International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies (22 papers in press)
Investigating the effectiveness of practicing knowledge management in the hospitality industry: The case of Qatar
by Ahmed Mehrez
Abstract: Managing Knowledge plays a significance role in the delivery of success in different organisations. Hospitality and hotels are not far from this. However, assessing the effectiveness of practicing knowledge management in hotels and despite vital for such sector, seems not deeply searched in some emerging economies such as the case of Qatar. This paper aims to fill in this void in literature by developing and empirically analyse a model exploring if faults exist while practicing knowledge management in hotels in Qatar. Such faults would result in gaps in knowledge which would seriously affect this industry. After examining results from more than 300 hotels in Qatar, findings show that discrepancies would be statistically significant while developing a knowledge management thematic strategy in the Qatari hotels.
Keywords: Knowledge management; Knowledge management practices; Qatar; Gap analysis; designing gaps; implementation gaps.
Requirement Analysis to Design the Knowledge-Based System for Long Jump Coaching
by Teerawat Kamnardsiri, Worawit Janchai, Pattaraporn Khuwuthyakorn, Permsak Suriyachan, Wacharee Rittiwat
Abstract: This paper presents the requirement for coaching the long jump of sport schools in Thailand. Moreover, Knowledge-Based System (KBS) was designed for improving the long jump of athletes. The telephone interview approach and face-to-face interview approach were used for collecting data from 7 sport schools. There were 11 interview questions to investigate the requirement for the long jump practising. MAXQDA 12, data analysis tool, was employed to generate code and analyse data from interviewees. The results demonstrated that one of the most significant problems of coaching the long jump was the lacking of the system for analysis and suggestion. KBS framework, furthermore, was designed by experts using the knowledge engineering (KE) technique to create IF-THEN rules as well as an algorithm of all phases of the long jump biomechanics. In conclusion, there were many issues of requirements in the sport school, for instance, all of the coaches from sport schools in Thailand required some systems for analysis and suggestion to improve skills of the long jump athletes. Besides, the professional coach needed the suggestion response as soon as possible after long jump had finished. Future works should develop the KBS using the computer vision and image processing techniques, include IF-THEN rules from experts. Additionally, the experiment of the long jump practice with the KBS could be considered for studying the case of the sport schools in Thailand.
Keywords: long jump biomechanics; athletics; sport science; sports school; knowledge-based system; knowledge engineering; computer vision.
Explaining the Role of Customer Knowledge in Gaining Satisfaction and Brand Equity from the Customers Viewpoint
by Abdolrahim Navehebrahim, Farzaneh Yousefi
Abstract: The present study explores the role of dimensions of customer knowledge (for, about, and from customer) in gaining satisfaction and brand equity from his/her viewpoint. This study is applicable from objective aspect and descriptive-field from methodological aspect. The statistical population included 400 university students(Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran University of Science and Technology, Allameh Tabatabai University, Shahid Beheshti University, Kharazmi University). Researcher self-made questionnaire(its face validity was confirmed by the professors and experts and its construct validity was confirmed via factor analysis). was employed for data collection. The collected data was analyzed by means of Amos and SPSS software and the results of structural equations confirm the research hypotheses regarding direct correlation among dimensions of customer knowledge, satisfaction and brand equity from the customers viewpoint.
Keywords: Customer Knowledge; Knowledge for Customer; Knowledge from Customer; Knowledge about Customer; Customer Satisfaction; Brand; Brand Equity.
Agility and Cloud Computing: Key Enablers for Knowledge Management Systems Implementation in Algerian Small to Medium-Sized Organisations
by Mohamed Amine Mostefai, Mohamed Ahmed-Nacer
Abstract: The Implementation of Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) necessitates an important investment in human resources and IT infrastructure. Most of Small To Medium-Sized Organisations (SMOs), especially from emerging markets countries cannot afford the implementation of this kind of systems traditionally reserved to resourceful organisations. On the other hand, the last decade has known an increasing interest in the domains of agility and cloud computing. The main contribution of this paper is to present through two case studies, how two Algerian SMOs have leveraged agility and/or cloud computing to implement KMS. The main findings of a qualitative data collection process are that 1) SMOs are attracted by the facts that the agile-based method require fewer human resources and 2) after an obvious reluctance, SMOs consider that cloud-based externalised infrastructure are not only interesting at the financial level but also, at the administrative level.
