International Journal of Mobile Communications (38 papers in press)
Small-World Phenomenon and Strategies for Making Friends on Social Networking Sites in Mobile Environment: Random and Non-Random
by Bo-chiuan Su, Tsz-Shiuan Yen
Abstract: The ubiquity of on social networking sites (SNS) is astounding. As of 2016, Facebook had over 1.65 billion users. SNS is known for challenging conventional connotations of friendship by lumping all of onessocial connections, including remote acquaintances, into one uniform friend category. Research suggests that social search is the future of online search and social search is seen as the online search for persons or information on persons. Based on only the structure of SNS, this paper devises a couple of exploration techniques to predict what strategies users are going to make friends on SNS in mobile environment. Essentially, there are two strategies for making friends on SNS in mobile environment, random and non-random (friends of friends) strategies. The non-random strategie means that new friends are selected in a friends-of-friends manner. Each SNS user could select randomly chosen target user or neighborhood search is done to develop a social network. This study develops logit models to capture the characteristics of these choice strategies. We conduct a series of experiments related to facebook membership. Visualizing how users are linked together or not is accessible via the Facebook Application Programming Interface (API), so that we could crawl their Facebook accounts and extract their friends data, and access all their information under their agreement. In this study we obtained the users permission to install an application within their accounts. The study analyzes 226 Facebook users who totally have 37,571 friends and 607,802 relationships. The results significantly show that the number of individuals friends, the value of closeness function, the betweenness value, and the clustering coefficient are the four important factores when an individual makes friends on Facebook. The accuracy of our models predicting the random or non-random strategies for making friends on Facebook is 84.5%. In addition, this paper significantly verifies the small world phenomenon or six degrees of separation on Facebook. Implications for practitioners and academics are discussed.
Keywords: Mobile communications; social networking sites; facebook; small world phenomenon; hierarchical logistic regression.
An Extended Technology Acceptance Model
for predicting smartphone adoption among young consumers in Greece
by Irini Rigopoulou, John Kehagias, Ioannis Chaniotakis
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effect of variables related to innovation diffusion theory and value consumption theory on young consumers intentions in the mobile/wireless market. Using the expanded proposed conceptual model, the authors aim to address personal and social issues surrounding smartphone adoption. Based on a quantitative empirical study of 310 respondents, the proposed model suggests that the constructs under examination are linked through established relationships. More specifically, the intention to buy a smartphone is affected by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and materialistic values. Perceived Usefulness (PU) is strongly affected by perceived compatibility, which is affected by social influence. Materialistic values are positively influenced by social values, which are affected by social influence. Finally, Perceived Ease of Use (PEoU) is influenced by perceived behavioural control. It is argued that the combined use of the value consumption and innovation diffusion theories in the context of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provides a more integrated theoretical framework to further investigate consumers behavioural intentions towards technology-related product categories with significant theoretical and managerial implications.
Keywords: TPB, TAM, compatibility, value consumption, smartphone, mobile, wireless
Maintaining customer-brand relationships in the mobile industry: The mediation effects of brand relationship benefits and quality
by Li-Chun Hsu, Dah-Kwei Liou
Abstract: This study focuses on customers pursuing mobile products in order to attain brand relationship benefits (BRB). This research investigates the antecedents and consequences of BRB and brand relationship quality (BRQ) in the mobile industry. This research adopted structural equation modeling to test the proposed model and had a research sample of 310 smartphone consumers in Taiwan. The results indicate that fashion innovativeness and fashion involvement influences hedonic benefit from the fashion approach of customers psychological attributes. From the utilitarian approach of product attributes on mobile, usability influences functional benefit, and convenience influences special treatment benefit. Hedonic benefit, functional benefit, and special treatment benefit influences BRQ, respectively. In addition, BRQ influences repurchase intention. BRB are the mediators between the antecedents and BRQ. BRQ is the mediators between BRB and repurchases intention. From an academic contribution, this study filled a void that most of the previous studies in this area focused on service relationship for the relationship benefits and relationship quality rather than on the brand relationship issues. From a managerial standpoint, this study can assist mobile providers to understand which approaches influence customers repurchase intention.
Keywords: mobile industry, mobile products, brand relationship benefits, brand relationship quality, repurchase intention
Heads-Down Tribes Across Four Asian Countries: Antecedents of Smartphone Addiction
by Yu-Kang Lee, Chun-Tuan Chang, You Lin, Zhao-Hong Cheng
Abstract: People are spending vast amount of time on mobile technologies, and this phenomenon changed the way they interact with surroundings. We propose a theoretical model to explain the influences of social interaction anxiety and materialism on the utilitarian and self-expressive benefits associated with smartphones, and how these benefits leads to the development of smartphone addiction. Locus of control is proposed to moderator the relationship between the benefits and addiction. Empirical data were collected from four major Asian countries: China (n=358), Japan (n=308), South Korea (n=292), and Taiwan (n=342), and were analyzed with Structural Equation Modeling. The results suggest that materialistic users tend to perceive smartphones as having both self-expressive and utilitarian benefits, and that this perception may lead to smartphone addiction. However, the relationship between social interaction anxiety and these two types of benefits differs somewhat across the four countries. The positive relationship between social interaction anxiety and self-expressive and utilitarian benefits holds only in China, not in Taiwan, South Korea, or Japan. Finally, multi-group analysis confirms that locus of control moderates the relationship between self-expressive benefits and smartphone addiction only in China, and that locus of control moderates the relationship between utilitarian benefits and smartphone addiction in China, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Keywords: mobile technologies; smartphone addiction; social interaction anxiety; materialism; locus of control; perceived benefits of smartphone
Are Factors Affecting RFID Adoption Different between Public and Private Organizations?
