International Journal of Emergency Management (13 papers in press)
Pre-positioning facilities for collecting tents from communities for post-earthquake relief
by Jing-Xian Zhou, Zhi-Hua Hu, Xiang Li
Abstract: Pre-positioning facilities for collecting tents distributed in communities is critical to improve the efficacy of tent collection and supply in post-earthquake relief. This paper aims at a pre-positioning problem for facilities that collect the tents in communities by considering various earthquake scenarios. A bi-stage stochastic programming model is formulated for the facility location problem. The model minimises the economic costs and time-related penalty costs. Considering the effects of objective weights and known parameters on the solutions, five experiments were performed and analysed for studying the proposed model. A case illustrates the location problem for the facilities for collecting tents from communities in Pudong New District, Shanghai, China, in the relief of the Yaan earthquake.
Keywords: emergency logistics; location problem; stochastic programming; uncertain scenario; earthquake
Exploring the status of community information and training for disaster preparedness and mitigation practices: an appraisal of the 2013 flash flood in Uttarakhand
by Asif Khan, K.M. Baharul Islam, Archan Mitra
Abstract: The occurrence of natural disasters has become a major global problem. It poses serious threats to the concept of sustainable development. Over the last two decades, more than 1.3 million people and nearly two trillion dollars have been lost due to natural disasters. The paper discusses the status of disaster mitigation information system during the Uttarakhand disaster June 2013. The researchers in this paper have discussed the status of such practices taken by both Government and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) from a qualitative perspective. The Software Package for Social Science (SPSS) software was used for the analysis and the results were presented in descriptive statistical format. As many as (n=1500) respondents were interviewed, out of which 80% respondents were ill-informed. Over 80% respondents were found to be untrained to respond in a disastrous situation. Hence, the researchers have proposed the use of better information and communication mediums with the assistance of public and private partnership (PPP model) to deal with disastrous situations in the future along with some indigenous methods.
Keywords: community information; disaster training and preparedness; disaster mitigation; public-private partnership; information and communication; Uttarakhand flash flood 2013.
Canadas 2016 Fort McMurray wildfire evacuation: experiences of the Muslim community
by Aaida A. Mamuji, Jack L. Rozdilsky
Abstract: This study explores issues faced by the largest visible minority group impacted by the 2016 Fort McMurray wildfire evacuation - the Muslim community. Through qualitative methods and deep analysis of data gathered, challenges and opportunities that are relevant for both improving emergency preparedness within the Muslim community, and for improving the provision of emergency social services writ large, are discussed. The overall goal of this study is to give voice to the experiences of the Muslim community, and to highlight specific accommodations that could have been beneficial. While in recent years, research efforts have been taken to better improve the needs of First Nations and Indigenous groups in Canada during wildfire disasters, this work is a starting point for considering other portions of Canadas diverse communities.
Keywords: wildfire; evacuation; wildfire evacuation; emergency response; emergency social services; disaster management; Fort McMurray; Canada; Muslim community; deep analysis; visible minority; vulnerability; lived experience.
Time-critical information services framework in the European context: emergency response organisation roles and inter-actor relations
by Kari Pylvas, Terhi Kankaanranta
Abstract: This study aims to increase understanding of the operational, organisational and governance structures of emergency services by assessing, validating and expanding on the applicability of the TCIS framework within the European context. We analysed the emergency response related roles and tasks of different emergency services' organisations within six European countries and Turkey. Two data sets were utilised: Emergency Services' Concepts of Operation (CONOPS) and emergency scenario examples provided by emergency services practitioners and representatives. The Time-Critical Information Services (TCIS) framework was utilised as a theoretical basis for the analysis. The results suggest that the steps involved in making, receiving and handling emergency calls follow fairly similar paths in different European countries. However, there are noteworthy differences in emergency services models that define the sequential procedures within emergency response and management. The TCIS model was developed further to better account for the different tasks and roles included in the fairly case-specific emergency services process in the European context.
Keywords: emergency services; time-critical information services; emergency services' concepts of operations; public safety answering points.