Keywords: Agility;Cloud Computing;Knowledge Management System;Small to Medium-Sized Organization;Algeria.
Change readiness and knowledge sharing in organisational setting: Evidence from software houses
by Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haq, Anam Iqbal
Abstract: Managing change successfully is a main challenge in the sphere of organisational change management. For organisation, managers must understand accelerating factors which can augment employees' performance for change readiness. The research study investigates the relationship between employee change readiness and knowledge sharing and their overall impact on employee performance in software houses, Pakistan. This study aims to examine the mediating effect of knowledge sharing in the relationship between change readiness and employee performance to increase overall organisational effectiveness. Through quantitative study, data is collected from 340 employees and is analysed through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results reveal that knowledge sharing fully mediates between change readiness and employee performance and, without knowledge sharing culture, change readiness cannot bring fruitful results in organisational settings. Being the empirical study, that seeks to extend literature on how knowledge sharing elements mediate between change readiness and employee performance in the organisation. To offer more contextualised conclusion, the study focuses on the phenomenon of change readiness and knowledge sharing within the software industry.
Keywords: Individual readiness for change (IRFC); knowledge sharing; employee performance; software houses.
Investigating the Use of ICT Tools for Knowledge Sharing among Faculty Members in UAE
by Abdoulaye Kaba, Chennupati K. Ramaiah
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of ICT tools for knowledge sharing among faculty members in United Arab Emirates (UAE). It also reports demographic differences in using the tools and identifies the ICT tools used most for knowledge sharing by the participants. Data were collected through an online survey questionnaire instrument. A total of 300 faculty members from 26 universities and colleges accredited by the UAE Ministry of High Education participated in the study. T-test and ANOVA test are used to validate the stated hypotheses. The study found email the most ICT tools used by respondents for knowledge sharing. From the demographic analysis, male and public university faculty members are found using ICT tools for knowledge sharing than female and private university faculty members. Similarly, 46-55 age group, Ph.D. degree holders, Assistant Professor, IT faculty members, and faculty members with more than 11 years experiences in teaching and research lead the use of knowledge sharing tools among age groups, qualifications, academic ranks, specializations, and teaching or research experience. Meanwhile, findings of the study revealed significant differences among faculty members in relation to age, qualifications, and specializations. The differences are found significant between 36-45 age group against 46-55 group, between Ph.D. degree holders and other degree holders, and between IT against Engineering, Business, HSS, and also Medicine versus HSS. However, no significant differences found among the respondents in relation to gender, institutional affiliation, academic rank, teaching and research experiences.
Keywords: knowledge management; knowledge sharing; ICT; knowledge workers; faculty members; universities; colleges; UAE.
Understanding KAIZEN Practice in Japanese Overseas Manufacturing: a Framework
by Takafumi Nakamori, Kiyoshi Takahashi, Bernard T. Han, Derrick McIver
Abstract: The ultimate purpose of KAIZEN is to assure that a company becomes stable with long perpetuity. While findings from existing research are broad and meaningful, none of them has focused on ways to explain how an environment can be created for successful KAIZEN deployment. Also, it is unclear if companies studied by the prior research are still operating or not. In this paper, we collected data from seven Japanese overseas manufacturing subcontractors that have continued their long-term operations with KAIZEN since their founding year. We present a framework to interpret that two necessary and complementary factors, secure climate and collective mato, must co-exist to stimulate voluntary contributions that are essential to Kaizen success, which may not otherwise occur if either factor is missing. From this study we present propositions that yield insights into KAIZENs overseas applications along with a theory that deserves further study and validation.
Keywords: KAIZEN; knowledge sharing; secure climate; collective thinking; voluntary contribution; psychological attachment.