by Sangjae Lee, Yong-Jae Park, Myung-Hwan Rim, Byung Gon Kim
Abstract: While radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is becoming widely used in supply chains for several public and private applications in Korea, the widespread diffusion of RFID across various industries is yet to be expected. This study suggests two objectives for RFID research: (1) To show that public and private organizations have different effects of technological, organizational, and environmental factors in Korea; (2) To apply a balanced score approach (BSC) to assess the organizational performance after RFID adoption and show differences in the performance of RFID adoption between public and private organizations.
Technological complexity, security, and size are the most important factors for public RFID adopters, while technological compatibility, adoption cost, and competitive pressure are the most important determinants for RFID adoption in private organizations. It turns out that RFID adoption positively influences the organizational performance in aspects of learning and growth, internal process, and customers rather than financial performance. Furthermore, the emphasis on the four measures of BSC is different between public and private organizations, as the RFID adoption by public organizations is more significantly linked to financial performance than private organizations. In contrast, private organizations are more likely to produce learning and growth, internal process efficiency, and customer performance than public organizations.
Keywords: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), balanced score approach (BSC), RFID adoption, factors affecting RFID adoption, mobile platform, organizational performance
Customer-based brand equity of Smartphone in the emerging market
by Yin-Tsuo Huang, Kuang-Hsun Shih
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to extend a comprehensive dimension of consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) by incorporating the key indicator perceived attribute of innovation, which is derived from Rogerss (1996) theory of innovation diffusion. To verify the model, data collected from the smartphone market in Taiwan are divided into two groups in an attempt to further understand brands predisposition: high CBBE and low CBBE. The findings show that, in the evaluation of perceived attribute of innovation, consumers with high CBBE have a greater effect on overall CBBE than those with low CBBE, and for consumers with low CBBE, perceived attribute of innovation plays an antecedent variable to brand association and perceived quality and, in turn, affects overall CBBE. Another significant finding of this study is that the effect of price premium on overall CBBE is significant for consumers with high CBBE but not for consumers with low CBBE.
Keywords: mobile communications; consumer-based brand equity; perceived attribute of innovation; brand awareness; brand loyalty.
Modeling Mobile Money Adoption: A Malaysian Perspective
by T. Ramayah, Lian Lam Siew, Syed Abidur Rahman, Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh
Abstract: This study attempts to validate the extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to study mobile money services adoption among Malaysian consumers. A total of 200 usable questionnaires were secured using a structured questionnaire. We used the second generation analysis of Partial Least Square (PLS) using SmartPLS to test the hypotheses developed for this study. The analysis showed that perceived ease of use, perceived risk, and convenience are the major predictors of the attitude of mobile money service adoption. This empirical study adds value in validating the TPB model in a new setting. The managers of service providers may use this model to design and develop secure, convenient and easy to use mobile money services which can result in effective marketing strategies that would encourage consumers to use such services.
Keywords: Mobile money, ease of use, perceived risk, personal innovativeness, convenience, subjective norms, attitude, behavioural control, intention.
A Comparative Study on Attitudes towards SMS Advertising and Mobile Application Advertising
by Gökhan Aydin, Bilge Karamehmet
Abstract: The objective of this study is to determine the major factors influencing consumers' attitudes towards two major types of mobile marketing activities; SMS advertising and mobile application advertising. The potential differences in antecedents of attitude between the two types of advertisements are also assessed. The study was carried out in Turkey among university students, who are commonly targeted in mobile marketing studies due to their high mobile phone ownership rates and familiarity with new technologies. A total of 489 valid questionnaires were obtained and analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling. The findings indicate that overall attitudes towards both mobile advertisement types are negative and the antecedents of attitude towards the two methods are perceived differently by users, SMS marketing being the inferior type. On the other hand there are no significant differences in paths among the two different types of mobile advertisements.
Keywords: Mobile marketing, mobile advertising, mobile advertisement, SMS marketing, mobile application marketing, mobile application advertisements, wireless marketing, mobile marketing communications, SMS advertising
How people utilize Tweets on movie selection? : The Reverse Effects of e-WoM Valence on Movie Sales
by Hyunjeong Kang, Sangmi Chai, Hyong Uk Kim
Abstract: The volume of big data being generated by social network sites (SNS) is growing significantly. This study seeks to identify the market-applicable insights concerning the text-type big data generated by SNS and to suggest market reaction strategies for responding to signals emerging from big data. Since people can instantly access large amount of online word or mouth (e-WOM) contents due to mobile communications, movie sales are influenced significantly from various SNS contents. Based on this phenomenon, we focused on Twitter, one of the most prevalent micro-blogging services. This research conducted a sentiment analysis to determine consumer valences regarding products. This study finds that the extremity of sentimentas measured by growth speed in the number of positive or negative tweetschanged the direction of the tweets positive or negative effect on revenue regardless of the valence of the word-of-mouth. The implication for SNS marketing professionals will be discussed.