Humanitarian logistics in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria: the experience of the American Red Cross in Puerto Rico
by Jason Rivera, Alexis Willard
Abstract: Using an action research approach, this paper investigates challenges associated with the distribution of emergency supplies in Puerto Rico in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria. Through the descriptive analysis of open- and closed-survey questions, it was observed that many challenges, such as demand uncertainty, asymmetries in information, and warehouse location, were all challenges in the response to the disaster. As a result, recommendations for enhancing humanitarian logistics in future disaster situations are presented at the end of this paper, in addition to recommendations for future research.
Keywords: Hurricane Maria; Puerto Rico; humanitarian logistics; disaster relief; American Red Cross; distribution of emergency supplies; action research.
The role of multi-parties interaction and coordination mechanism in disaster management
by Liane Okdinawati, Made Irma Dwiputranti, Raden Adriyani Oktora
Abstract: A disaster is a severe disruption event caused by natural hazardous events or it can have human origins. A disaster threatens and disrupts people's lives and livelihoods, and affects human casualties, environmental damage, property loss, and psychological impact. One disaster management aim is to assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims when a disaster happens. In this situation, it is necessary to coordinate external assistance that given by a wide range of bodies and organisations. Each of them has a different role, different interests, and different working methods. The role and the interaction among the parties in this paper are used to develop the coordination structure as a joint effort in humanitarian relief operations. The coordination mechanism is proposed in order for the humanitarian relief operation to be done quickly, effectively, and efficiently. In this paper, the information system is also developed to minimise overlap and duplication of effort.
Keywords: interaction; coordination; collaboration; disaster management; disaster parties; logistics; humanitarian relief; information sharing; information system; Indonesia.
Frames of the terrorist attack in Sweden: a qualitative study of true and fake news coverage
by Alexander Thielen, Åke Sivertun, Peder Hyllengren, Aida Alvinius
Abstract: On 7 April 2017, a terrorist attack occurred in central Stockholm. A hijacked lorry was intentionally driven into crowds along a pedestrian street. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how the media framed this terrorist attack. The data collection approach was inductive and explorative, mainly involving searching electronic media databases. The qualitative analysis of 1294 articles resulted in four overarching themes describing how the terrorist attack was framed in the media. These frames are as follows: the incident, framed as confirmed, unconfirmed and denied information; the perception of leadership and authorities as trustworthy; the site perceived as a place of sorrow; and crisis management framed as the initial and sequential framing of the professionals, the heroes and the villains. The primary conclusion is that true as well as fake news affects crisis management and public opinion, which may create challenges for the entire society within the crisis management area.
Keywords: terrorist attack; media; fake news; Sweden; crisis management.
Does the means achieve an end? A document analysis providing an overview of emergency and crisis management evaluation practice in the Netherlands
by Ralf Josef Johanna Beerens
Abstract: Evaluations provide insights into the effectiveness of emergency exercises or the response to a disaster. A well-constructed process is key to capturing evidence-based feedback that can support future learning and development. However, little is known about how they are performed in practice and whether they actually meet their intended purpose. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of how operational emergency response evaluations are currently performed in the Netherlands. The study was based on an analysis of evaluation reports and supporting documents from all 25 Dutch safety regions. Outcomes were cross-checked by regional representatives. The findings show that a variety of approaches and designs are currently being used, which are not explicitly or logically linked. Most evaluations are isolated activities that do not build on each other. It is unclear how, and if, lessons identified become lessons learned, while the link between data collection and analysis and conclusions often remains vague. These issues undermine the validity of the evaluation and can have implications for its impact.
Keywords: crisis; disaster; emergency exercise; evaluation; practice; test; the Netherlands; evaluation design; evaluation process; document analysis; evaluation report.
Harnessing the power of metaphor: uncovering a hidden language of interoperability within the natural speech of emergency managers
by Tony McAleavy, Martin Rhisiart
Abstract: This study harnesses the non-literal communicative power of metaphor to enable quicker transferal of rich detailed information within and across emergency management organisations to promote multi-agency interoperability. A series of inductive semi-structured interviews with emergency managers from the UK and USA were completed. The collated data was then analysed with content and metaphorical analysis to create two theories. First, the Trivial Pursuit Pie, a conceptual metaphor that demonstrates the interoperability problem whereby intrinsic barriers within Command and Control restrict interoperability. This metaphor can be used as a learning tool to heighten awareness of barriers to multi-agency interoperability in both academic and practitioner environments. Secondly, the theory of interoperability metaphors (TIM) provides a metaphor-based lexicon for interoperability grounded in the natural language of emergency managers. TIM stimulates interoperability through the recognition and usage of linguistic metaphors to develop shared meanings and understanding.