Knowledge Management Evaluation Criteria for Industries: Identification and Interpretive Structural Modeling
by MOHIT MAHESHWARKAR
Abstract: Today, organizations are focusing of different aspects of knowledge management (KM). KM has emerged itself as one of the promising disciplines for the organizations. In spite of having a lot of literature available and ongoing research, the concept of KM suffers from some of the basic problems; and one of such problems is evaluation. Organizations face problems in evaluating the efforts of KM. One of the basic reasons behind this problem is intangible nature of knowledge. Another but equally important problem is the generalization of KM evaluation procedures. No, doubt there are a lot of research papers available heading evaluation of KM, but all govern different KM evaluation procedures. This research paper tries to find out the generalized KM criteria using the concept of factor analysis. The research work includes the identification of 44 KM evaluation criteria followed by a survey of 232 candidates, belong to both manufacturing and service organizations from different provinces of India, and, then generalization of results using principal component analysis. As the last stage of the research, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach is also applied to an identify set of criteria in order to investigate the existing interrelationships among them.
Keywords: Knowledge management (KM); Evaluation criteria; Principal component analysis (PCA); Interpretive structural modeling (ISM).
Transformational leadership on followers creativity: an empirical study
by Jaithen Al Harbi
Abstract: This study is an investigation into relationship between transformational leadership and innovation at the organizational level and creativity at the individual level as an empirical study in the public sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). rnA survey instrument was adapted to obtain the date from different organizations. A Self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to employees who were randomly selected from a public organization. rnThe results show that transformational leadership is positively and significantly correlated to the followers creativity and organizational innovation. Furthermore, positive and significant relationships were found between followers creativity and organizational innovation. In addition, the relationship between the transformational leadership and followers creativity through the mediating role of employee psychological empowerment, support for innovation, workplace relationship, and employee learning were found positive and significant. However, intrinsic motivation does not significantly mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and creativity.rnThe methodology adopted for this study can be extended for similar studies in the Middle East or in GCC countries. The key contribution that this research study makes is built on the comprehensive theoretical frame which investigates the factors that influence transformational leadership to enhance followers creativity and organizational innovation in the public sector organizations in Saudi Arabiarn
Keywords: transformational leadership; Organizational Learning ; followers creativity; innovation leadership; creativity; KSA.
The Role of Knowledge Sharing Approaches to Help Internal Knowledge Sources to Create Firm Innovation
by Tieng Kimseng
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to empirically investigate the important role of Knowledge Sharing Approaches (KSAs) as mediators between Internal Knowledge Sources (IKSs) and Firm Innovation. There are 111 surveys collected from presidents, owners, directors, managers, and chief executive officers of Thai manufacturing firms in 2016. Results indicate that, first, the documentation helps the source of knowledge such as middle manager in-charge, line group manager, and R&D personnel to transform into the firm process innovation. Second, the documentation and group discussion mediate the R&D personnel to create firm product innovation. Thus, the documentation and group discussion are critically important to mediate the ideas from the source of knowledge to become the innovation.
Keywords: product innovation; process innovation; knowledge sharing approaches; knowledge creation; top management; group discussion; on-the-job-training; documentation; informal circle; internal knowledge sources; idea initiators; mediator.
Knowledge Management: An Integrative Approach Literature Review
by Elham Elshafie
Abstract: This paper is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the field of Knowledge Management. In particular, it focuses on investigating how authors are measuring and addressing the implementation of KM in organizations. Existing KM models lack the integrative viewpoints. This paper is covering this gap by providing the integrative approach. That focuses on the integration of two essential approaches; KM as process and KM as infrastructure. A total of 250 articles published in peer-reviewed journals are carefully reviewed. Based on the content analysis the theoretical, and empirical antecedents in the field of KM had been explored. By integrating insights drawn from the previous studies as well as adding some new factors, the author proposed an integrative approach for the comprehensive understanding of KM. For academics, the proposed model provides a guide for future applied research and offers a critical review of significant knowledge measurement studies.
Keywords: Knowledge Management –Knowledge Management processes – Knowledge creation –Knowledge Sharing - Knowledge Utilization - Knowledge Management Infrastructure- Knowledge worker - Knowledge Technology - Knowledge Culture.