Keywords: Twitter, big data, analytics, sentiment, mobile communications, valence, SNS, word-of-mouth
Evaluating User Experience of Multiplatform Services:
The Quality Factors in Multiplatform Television
by Dong-Hee Shin
Abstract: Multiplatform television (MT) services have rapidly gained its popularity as convergence technologies have fast advanced. The emergence of MT services has challenged industries to develop strategies to communicate effectively as users simultaneously and sequentially engage with multiple devices throughout the day. In light of this rapid development, this study analyzes user behaviors with regard to MT services with a particular focus on the user experience. Particularly, this study examines the relations of human experience and quality perception of MT and develops a conceptual model for quality of experience (QoE) in MT. It proposes a user experience model, conceptualizing QoE specific to MT and highlighting relationships with other factors. The model establishes a foundation for future MT service categories through a heuristic quality assessment tool from a user-centered perspective. The results provide a ground truth basis for developing future services with QoE requirements, as well as for dimensioning the underlying network provisioning infrastructures, particularly with regard to mobile access technologies.
Keywords: Multi-platform, multiplatform service, over-the-top, multi-screen strategy, quality of experience, quality of service; user experience; quality measurement
Involvement, content, and interactivity drivers for consumer loyalty in mobile advertising: The mediating role of advertising value
by Ing-Long Wu, Wei-Hung Hsiao
Abstract: Mobile advertising is increasingly becoming popular in the purpose of marketing. However, consumers do not recognize the value of mobile advertising. Thus, the primary work focuses on improving the value of mobile advertising so that consumers do not think mobile advertising is equivalent to spam. It has focused on either message content or technology use for its effectiveness. Mobile advertising failed to consider personal involvement, as mobile advertising is mainly to provide personalized information for consumers. Three major concerns arise, personal involvement, message content, and user interactivity. Advertising value may be temporary to define its effectiveness. Consumer loyalty is defined as the final target for mobile advertising. This study proposes a model to include the three key drivers, advertising value, and consumer loyalty. The findings show an important link among these components. Implications for managers are discussed.
Keywords: mobile advertising; consumer loyalty; advertising value; personal involvement; message content; user interactivity
Mobile Communication and Pro Sports: Motivation and Fan Loyalty
by Seok Kang
Abstract: The main focus of the current study is on pro sport fans loyalty development through mobile phone use. Guided by uses and gratifications theory, the study assumes motive types to be potential predictors of attitudinal/ behavioral loyalty and sport fandom. Mobile competence and size of strong-tie networks are also taken into account as interactive components in the examination. From a national panel survey of 405 respondents, the results found that mobile phone use was classified into either the instrumental or ritualistic motives. The instrumental motives predicted behavioral loyalty and sport fandom. The ritualistic motives were associated with attitudinal loyalty. Mobile competence was interactive with the instrumental motives to predict behavioral loyalty and sport fandom. Instrumental mobile phone users in a large strong-tie network had high behavioral loyalty. Implications and suggestions are discussed.
Keywords: mobile phone; wireless communication; uses and gratifications; spatiotemporal interface; mobile phone motives; mobile competence; strong-tie network; attitudinal fan loyalty; behavioral fan loyalty; sport fandom
Understanding consumer adoption of mobile commerce and payment behavior: An empirical analysis
by Lin Wan-Rung, Wang Yi-Hsien, Shih Kuang-Husn
Abstract: This study explored experts views using the analytic network process (ANP) and investigated consumers usage of mobile payment using structural equation modeling (SEM). This study included two stages: the determinants of consumers use of mobile commerce, and their act of payment. The expert questionnaire survey found that security concerns and privacy concerns are the most important factors, especially, whether authorized personal information can be highly protected. In terms of the key factors influencing consumers use of mobile payment, consumers expect to improve availability through the perfection of mobile payment content. However, a higher content integrity means greater complexity. While security and privacy concerns are improved, negative emotion may be caused. Finally, a comparison of the results found that security and privacy concerns are regarded as most important by consumers and experts; however, they have different views in other aspects. The findings can serve as reference for the industry, government, and academia, as well as relevant manufacturers, to build a mobile payment platform and develop related business and support measures.
Keywords: mobile commerce; mobile payment; analytic network process (ANP); structural equation modeling (SEM).