Keywords: emergency management; Command and Control; gold; silver and bronze; ICS; incident command system; interoperability; language; metaphor; organisations.
Lessons on environmental health and disaster preparedness, response and recovery from the severe Kelantan flooding in 2014
by Mohd Firdaus Mohd Radi, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Mohd Hasni Jaafar, Rozita Hod, Norfazilah Ahmad, Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Gul Muhammad Baloch, Rohaida Ismail, Nur Izzah Farakhin Ayub
Abstract: Flood is a natural disaster that occurs annually in Malaysia causing devastating effects and damages to property and lives. This study looks into our environmental health and disaster preparedness, response and recovery management throughout the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding. We conducted three focus group discussions (FGDs) with healthcare, rescue and welfare workers, and community representatives involved throughout the disaster. The unprecedented severe flooding affected our environmental health and disaster management leading to various prominent issues. State level officers faced greater challenges in inter-agency communication, coordination and collaboration. District level staff faced more complications during disaster and emergency response. Meanwhile, community representatives faced issues pertaining to their livelihood mainly during and after the disaster. Recommendations include improved coordination, effective communication, improved human resource management, accessible early warning system, community empowerment and awareness, and prioritisation of continuous environmental health services. We hope that these recommendations can improve our future disaster management.
Keywords: flood; environmental health; Kelantan; qualitative research.
Information seeking and evacuation decision making in hypothetical hurricane events in the Rio Grande Valley, Texas
by Dean Kyne, William Donner, Arlett Sophia Lomelí
Abstract: This study analyses how information is accessed and gathered in hurricane and inland flooding prone areas. The analysis reviews different information seeking behaviours, sources of information, and the factors that influence evacuation decision-making in each hurricane category within the Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Findings suggest information seeking frequency can increase the odds of making a decision to evacuate in the each hurricane category. Similarly, active information seeking behaviour is positively associated with the evacuation decision in the event of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes. Information sources from personal judgement show negative relationship with evacuation decisions in all except in Category 5. Information sources based on family/friend show positive association with evacuation decisions in Category 4 and 5. The findings highlight the importance of active information sources such as social media, frequent interactions with friends or family members, and active information seeking behaviours in Categories 4 and 5.
Keywords: information seeking behaviour; evacuation decision-making; hurricane; Rio Grande Valley.
How risk assessments by emergency management organisations fall prey to narrow framing
by David Etkin
Abstract: A review of risk assessments by a number of emergency management organisations shows that though ethical judgements are implicit in the methodologies and metrics used, they are not explicitly discussed. As a result, these assessments lack transparency and suffer from narrow framing. It is proposed that the framing be broadened to integrate ethical decision-making with risk assessment and to frame the concept of risk more broadly, to create a more holistic and relevant decision-making framework.
Keywords: ethical decision-making; risk assessment; emergency management; framing.
Special Issue on: Recent Advances in Information Security
Research on user acceptance behaviour of mobile group intelligent sensing applications based on UTAUT
by Xiaolong Ma, Yonghui Dai, Weining Tang, Guowei Li, Lu Shengqi
Abstract: In the era of rapid development of the internet of things, Group intelligence perception technology is widely used in various mobile APPs such as QQ, Alipay, Baidu map, etc. Users participation behaviour is a key factor in the system service quality and development. According to the analysis of the characteristics of Group intelligence perception and the application development of Mobile Group Intelligent sensing applications, we add the perceived trust, user acceptance and task technology matching to construct the UTAUT seven-factor model. Through the empirical test of 341 valid questionnaires collected in the survey, the results show that convenience conditions, perceived trust, performance expectations, effort expectations and task technology matching have a significant impact on users willingness to adopt. Finally, based on the experimental results, we propose effective countermeasures and suggestions for the development of Mobile Group Intelligent sensing applications.
Keywords: group intelligence perception; mobile group intelligent sensing applications; unified theory of acceptance and use of technology; UTAUT; structural equation model.