Impact of Knowledge Sharing on Virtual Team Projects
by A.,. Seetharaman, Nitin Patwa, V.P. Porkodi, Indu Niranjan, Veena Jadhav
Abstract: Purpose In recent studies there has been much interest in sharing knowledge across virtual team projects, especially in the Information Technology (IT) industry. Virtual teams have become more prevalent in the IT industry, making use of varied culture, time zones and talents across the geography. This research examines the impact of knowledge sharing on virtual team projects the relationship between impact of knowledge sharing and the factors influencing the same. Design/Methodology/Approach: The impact of knowledge sharing and the influencing factors are modelled, and the hypotheses are defined. These were tested with a sample of 241 respondents from IT and finance industry throughout the geography covering Asia Pacific, North and South America, Europe and the Middle East. Findings: Research findings indicate that the majority of the hypothesized paths are significant and accepted. Also, they indicate that the individual variables Internal Barriers, Interpersonal Conflicts, Composition of Team and Skills required for the team members have a positive relation to knowledge sharing. However, Time-Cost trade off does not have any impact on knowledge sharing Research limitations/implications: The research context could limit the generalizability of the findings. The data collected constituted only 3% from Europe and 2% from the Middle East and Africa. The analysis was majorly based on the Asian and American population. Although many companies from the IT industry in Europe and the Middle East and Africa experience knowledge sharing, the analysis of the data was concentrated on the Asian and American population. In addition, since the cultural characteristics of Asians and Americans differ from those of other countries, caution should be taken when generalizing the findings to the context of knowledge sharing Originality/value: A review of the literature shows that many studies have been conducted on the knowledge-sharing barriers and use of various data processing methods to find the outcomes of the influencing factors that drive the impact of knowledge sharing. However, very limited studies have been done on the impact of knowledge sharing and how the influencing factors contribute to the impact
Keywords: Knowledge Sharing; Knowledge Management; Virtual Teams; Knowledge-Sharing Barriers.
Impact of Organizational Culture and People factors on Knowledge Management Process- Case study in an IT Service company
by Sumathi G. N., Stephan Thangaiah I S, Sundharam V.N.
Abstract: Competition from corporate, peers as well as global, small and medium enterprise (SMEs) are major challenges to retain skilled manpower and customer base which is highly crucial for Information Technology (IT) based service industry. Employee attrition has reduced operational efficiency and customer dissatisfaction. This has resulted in profit margin. The SMEs studied and adopted different process to address these issues and found knowledge management as the best option. The implementation of knowledge management lies within organization culture and people factors: trust, self- efficacy, openness to change and enjoyment in knowledge sharing. The study aims to examine the relationship of organizational culture and people factors with the knowledge management process. The study is conducted in an IT service provider company that has implemented knowledge management since five years. Descriptive analysis, correlational analysis and Structural Equation Modeling-using SmartPLS are used for analysing the data. The results emphasized that organizations have to give importance to build culture fostering shared vision and collaboration. Moreover trust among employees is needed to build positive peer relationship for promoting the activities of knowledge management process.
Keywords: Organizational culture; trust; self-efficacy; knowledge sharing; knowledge management process; SmartPLS.
Knowledge Management Enablers Practices among Indian Higher Educational Institutions
by Ashima Chawla
Abstract: Purpose The main purpose of the study is to identify the enablers which highly influence the knowledge management practices in Indian higher educational institutions. The aim of this study is realized by identifying the respondents perception regarding each and every item of knowledge management enablers dimensions i.e. mutual trust, technology, organization structure and collaboration.
Design/methodology/approach The study involved 225 research scholars and 225 faculty members from nine higher educational institutions. The respondents were required to respond to a five point likert scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The collected data was then analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 software packages. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted followed by confirmatory factor analysis. Descriptive and statistical data analyses were also performed on various dimensions of knowledge management enablers.
Findings The researcher extracted that more than half percent of the respondents were strongly agreed and agreed towards each and every items of knowledge management enablers dimensions. Technology, Collaboration and Organization structure were identify as the enablers which influence the knowledge management practices among Indian higher educational institutions.
Keywords: Mean; Mean Rank; Knowledge Management Enablers Scale; Indian HigherrnEducational Institutions.
Knowledge influences on Perception of Innovation Drivers for Sustainable Housing Development Models
by Oladotun Ayoade, Vian Ahmed
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the impact of knowledge sharing on the perception of innovation drivers for affordable housing, with a focus on the Community Land Trust Shared Equity Housing Model (CLT SEHM). In the context of a competitive housing sector, the research identified and validated drivers for affordable housing innovation through CLT SEHM development. Moreover, data was sought through semi structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. The research employed binary logistic regression to test if there are significant effects of CLT SEHM knowledge on respondents perceptions. The paper confirms the influence of knowledge on individual perceptions of innovation drivers. Consequently, the predisposition of policy makers or communities to support innovation in affordable housing delivery could be positively influenced by the level of knowledge available to potential project beneficiaries and housing development stakeholders as a whole.