Investigating predictors of smartphone dependency symptoms and effects on academic performance, improper phone use and perceived sociability
by Trisha T. C. Lin, Yi-Hsuan Chiang
Abstract: This study investigates relationships between predictors (i.e., personal traits and mobile activities) of smartphone dependency and its impacts on improper phone use, academic performance and perceived sociability. Using a stratified sampling method, a web survey obtained data from 438 undergraduate smartphone users in Singapore. PLS results show that improper phone use is a critical factor which mediates the effects of smartphone dependency symptoms on GPA and perceived sociability. Youths who feel higher leisure boredom tend to have more smartphone dependency. Female users are more likely to have smartphone dependency symptoms than males. The results also show that using mobile phones for videos and mobile gaming are better predictors of smartphone dependency symptoms than using it for social media and traditional phone activities.Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Smartphone dependency, leisure boredom, sensational seeking, gender, GPA, perceived sociability
The dynamic hydropower troubleshooting information based on EMD Multi-Scale Feature Entropy Extraction
by Shibao Lu, June Wei, Haijun Baa, Yangang Xue
Abstract: Hydropower is a kind of clean energy which is renewable and pollution-free with low operating costs. However, the vibration of the hydraulic turbine generator which has not yet been effectively resolved has seriously affected the efficiency of hydroelectricity exploitation. This report includes the multi-scale entropy analysis of the fluctuating signals created by pressure within the hydraulic turbine's draft tube. The analysis is based on the Empirical Model Decomposition (EMD) method,using the mobile communication technology. The signal was resolved into multiple intrinsic mode functions (IMF) situated on a local characteristic time scale. Energy level indexes were then calculated according to these IMFs. These indexes were then used in order to establish the entropy's multi-scale characteristic value.Next, the entropy's value was used as eigenvector for the identification of different failure modes. Tests were conducted using the fluctuations in the pressure signals created through the mobile communication. The results of these tests show that this method is highly accurate and that it is effective when used to extract eigenvectors in the context of hydraulic turbine generator units. The method was relatively accurate where the extraction of highly complex and specific data relating to the dynamic characteristics of a hydraulic turbine generator was concerned.
Keywords: Energy index; Extraction of characteristics; Multi-scale characteristic entropy; Mobile communication technology; Failure mode identification.
Product Attributes and Purchase Intention for Smartphones: A Moderated Mediation Model
by Chun-Mei Chen, Hsian-Ming Liu, Bao-Yi Ann
Abstract: This study was conducted to explore how smartphone addicts decide to adopt a smartphone brand with the related variables of product attributes, brand image, customer perceived value and purchase intension, and find out whether there exists a mediation and moderated mediation effect. The factors to influence the purchase decision of smartphone brands were investigated in order to measure the satisfaction levels of eight product attributes, and to verify the indirect and moderated mediation effects by path analytic methods. This research collected 600 valid questionnaires through face-to-face market surveys with a total of 420 usable responded data. The empirical results proved that the satisfaction of product attributes is positively related to purchase intention, and brand image positively mediates the relationship between the satisfaction of product attributes and purchase intention. The perceived value positively moderates the relationship between the satisfaction of product attributes and purchase intention through brand image. Moreover, when the value of the perceived value is higher, the positive relevance between product attributes and brand image will be strengthened. The findings for strategic implications and how to enhance the purchase intention are provided for the addicts, mobile operators, smartphone manufacturers, and the academia for further study.
Keywords: Product Attributes; Brand Image; Perceived Value; Purchase Intention; Mobile; Smartphone
Solving the mystery of mobile learning adoption in Higher Education
by Ahmad Samed al-adwan, Amer Al adwan, Hilary Berger
Abstract: The rapid expansion in users of mobile devices, particularly among university students, makes mobile learning (m-learning) the modern style of learning for the new millennium. Thus, it is important to identify and explore the factors that may influence students intention to use m-learning. In Jordan, research on mobile learning adoption is still very narrow. For the purpose of this study, we propose a framework that is based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model, to explore the potential factors that may impact students intention to acceptance and use of m-learning in developing countries such as Jordan. The proposed framework is empirically tested using a total of 444 paper-based questionnaires, collected from students at four Jordanian universities. The results reveal that effort expectancy, performance expectancy, trust expectancy, self-management of learning, system functionality and social influence are significant determinants of m-learning adoption, and explain 64.8% of the variance in the students intentions to adopt m-learning. Gender and uncertainty avoidance are found to have moderating effects on some of the relationships of the research model. These findings offer multiple useful implications for m-learning adoption, in terms of both research and practice.
Keywords: mobile learning; higher education; technology acceptance; uncertainty avoidance; trust expectancy; self-management of learning; multi-group analysis; structural equation modelling; UTAUT; Jordan.
Understanding the Critical Factors for Successful M-Commerce Adoption
by Ching-Chiang Yeh
Abstract: Prior studies on technology acceptance models (TAM) have been widely used to examine mobile commerce (M-commerce). These studies usually have applied the structural equation modeling (SEM); however, the method has intrinsic limitations in terms of effectiveness and validity. The purpose of this study is to find the critical success factors influencing consumer adoption decision on M-commerce by integrating TAM and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL). In order to verify the proposed approach, the Taiwanese are used as illustrative examples. This study finds four critical success factors that influence M-commerce adoption: perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, value-added, and service functionality. In addition, these factors were identified as the cause and effect factors. The results of this study are presented to M-commerce service providers in facilitating the development of wireless services.
