM) to better investigate mobile device use among older adults. The research model was empirically analysed using structural equations modelling (SEM). The results show that: 1) perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU) partially mediate the relationship between personal innovativeness (PI) and behaviour intention (BI); 2) perceived ease of use (PEOU) has a stronger effect on behaviour intention (BI) than perceived usefulness (PU) does; 3) the use experience of mobile devices plays a moderating role in several paths of the proposed model; 4) invariance analysis reveals interesting and unexpected results.
Keywords: older adult; personal innovativeness; mobile device; technology acceptance model;; mediation effect; moderation effect.
Development of Software Based Vendor Independent WLAN Controller
by Mehmet Ali Ertürk, Muhammed Ali Aydin, Luca Vollero
Abstract: Wireless hotspots have become popular, due to their ability to provide inexpensive and easy-to-deploy network infrastructures. Controlling and maintaining large-scale wireless infrastructures with traditional methods is complex and error-prone. Hence, it is necessary to use centralised solutions to handle configuration, monitoring and management functions in large-scale wireless hotspots. Existing solutions solve these problems within their hardware ecosystems and are constrained by vendor being depended on hardware and software restrictions. In this study, we propose and evaluate a wireless local area network (WLAN) access point (AP) controller built on top of a standard WLAN management protocol and free of any particular hardware and software restrictions. The proposed WLAN controller is a software component based on the control and provisioning of wireless access points (CAPWAPs) protocol. The proposed controller is evaluated by means of a TestBed including a variety of WiFi devices from different vendors to solve a QoS-LB problem.
Keywords: Wireless LAN Controller ; Access Controller ; CAPWAP ; QoS IEEE 802.11.
From text messages to WhatsApp: cultural effects on m-commerce service adoption in the UK and Russia
by Julian Bühler, Markus Bick
Abstract: Smartphone's and other mobile devices are omnipresent in many people's daily lives. Penetration of mobile devices has caused a significant increase in m-commerce usage, leading to both new opportunities and new challenges for providers. In this cross-cultural study, we investigate Smartphone usage of people from Russia and the UK to identify differences regarding the adoption of 14 prominent m-commerce services. We follow the empirical approach of Harris et al. (2005) and update it with new service items in four main m-commerce categories. Our theoretical foundation rests on the GLOBE study and the UTAUT2 acceptance model. We found that British m-commerce users, compared to Russians, have significantly higher performance expectations for m-commerce services, especially hedonic services. Social surroundings play a minor role in both countries during the decision-making process.
Keywords: mobile commerce; cross-cultural study; United Kingdom; Russia; GLOBE study; UTAUT2; smartphones; instant messaging; WhatsApp; short message service.
Novel routing mechanism for IoT based emergency rescue scenarios
by RASHMI CHAUDHRY, Shashikala Tapaswi
Abstract: Routing in emergency rescue scenarios where nodes around the site are mobile and send the information about the service needs to the concerned service providers through internet connectivity is an important issue. Focus is done by researchers in the respective fields for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) but the scenarios having mobile nodes around the site and having IoT environment have not been addressed. As this type of case includes time constraint-based services, thus a new mechanism predicting mobility of nodes at gateway and multicasting of the required information accordingly, is proposed in this paper. Meta-heuristic-based algorithm, grasshopper optimisation algorithm (GOA) is modified to fit for the prediction and then applied for taking decision related to multicast routing named as grasshopper-based routing and mobility (GRAM) algorithm. This prediction helps the network to send updates to the emergency site with minimal cost and energy consumption. Analysis of results shows the improved performance of the proposed mechanism in terms of both speed and accuracy.
Keywords: Emergency management; routing; Meta-heuristics algorithm; Mobility Prediction.
Performance of an Adaptive Compander in Wireless Mobile Communication Systems
by Beena A. O, Sakuntala S. Pillai
Abstract: The most popular technique used for high data rate services in 4G scenario is MIMO-OFDM. Space-time block codes have been recommended for high diversity gain in MIMO communication systems. Due to comparatively simpler design and less decoding complexity orthogonal STBCs are very attractive. In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive companding method for peak to average power ratio reduction in IEEE 802.16 standards used in 4G wireless mobile communications with orthogonal space time block coded MIMO-OFDM systems. This is obtained by fixing compander parameters independently for statistically unrelated symbols in OFDM waveform and according to the features of input symbols. The bit error rate performance analysis of the proposed system under Rayleigh fading MIMO channel conditions has also been presented. Simulation results showed that the proposed method performs better for a given PAPR preset value and a slight improvement in the BER performance was observed over fixed compander.
Keywords: Orthogonal Space Time Block Codes (OSTBC); Multi Input Multi Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM); Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR); Adaptive Companding; QAM; BER.