Keywords: innovation; knowledge sharing; sustainability; community land trust; CLT; shared equity housing model; SEHM; housing development; binary logistic regression.
Does Ambidexterity in Leadership Strategies Influence Public Sectors KM Readiness in Terms of SECI Processes?
by Nor Shahriza Abdul Karim, Naser Valaei
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate two different leadership strategies that contribute to knowledge management (KM) readiness in Malaysian public sector. Grounding on Nonaka and Takeuchis knowledge creation theory, this study defines intention to be involved in knowledge management in terms of socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization (SECI) processes. A total of 212 questionnaires are accepted for data analysis from top managers, deputy directors, assistant directors, and executives of public sectors. The findings suggest that transformational leadership strategy positively influences intention to be involved in KM processes. Interestingly transactional leadership strategy is associated with intention to be involved in KM processes, except internalization process. The findings imply that there should be a trade-off between transformational and transactional leadership amongst public sectors in Malaysia, proposing ambidexterity in leadership strategies. Finally, considering the demographic factors as a categorical moderating variable, applying PLS-Multi group analysis, this study finds that the intention to be involved in KM processes differ amongst employees with distinct age and year-of-experience. Implications, contributions, and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Transformational leadership; transactional leadership; ambidexterity; socialization; externalization; combination; internalization; public sector.
Give or Keep? A Transactive Memory Approach to Understanding Knowledge Hoarding on the Organizational Digital Knowledge Repository
by Chunke Su
Abstract: The goal of this research is to apply and extend transactive memory systems (TMS) theory to investigate the individual and social network factors that influence organizational members knowledge hoarding on the digital knowledge repository. Specifically, this study examines how key mechanisms in the organizational TMS development, including personal expertise, accuracy in expertise recognition, social network centralities, and individual perceptions of other members knowledge hoarding behaviors, could promote or demote knowledge hoarding on the digital knowledge repository. Survey data were collected from 110 employees working in nine consulting teams. Results showed that team members knowledge hoarding on the digital knowledge repository was negatively influenced by ones expertise level, but positively influenced by ones betweenness centrality in the social network and ones perception of other team members knowledge hoarding on the digital knowledge repository. This research offers theoretical and pragmatic implications for effective utilization of digital knowledge repositories in organizational settings.
Keywords: knowledge hoarding; knowledge sharing; transactive memory; digital knowledge repository; social networks; knowledge management; groups and teams.
Knowledge Management Life cycle in Islamic Bank: The Case of Syariah Banks in Indonesia
by Nurdin Nurdin, Khaeruddin Yusuf
Abstract: Knowledge has been considered as a vital resources for modern organizations to support performances. Previous studies have found that effective knowledge management strategies play critical roles in managing knowledge successfully. Literature addressed how conventional banks have successfully implemented knowledge management strategy using various models to support their business performance. Meanwhile, limited study has been proposed regarding how Islamic banks manage different knowledge to support their business process. By using knowledge management theory life-cycle, we studied knowledge management process within two cases Islamic Banks in Indonesia (Bank Mandiri and Bank BNI Syariah). We collected data through observation, written material, and in-depth interviews with key informants from both banks. The findings show that knowledge management life-cycle within Islamic banks did not necessarily follow the theoretical model built by previous studies conducted in conventional banking organizations because Islamic banks have unique characteristics. Islamic banks have to integrate the knowledge into Islamic values and norms before it is stored, shared, used, and improved as showed in the theoretical model. As a result, knowledge management life-cycle model was revised according to Islamic banks characteristics. This study sheds light and provides new insight on knowledge management life-cycle within Islamic banks. The results benefits both academic and practitioners in Islamic banks and knowledge management area. As the integration was an important finding in this study, future research need to focus on knowledge integration model in Islamic banks.
Keywords: knowledge; knowledge management; Knowledge life-cycle; Islamic bank; bank syariah; Islamic knowledge; Islamic values and norms; Indonesia.