Keywords: Mobile commerce (M-commerce); mobile adoption; technology acceptance model (TAM); multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM); decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)
Exploring smartphone social networking services for mobile tourism
by Shuchih Ernest Chang
Abstract: Through advanced mobile technologies, multi-functionalities offered by smartphones are emerging for people to use during travel. Under this circumstance, smartphone users can promptly receive information and accordingly adjust travel plans. Such scenario can be extended to social networking services (SNS) for accessing and sharing information on the go. However, there is little research in such mobile SNS context. This study aims to investigate mobile users' willingness to specifically trust travel advice obtained from smartphone SNS, by conducting a quantitative survey to explore factors influencing users' trust on travel advice acquired from smartphone SNS (TTAASS). Our findings show that both perceived value of smartphone SNS (PVSS) and enjoyment of SNS activity (ESA) significantly influence TTAASS, mobile users' smartphone experience significantly affects ESA and PVSS, ESA significantly affects PVSS, and facilitating conditions significantly affect ESA. These findings can help managers harvest the benefits of mobile social commerce in the ubiquitous commerce environment.
Keywords: social networking services; mobile social networking; smartphone services; mobile tourism services; mobile service trust
Upgrading service quality of mobile banking
by Ming-Chun Tsai, Yu-Ya Chien, Ching-Chan Cheng
Abstract: This study combines the opinions of consumers and experts (managers and scholars) and employs the four-phase research methods (IPGA, DEMATEL, QFD, and MBO) in order to determine the key factors for the superior service of mobile banking. The results of IPGA and DEMATEL show a total of 7 critical service quality factors that need to be improved for mobile banking. According to the QFD results, 6 service quality improvement strategies have been developed, and the sequence of improvements is are adequately discussed herein. Lastly, this study establishes a set of mobile banking objective management progress control and performance evaluation sheets, based on the concept of MBO, in order to manage and control the improvement progress and effect of mobile banking service quality. The proposed mechanism can achieve the objective of superior service quality in an expedited manner with limited resources.
Keywords: mobile banking; importance-performance and gap analysis(IPGA); decision making trial and evaluation laboratory(DEMATEL); quality function deployment(QFD); management by objective(MBO)
Factors Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Commerce in Taiwan
by Yu-Hung Chou, Ting-Yu Li, Chien-Ta Ho
Abstract: With the growing popularity of smartphones and tablets, the number of people who use wireless Internet, including mobile Internet, reached 11 million in 2013 (TWNIC 2013). The number of m-commerce services and applications used by customers in Taiwan is still small. This study aims to investigate the factors that predict users behavioral intention to adopt m-commerce in Taiwan. It is based on the revised Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (UTAUT), and two of Hofstedes cultural dimensions (power distance and uncertainty avoidance) as moderators on the UTAUT model to enhance the understanding of influencing users intention of using m-commerce. The study sample surveyed with online questionnaires consists of 435 valid respondents. The research result shows that effort expectation, performance expectation, social influence, and trust significantly influence the behavioral intention to use m-commerce. For moderator effects, power distance has an interacting effect with social influence, and has a negative relationship with social influence on behavioral intention to use m-commerce.
Keywords: Mobile Commerce; National Culture; UTAUT; Behavioral Intention.
It matters who shares and who reads: Persuasive outcomes of location check-ins on Facebook
by Hyang-Sook Kim, Mun-Young Chung
Abstract: Despite an emerging trend of location check-ins as a means of mobile communication among Facebook users, little attention has been devoted to the value of location check-ins as marketing potential. In particular, little is known about how mobile users process and assess location information shared by their friends on Facebook. Undergirded by persuasion knowledge and dual processing models, a self-instructed online survey with 255 undergraduate students found that friendship tie strength was positively correlated with students attitudes toward and perceived credibility of the location information shared by their Facebook friends. However, this relationship was true of those who reported a high level of mobile phone competence rather than those with low mobile phone competence. Prior experience with location sharing on Facebook was also positively correlated with students evaluations of the location information. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Keywords: Location-based information sharing; Facebook check-ins; friendship ties; mobile phone competence; persuasion knowledge model; dual processing models.
How to Increase the Awareness of In-App Mobile Banner Ads: Exploring the Roles of Banner Location, Application Type and Orientation
by Mesut Çiçek, İrem Eren-Erdoğmuş, İkram Daştan
Abstract: In-app mobile banner ads appear as promising communication tools and are increasing in popularity due to spread and use of mobile technologies in consumers life. On the other hand, the effectiveness of these ads is under scrutiny due to banner blindness and habituation. Till now, there have been a limited number of studies to explore the dynamics of crafting an effective in-app banner ad. This study aims to fill this gap in research by applying an experimental design to examine the effects of banner location, application type, and application orientation. The results of the study show that all the factors had an effect on recall of in-app mobile advertising. Users recalled the banner and its contents better when the context was landscape game and the banner was located at the top. In all contexts, recall was higher when the banner was located at the top of the application. The results of this study contribute to the extant knowledge on literature and also put forth significant implications for the brand owners that want to use in-app mobile ads in the future
Keywords: Mobile Ads; In-App Advertising; Digital Ads; Mobile Banner; Mobile applications.