An Empirical Examination of Adoption of Mobile Applications in Spain and Portugal, based in UTAUT
by Jose Ramon Saura, Marisol B. Correia, Pedro R. Palos-Sanchez
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of the apps (mobile applications) market in Spain and Portugal, which are countries that have many more Smartphone's per inhabitant than any other European country. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2), was used to investigate the influence of various factors on the users' behavioural intention of use for mobile applications. Confidence in the internet operator was used as an external variable for the UTAUT2 model. A surveying methodology was used for the investigation, with a sample of 402 users, which were then analysed using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) model. The constructs of UTAUT2, with the exception of price value and facilitating conditions, were all significantly related to the behavioural intention to use mobile applications. Habits and social influence are found to be the factors that most affect behavioural intention. The results obtained allow a better understanding of the users' needs when considering their intention to download and use apps.
Keywords: App; mobile application; acceptance model; trust; social influence; hedonic motivation; effort expectancy; habit; the unified theory of use and acceptance of technology; UTAUT2; m-commerce.
Revisiting Quick Response (QR) Code Technology: Corporate Perspectives
by Sandipan Sen, Ricard A. Rocco, Sampathkumar Ranganathan, John R. Brooks, Jr.
Abstract: Quick response code (QRC) technology is facing various impediments to its adoption and usage. It has an uncertain future amidst an evolving landscape of technology and social tools available to companies. This study examines QRC's utilising marketing executives to gain current insights on its present use as well as future direction. A mixed methods survey was used to capture qualitative and quantitative responses from corporate marketing executive perspectives about QRC. Executives view QR codes primarily as a technology to increase both strategic advantage and communication advantage with customers. The findings suggest QRC will evolve as an important technology to support future corporate marketing and sales efforts.
Keywords: Technology in retailing; retail marketing; marketing communications; Mcommerce; QR codes; Technology adoption; Innovation; Online marketing; mobile marketing; content marketing; new media.
Multi-view Video CODEC Using Compressive Sensing for Wireless Video Sensor Networks
by Angayarkanni Veeraputhiran, S. Radha, V. Akshaya
Abstract: In monitoring applications, different views are needed to be captured by multi-view video sensor nodes for understanding the scene clearly. These multi-view sequences have large volume of redundant data which affects the storage, transmission, bandwidth and lifetime of wireless video sensor nodes. A low complex coding technique is required for addressing these issues and for processing multi-view sensor data. Hence, in this paper, a framework on CS-based multi-view video codec using frame approximation technique (CMVC-FAT) is proposed. Quantisation with entropy coding based on frame skipping is adopted for achieving efficient video compression. For better prediction of skipped frame at receiver, a frame approximation technique (FAT) algorithm is proposed. Simulation results reveal that CMVC-FAT framework outperforms the existing method with achievement of 86.5% reduction in time and bits. Also, it shows 83.75% reduction in transmission energy compared with raw frame.
Keywords: Multi-view encoding; CS; DVC; Frame approximation; Wireless Video Sensor Networks.
Behavioral Clustering of the Cell Phone Users in Various Country Markets
by Matti Haverila, Kai Haverila
Abstract: Acknowledging Aoki and Downes (2003) cell phone behaviours, the significance of social ecological models and behavioural clustering, the existence of inter-market behavioural clusters in Finland, UAE, China, Canada and New Zealand were investigated. There were significant differences in the cell phone behaviours between the different age groups (in 19 out of 30 variables), genders (20/30) and different countries of residence (30/30) implying that these variables could be used as distinguishing variables regarding the existence of the cell phone behavioural clusters. This implies that the variables age, gender and country of residence do not efficiently discriminate the sample population in terms of the cell phone behaviour. Finally, the behavioural variables were used as the cluster variate in order to discover more viable cluster (segments) in the data set. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the academic and managerial implications.
Keywords: Mobile communication; Behaviour; Discriminant analysis; Cluster analysis.
Factors influencing intention to accept location-based mobile advertising among young mobile user segments: a social exchange perspective
by Jun Heo, Chen-Wei Chang
Abstract: By adopting the notions of social exchange and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, this study discusses how young mobile users weigh between benefit and cost (e.g., perceived risk) when determining to accept location-based advertising (LBA). It also examines the role of trust in the process of the information exchange. In addition, this study explores whether young mobile users can be segmented into heterogeneous user groups and the different groups require a unique application of the theoretically-driven factors. An online survey of college students from US universities reveals that benefits of LBA outweigh the perceived risk and that trust plays a key role in increasing LBA acceptance. Results suggest, however, that the determinants may differently influence different mobile user segments: innovative believers and conventional sceptics. The result highlights the importance of crafting marketing messages uniquely for each of the segments. Implications for theories and practitioners using LBA are discussed.