The Innovative Model for Extracting Tacit Knowledge in Organisations
by Minrata Supanitchaisiri
Abstract: This research aimed to examine the obstacles of classical practices for extracting tacit knowledge, and to propose a new method of self-extracting tacit knowledge in organisations. This study opted for an exploratory study using the mixed methods research covering both qualitative and quantitative studies. ATLAS ti was used to analyze focus group data. The result from the analysis was then used to develop a model of tacit knowledge extraction. The key finding is that major challenges of extracting tacit knowledge are lack of certainty of corporate policy, lack of motivation, lack of continuity in knowledge management activities, lack of a support system for the learning environment, etc. The preparation of interview questions, continuity of interviewing, play important roles on extracting the tacit knowledge. Web-based applications were the key source for the questions, which were comprised of both primary and secondary questions.
Keywords: Innovative Model; Tacit Knowledge; Knowledge Sharing; Questioning; Organisation.
An approach to the Diffusion of Tacit Knowledge: Learning from Imitation to Creation
by WEIXU DING, Atsushi Aoyama, Eugene Choi
Abstract: Knowledge has been classified into two types as explicit and tacit knowledge. With the development of information technology, explicit knowledge could be coded and stored into databases. It seems difficult to use data processing to code tacit knowledge; since some tacit knowledge from personal experience and feelings are tough to be expressed or written into the documents. Several scholars believe that tacit knowledge has essential value for organizational members' problem-solving. Hence, this research attempts to explore the efficient methods to learn tacit knowledge.
Inspired by the traditional craftsmen's learning approach from imitation to creation, this research utilizes empirical methods to analyze 131 samples from Chinese corporations and proves that this learning method also has practical meaning for today's organizational learning. The findings show that individuals can learn tacit knowledge via imitating, adapting to the current situation, and then creating new ideas to solve problems. This research has proved that adaptive learning has a mediational role in the relationship between imitation and creation.
Keywords: Tacit knowledge; learning approaches; empirical methods.
Special Issue on: ICOM2015 Knowledge Management and Business Competitiveness
Creating Competitive Advantage through Informal Networks: Evidence from Indian Healthcare Industries
by Eeman Mallick (Basu), Rabindra Kumar Pradhan, Hare Ram Tewari, Lalatendu Kesari Jena
Abstract: Informal networks, interactions, relationships and bonds are integral parts of organizational mechanisms. They evolve out of interactions among individuals over a period of time in the organizational context, but are difficult to capture within the formal roles, procedures and responsibilities. Organisational experts have the opinion that informal networks have a profound association with organisational productivity and competitive advantage. Keeping this in view, the present study was designed to empirically examine the relationship between informal networks (social capital, organisational citizenship behaviour, and social identity) and competitive advantage. Data were collected from 501 respondents working different healthcare organisations in Kolkata, India by using standardized scales of social capital, organisational citizenship behavior (OCB) and competitive advantage. The data were analyzed using structural equation modelling (SEM). The results revealed that informal networks significantly and positively influence competitive advantage. The findings of the study suggested important implications for organizations to nurture informal networks towards creating and sustaining organizations competitive advantage.
Keywords: Informal networks; Social capital; OCB; Competitive advantage.
Study of Knowledge Management Models and their relevance in Organizations
by Saurabh Mittal, Vikas Kumar
Abstract: Advances in the domain of information sharing and communication have generated huge volumes of data in last few decades. Data stored for the various business activities becomes important for performance measurement, corrections, modification, enhancement and venturing into other dimensions of business. Along with this data, other important source of information are the people, which may be direct/indirect stakeholders. These people might be having vast experience and great knowhow of the business processes, which may be very much critical to the business strategy and operations. On the other hand, the modern Information Technology Management tools have made it easy to manage the information from different sources, resulting into the domain of knowledge management. The present work traverses the journey of knowledge management discipline from an organizational perspective considering the different levels of organizations. Different dimensions of the knowledge management have been identified along with the different resources. Prominent knowledge management models have been identified and a comparative analysis has been presented. Various knowledge management tools have been considered to meet the needs of the modern businesses for management of information and generation of knowledge.
Keywords: Knowledge Management; KM Solutions; KM Models.