Evaluation of Smartphone User Experience: Identification of Key Evaluation Items and Their Relationships
by Kwang-Jae Kim, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jinho Yim, Jun-Yeon Heo, Min-Jun Kim, Seungchul Shin, Hyo-in Ahn
Abstract: User experience (UX) refers to the comprehensive experience of a user when interacting with a product. UX plays an essential role in enhancing the value of a product in the current marketplace. Compared with a feature phone, a smartphone enables users to significantly extend the usage of the device. Given the impressive market growth of the smartphone, evaluating its UX has become important in its development process. However, studies on the evaluation of smartphone UX are limited. Thus, we conducted a study on smartphone UX from the perspective of UX evaluation. At first, a total of 329 evaluation items for smartphone UX were identified based on literature review and user study, and they were categorized as product, context, and emotion items. Then, to utilize the items in the three categories, we proposed a two-phase procedure for UX evaluation consisting of identification of key items (Phase 1) and identification of causal relationships among the key items (Phase 2). As a case study, seven key contexts were identified and the relationships of key items were statistically identified based on 461 user data. The results of this study can help practitioners evaluate their smartphone UX in a systematic manner.
Keywords: user experience (UX); UX evaluation; smartphone UX; evaluation items; smartphone evaluation.
What Does the Twitter Mean for the Traditional Media Users?
by Yoosun Hwang
Abstract: Though the perspectives on Twitter highlight its functions as an information medium, this study explores the conversational aspect of Twitter to broaden the concept of social media. Since various media co-exist and media is used transversely, the present study examines functional alternatives that take the relationship with traditional media into consideration as a theoretical background. Twitter users predispositions regarding the level of adaptation to the technology of SNSs and the sociopolitical inclinations were incorporated. Data were obtained via online survey and correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results reveal that the amount of traditional media use positively relates to Twitter activity and conversation. The users perceived communication competence and sociopolitical characteristics predict the degree of Twitter conversation. Based on these findings, implications about being social on Twitter were discussed.
Keywords: Twitter; mobile; wireless; information; conversation; functional alternatives; being social.
Factors Influencing the Forwarding Behaviour of Mobile Phone Users in the Context of Mobile Advertising in Europe
by Vesela Tyufekchieva, Philipp Reichhart
Abstract: The importance of word of mouth (WOM) as a source of information for consumers to draw from when making a purchase decision has been acknowledged by scholars and practitioners alike. With the technological development on a global scale a new type of word of mouth has emerged, namely the mobile word of mouth. Mobile phones have become an essential means of communication for consumers and the mobile word of mouth has a great potential to influence individuals at any stage of the decision-making process. The current research seeks to find an answer to the question of what factors influence an individuals decision to participate in mobile word of mouth (mWOM) using an empirical study. It was found that value perceptions have an impact on mobile users desire to participate in WOM. Contrary to hypothesised, the desire to participate in WOM does not lead to a higher intention to speak positively about the mobile advertising campaign.
Keywords: mobile commerce; mobile marketing; mobile advertising; word of mouth; purchase behaviour; forwarding behaviour.
Application of Kano Model and IPA on Improvement of Service Quality of Mobile Healthcare
by Jui-Chen Huang
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to integrate the Kano model with IPA to improve the service quality of mobile healthcare, as well as to better determine the priority of the quality attributes to be improved. This study used the Kano model and the composite E-S-QUAL and E-recS-QUAL scale to classify the two-dimensional quality characteristics of Kano and calculate the customers level of satisfaction when each service quality attribute was sufficient and the level of dissatisfaction when each service quality attribute was insufficient. Moreover, this study used the coefficient of the service quality attributes to develop a customer satisfaction coefficient matrix that could confirm the improved service quality, and then used IPA to confirm the service quality attributes for priority improvement. The attributes that were both effectiveness-improved service qualities and service quality attributes for priority improvement were critical service quality attributes. The research results showed that the use of mobile healthcare is safe and that mobile healthcare systems can protect an individuals privacy, which are two key factors for improving the service quality of mobile healthcare. Therefore, under the premise of limited resources, the priority for quality improvement could be strengthened and products that meet the needs of users could be proposed to improve the utilization rate of mobile healthcare and reflect its effectiveness.
Keywords: mobile healthcare (mHealthcare); Kano model; Importance-performance analysis (IPA); Service quality.
Are Smartphones helpful? An empirical investigation of the role of Smartphones in users' role performance
by Kyung Young Lee, Minwoo Lee, Kimin Kim
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of three key Smartphone computing functions (SCF) on three dimensions of organisational role performance. Using survey data collected from 185 organisational workers across industries, we found that (1) workers tend to use SCF more frequently when they are often relocated and when they perceive organisational support for Smartphone use; (2) the use of informational functions tends to enhance all three dimensions of organisational role performance; (3) the use of social networking functions tends to improve interpersonal role performance; (4) the use of resource management functions tends to enhance interpersonal role performance; and (5) workers perceive their decisional and interpersonal role performance as instrumental in improving their overall job performance. The current study adds to the growing body of the literature examining the role of mobile applications (Apps) in Smartphones and their managerial implications.
Keywords: managerial roles; mobile computing; wireless computing; mobility; smartphone functions; social networks; organisational support; user performance; organisational roles; resource management; mobile applications; mobile apps.