Keywords: mobile advertising; LBA; location-based advertising; segmentation; social exchange; the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.
The impact of mobile marketing on online consumer buying behaviour: empirical evidence from Pakistan
by Abdul Waheed, Jianhua Yang
Abstract: The revolutionary technology has dramatically shifted the marketing operations toward wireless communications networks owing to the emergence and widespread diffusion. In contrast, consumer buying behaviour is also transforming toward advanced means of the technology over the past decades. The present study investigates the relationship between mobile marketing and online consumer buying behaviour within the contextualisation of Pakistan. The surveys were distributed among 1000 consumers between January 2016 and June 2016. Structural equation modelling using SPSS/AMOS was employed to examine the study hypotheses. The findings revealed the significant correlation between mobile marketing and online buying behaviour. The profound examination affirmed the positive relationships of each element of mobile marketing such as MMS, WAP, and SMS marketing. Despite, this study suggests several managerial implications together with future directions for academic researchers and practitioners.
Keywords: mobile marketing; SMS advertising; WAP advertising; MMS advertising; online consumer buying behaviour; Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
A dual-path communication model for the context of mobile apps
by Hsin-Hui Lin, Timmy H. Tseng, Yi-Shun Wang, Shih-Han Liu
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to build a dual-path communication model for mobile apps by integrating the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and the dual-mediation model. This study explores the effects of image relevance and argument quality on ad cognition, brand cognition, ad attitude, brand attitude, and the subsequent purchase intention in the context of mobile apps. Further, we compare the communication routes between high-involvement individuals and low-involvement ones. Based on a 2 × 2 factorial design, we manipulate 'argument quality' and 'image relevance' to evaluate their effects in the context of mobile apps. The findings provide important theoretical and practical implications for mobile marketing.
Keywords: mobile apps; image relevance; argument quality; ELM; elaboration likelihood model; dual-mediation model.
Exploring the influence of mobile technology usage in the back-end process of mobile commerce: a perspective of combining uses and gratifications with information attractiveness
by Chien-Ta Bruce Ho, Jhong-Min Denis Yang
Abstract: Mobile technology (MT) plays a key role in whole mobile commerce (MC) process. The ultimate purpose of firms applying MT is for improving business. We use QR code, one of the most compelling apps for MC, as research context example attempts to explore the relationship between users' usage of MT and subsequent online purchase intentions. We used the uses and gratifications (U&G) combining with the concept of information attractiveness as a research framework. With a sample of 456 valid respondents, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were carried out to examine the measurement and structural model. The results indicated both information attractiveness and gratifications of MT use directly affect purchase intentions. It also indicated information attractiveness positively affect gratifications of MT use. Finally, this paper discusses the practical and academic implications and provides recommendations based on the findings.
Keywords: use and gratifications; mobile commerce; mobile technology; information attractiveness; information richness; information quality; instrumentality; mobility; immediate access; QR code.
Is Snapchat a good place to advertise? How media characteristics influence college-aged young consumers' receptivity of Snapchat advertising
by Huan Chen, Yoon-Joo Lee
Abstract: In recent years, Snapchat has gradually gained popularity among young consumers, and more and more companies have included Snapchat into their mobile marketing campaigns. However, only little academic research has been conducted to explore Snapchat marketing. In order to fill the research gap, the current study is designed to investigate how perceived media characteristics of Snapchat influence college-aged young consumers' receptivity of Snapchat advertising by using a mixed method research design. The qualitative study revealed that according to college-aged consumers, Snapchat is the most intimate, casual, and dynamic medium which provides them with information, socialisation, and entertainment. The quantitative study uncovered that the perceived intimacy and casualty have a positive impact on young consumers' attitude toward Snapchat; only the perceived intimacy has a positive impact on purchase intention towards brands advertised on Snapchat. Theoretical and practical implications were offered.
Keywords: Snapchat; social media; social media marketing; mobile marketing; mobile advertising; mixed method.
Moderating effects of app type on the intention of continued use of mobile apps among college students
by Wei Peng, Shupei Yuan, Wenjuan Ma
Abstract: With the increasing popularity of mobile apps, research on their adoption and acceptance is also on the rise. However, an important yet understudied area is the continued use of initial adoption. Additionally, although there are a variety of mobile apps, most previous research either examines one type of mobile app or treats all types of mobile apps as one homogenous entity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating effects of app type on the intention of continued use among the three most popular types of mobile app (social networking, game, and productivity apps). A survey (N = 790) with young adults was conducted based on the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2). The structural equation modelling results demonstrated the moderating effects of app type on the factors in UTAUT2 on the intention of continued use. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: UTAUT2; extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology; technology acceptance; mobile apps; structural equation modelling; hedonic motivation; social influence; performance expectancy; intention of continued use; young adults.