How network externality leads to the success of mobile instant messaging business?
by Hae-Ryong Kim, Minsu Park, SeungJae Yun, JaeHwan Kwon
Abstract: The current research investigates the relationship among the factors influencing the success of mobile instant messaging (MIM) businesses: namely, network externalities, network quality, network intimacy, user satisfaction, and usage intention. The patterns of the data collected in China and South Korea confirmed that the impact of network externalities on MIM user satisfaction is mediated by network quality and network intimacy. That is, although network externalities alone can directly influence customers' usage intentions, greater network externalities can be a more valuable strategic asset for mobile service companies when accompanied by a higher level of network quality and greater intimacy with their customers. These findings suggest that MIM businesses should pay attention to increasing the size of their networks to building and promoting both user-to-user intimacy and perceived quality in these networks.
Keywords: mobile instant messaging; MIM; network externalities; network intimacy; network quality; usage intention; user satisfaction; China; South Korea; perceived quality.
Individual user satisfaction with Sina Weibo: an exploratory study
by Siong Choy Chong, Binshan Lin, Jin Yang Wu
Abstract: This study explores the extent of individual users' satisfaction with Sina Weibo from the perspective of network internalities and network externalities. Based on the literature review, 21 items were operationalised on top of a question measuring overall user satisfaction for a questionnaire survey. Data were collected from 240 respondents from the 16 districts and 2 counties in Beijing. Generally, the findings suggest that individual users are more satisfied with network internalities than network externalities and that 19 of 21 items show significant correlation with user satisfaction. Based on the comparison between mean rankings and correlation coefficient strengths of all the items, practical and research implications are provided, along with future research directions.
Keywords: user satisfaction; network externalities; network internalities; Sina Weibo; China; individual users.
Factors affecting users' mobile technology usage intentions: an example of QR code scanning for mobile commerce
by Chien-Ta Bruce Ho, Jhong-Min Denis Yang
Abstract: Mobile commerce is supported by mobile technologies called applications (apps) installed on mobile devices. This study uses QR code, one of the most compelling apps for mobile commerce, as research context example attempts to explore factors that affecting users' mobile technology usage intentions. We use the theory of reasoned action (TRA) as a research framework. Structural equation modelling analysis was conducted using SmartPLS 3.0 with 172 samples. All of the hypotheses are supported by significant path coefficients and high levels of R². While this appears to be a perfect result, it does not explain phenomena that the authors observed during sampling procedures and could not by itself solve the problems that marketers face in their promotion of mobile QR code usage. Therefore, the study was extended through qualitative analysis. We determined that there are four reasons that individuals cannot scan QR codes and six factors in limited usage, which explain customers' scanning willingness and are crucial to future practice. Finally, this paper discusses practical and academic implications and recommendations based on these findings.
Keywords: emotional factors; environmental factors; equipment factors; information factors; mobile commerce; m-commerce; mobile technology; moderating effects; partial least squares; PLS; QR code scanning; qualitative analysis; quantitative analysis; security factors; structural equation modelling; SEM; social factors; theory of reasoned action; TRA; usage intentions; mobile apps.
What drives continuance intention to share location-based information?
by Kuo-Lun Hsiao
Abstract: 'Check-in' is a popular social networking site (SNS) applications for mobile devices based on location-based services (LBSs). However, few studies have investigated factors which attract users to use and share such services with their friends. The present study proposes a framework based on network externalities, motivation theory, and privacy concerns. The research model was tested through a survey of 232 Facebook check-in users. Results suggest that factors such as network externalities, number of peers and perceived complementarity had a direct positive effect on four types of motivations: perceived enjoyment, satisfaction, expected relationship, and reward. Moreover, all motivations except reward had a significant impact on continuance intention to share location information. However, privacy concerns were found to have insignificant negative effect on intention. The implications of this research are discussed along with insights into development strategies for mobile applications using LBSs.
Keywords: check-in service; mobile applications; mobile apps; motivation theory; network externalities; privacy concerns; social networking sites; SNS; continuance intention; information sharing; location-based services; LBSs; Facebook; perceived complementarity; perceived enjoyment; user satisfaction; expected relationship; reward; privacy preservation; privacy protection.
Attitudes towards mobile phone usage in public places among young Saudi adults
by Robert A. Opoku
Abstract: This study investigates young Saudis' attitudes towards social acceptance of mobile phones in public places and how these attitudes affect their usage. A survey was conducted among young Saudi adult mobile phone users and the sample consisted of 727 respondents. A structural equation model was developed to test the hypotheses in this study. Collectively, the results indicate that it is neither acceptable for someone to accept a mobile call while praying in mosque or in class nor answer a mobile phone if it were to ring at both places. However, attitudes towards mobile phone use in other public places depend on intra-cultural variations within Saudi Arabia. Further, these attitudes significantly affect the usage frequency of mobile phones. Usage frequency in turn is affected by gender and work status. Practical implications are also discussed.
Keywords: attitudes; cell phone; demographics; GCC; gender differences; Gulf; intra-cultural variations; Middle East; mobile; mobile communications; mobile phone; mobile phone usage frequency; mosque; public places; Saudi; Saudi Arabia; wireless; young adult.
Users' intentions on the mobile securities trading system
by Kuang-Husn Shih, Ming-Fang Lee
Abstract: Due to the development of wireless technology and the popularity of mobile devices, major securities dealers have developed mobile trading platforms and aggressively promoted their mobile trading services to customers. Therefore, improving the service quality of mobile trading systems has become one of the concerning issues for securities dealers. Improvement of the service quality for mobile trading systems can provide a good service environment for the mobile trading platform. Good customer relationship management (CRM) can facilitate the positive attitude of investors towards the securities industry, thus enhancing customer loyalty and reducing their intentions to switch. This study aims to explore customers' mobile trading behaviour, with customers' attitudes and their intentions as the framework for this research, in order to determine customers' intentions regarding the use of mobile trading services. Through both literature review and empirical analysis, this study explores the correlations among dimensions of CRM, service quality, customer attitudes, and customer intentions. The research subjects are the mobile trading customers. The correlation analysis is conducted through structural equation modelling (SEM) to help the securities dealers learn about the different customer demands in the mobile trading system, thus enhancing users' intentions regarding mobile trading services. The research findings can serve as a reference to the existing or new securities dealers in developing their mobile trading systems.
Keywords: customer relationship management; mobile trading; service quality.
A secure privacy and authentication protocol for passive RFID tags
by Chia-Hui Wei, Min-Shiang Hwang, Augustin Yeh-Hao Chin
Abstract: A privacy and authentication protocol (PAP) requires a tag to perform four simple operations in mobile communications: Comparing two numbers used to execute a hash function, storing and retrieving a number in users' memory banks, and flipping a bit. In this paper, we will propose an improved PAP which is well secured and efficient in a small amount of computations and is also capable of dealing with both privacy and authentication.
Keywords: authentication; mobile communication; privacy; RFID; security.
Research on mobile commerce payment management based on the face biometric authentication
by Wang Feng, Jiyan Zhou, Chen Dan, Zhou Peiyan, Zhang Li
Abstract: This paper mainly put forward the mode of identification and secure payment based on face recognition from a face bio-identification perspective. With the technology of face recognition, the general framework of mobile commerce and the management processes are designed and constructed in this paper. The proposed management solution of anonymous payment, based on face identity, is an important method for m-commerce privacy protection. Users only need a payment expression to replace traditional payment, random verification code input and other cumbersome process, which not only frees mobile users from remembering a lot of numeric passwords but also avoids potential hazards, such as password disclosure, forgotten, lost and illegal access. This paper presents an innovative digital solution to the secure payments in mobile commerce, which greatly enhances the safety and efficiency of mobile payment system and boosts the rapid and humanistic development of mobile commerce by technological means.
Keywords: anonymous payment; face recognition; identity authentication; mobile commerce.
Knowledge sharing in open source mobile applications project
by Andree E. Widjaja, Jengchung Victor Chen, Quang-An Ha, Binshan Lin
Abstract: The very rapid adoption of mobile devices has attracted Open Source Mobile Application (OSMA) developers to create OSMAs and deliver them to the market. However, the majority of mobile communication studies have examined mobile applications from the end-users' perspective, and relatively little is known from the developers' side. As such, this research aims to investigate the developers' knowledge sharing behaviours within the context of OSMA development project. Drawing from social capital theory and the team cognition literature, the present study developed a research framework that viewed OSMA development project as involving both a virtual community and virtual team. We found that some dimensions of social capital and team cognition positively affect knowledge sharing. Meanwhile, social capital is found to positively influence team cognition. The implications and contributions of this study to the literature are discussed in the article.
Keywords: identification; knowledge sharing; open source mobile applications; project development shared vision; social capital; social interaction; team cognition; trust; virtual community; virtual team.
Users' intention to disclose location on location-based social network sites (LBSNS) in mobile environment: privacy calculus and Big Five
by Jengchung Victor Chen, Bo-chiuan Su, Hoang Manh Quyet
Abstract: Location-based social network sites (LBSNS) are the integrations of social network service and location-based service. In this study, we examine two opposite factors, the benefits and privacy concerns, which affect the disclosure intention of users on LBSNS in a mobile environment. We utilise the privacy calculus perspective framework on the disclosure intention of location information. Also, the Big Five model is used to examine the impacts of dispositional factors, such as personality traits, on the concern for privacy. The privacy control, legislation awareness and privacy invasion are control variables for both disclosure intention and privacy concern. Data were collected from 298 respondents residing in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietname. The results indicate that the legislation awareness does not seem to exert a significant influence on both privacy concerns and disclosure intention; it can be explained by the poor effectiveness of legislation in a developing country like Vietnam. However, we clearly found that the benefits and privacy concerns have the opposite influence on behavioural decisions of social network users, with the former positively affecting disclosure intention and latter negatively. Moreover, findings in the study show that perceived benefits such as connectedness, locatability and personalisation have stronger effects than privacy concerns have stronger effects than privacy concerns do.
Keywords: location-based services; mobile communications; personality traits; privacy; social networking sites.