International Journal of Education Economics and Development (12 papers in press)
Child Labor and School Dropout in Least-Developed Countries: Empirical Evidence from Lao PDR
by Thidavong Xayavong, Piriya Pholphirul
Abstract: Even though topics related to child labor and school dropout have been studied worldwide, little attention has focused on child labor and school dropout in the least-developed countries. This paper examines the impact of child labor on school dropout by using national representative data from the Labor Force and First Child Labor survey in the Lao PDR, which serves as a case study of a least-developed country. The endogeneity of child labor to school dropout was controlled by using an average wage of children by province as an instrumental variable. Findings indicate that child labor, especially with regard to girls, has a strong impact on driving school dropout. Our estimations also show that parental educational attainment, particularly mothers education, seems to show a significant effect on reducing the probability of dropping out. With respect to family economic status, results indicate that the probability of children dropping out tends to be greatest for children from poor families. Our evidence supports the need to provide the type of free education programs that have been implemented in all developed countries but which have not yet been established in least-developed countries such as the Lao PDR. At the very least, given limited government budgets, support can be targeted to help vulnerable groups and poor families.
Keywords: School Dropout; Child Labor; Least-Developed Countries; Lao PDR.
Is the interaction between human capital and financial development one of the determinants of FDI in emerging markets?
by Kunofiwa Tsaurai
Abstract: The study investigated two things. Firstly, the determinants of FDI and secondly, whether the interaction between human capital and financial development enhances FDI inflows into the emerging markets. The dynamic generalised methods of moments (GMM) framework was employed with panel secondary data ranging from 1994 to 2014. The lag of FDI, GDP per capita, savings, trade openness and human capital development had either a positive and significant or positive and non-significant influence on FDI inflows into emerging markets. The interaction between (1) human capital development and stock market value traded and (2) human capital development and stock market capitalisation enhanced both the size and significance on FDI inflows. On the other hand, the interaction between banking sector variables and human capital development (see model 1 and 2 results) reduced the negative impact on banking sector development variables on FDI inflows. The implication of the study is that emerging markets are urged to (1) enhance economic growth, savings mobilisation, human capital development, financial development and trade openness and (2) reduce inflation levels in order to increase FDI inflows. They should also concurrently implement policies aimed at developing their banking sector, stock markets and human capital development if they intend to enhance FDI inflows.
Keywords: FDI; Financial Development; Human Capital; Emerging Markets.
What Affects Average Net Price at Four-year Public and Not-for-Profit Private Institutions in the United States?
by Marie Elaine Gioiosa
Abstract: Higher education costs are rising. The literature points to varying factors for the increases: the lack of efficiency on the instructional side, the growth in administrative expenses as well as the decrease in state appropriations. But do these items impact average net price at four-year public and private not-for-profit institutions? This study looks at the relationship between average net price and these factors considering the fixed effects by state.
Keywords: average net price; instructional expenses; administrative expenses; state appropriations; four-year institutions.
Interstate Disparity in the Performance of Controlling Crime against Women in India- Efficiency Estimate across States
by SHRABANTI MAITY, Anup Sinha
Abstract: The present study attempts to analyse the performance of controlling the total crime against women of 27 major states in India, considering two decadal time periods, namely, 2001 and 2011, by comparing the crime control efficiency of these states. The estimation of the technical efficiency across states and overtimes is performed by application of the stochastic production frontier techniques on decadal panel data. Hausman test ensures that random effects model is appropriate for panel regression analysing. The results show that not all states with better crime control indicators have efficient control over crime against women. The results also reveal that poor women are more vulnerable to crime, whereas political empowerment enables women to avoid crime. Again, higher female literacy rate gives the voice to the women to protest any crime against her. Finally, the study concludes that investment for maintaining the law and order alone would not result in better control of crime against women. Efficient management of the investment is also required.
Keywords: Crime against women; Decadal panel data; Efficiency; Stochastic production frontier; Hausman test.
FDI led financial development hypothesis in emerging markets: The role of human capital development.
by Kunofiwa Tsaurai
Abstract: The study investigated if human capital development is a channel through which foreign direct investment (FDI) affects financial development in emerging markets using dynamic Generalised Methods of Moments (GMM) with data ranging from 1995 to 2014. Following International Monetary Fund (2015), emerging markets that were part of this study include Peru, Poland, China, Argentina, Brazil, Republic of Korea, Thailand, Singapore, Turkey, Russia, Portugal, Philippines, South Africa, Malaysia, India, Hong Kong, Czech Republic, Colombia, Greece, Indonesia and Mexico, Although literature exists which conclusively found that FDI and human capital development separately influence financial development, none of the existing studies to the best of the authors best knowledge has so far investigated if human capital development is a channel through which financial development is influenced by FDI. Majority of the studies on FDI-financial development nexus have ignored the dynamic nature of financial development and the endogeneity problems normally associated with similar research work. The dynamic GMM estimation technique was used for the current study because it addresses the endogeneity issues and the dynamic nature of the financial development data. The results show that the interaction between FDI and human capital development enhanced stock market development in emerging markets. On the other hand, the complementarity between human capital development and FDI was not enough to overturn the negative impact of FDI on bond sector development triggered by crowding out effects. The study therefore urges emerging markets to implement policies that increases human capital development in order to enhance FDIs positive influence on stock market development.
Keywords: FDI; Human Capital; Financial Development; Emerging Markets.
The teachers impact on policy making for the improvement of the school performance (The case of Kosovo)
by Jehona Ferizi-Miftari, Blerim Rexha
Abstract: Teachers contribution in the process of improving the contemporary school performance is manifold and permanent. In Kosovo, several studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of implementing the school reform in the Kosovo schools, but none on the teachers position in this process, based on their own reflection. This study elaborates the contribution of the Kosovan teachers, i.e. their professional and organisational commitment towards the improvement of the quality and effectiveness of work in the primary and lower secondary school. In this study, the data processing was done through the descriptive statistics method with the aim of extracting the characteristics of the data (average standard deviation), and the inferential statistics method in the function of the validity scale of assumptions that result from the data. Data were collected from 1080 teachers working in primary schools located in different areas in Kosovo. The data processing and the analysis of the research results indicate that today, the Kosovan teachers enjoy more opportunities to influence the policies for the functionalisation and improvement of the work at school, whereas teachers with a higher level of education are more sceptical concerning the issues of influencing the policies of functionalisation and improvement of the work at school.
Keywords: reform; Kosovo; teacher commitment; school performance; school improvement; decision-making.
Family hotels use of ICT in entertaining children and recommendations for inclusion of wearable devices
by Iva Slivar, Maja Ruzic, Andrea Debeljuh
Abstract: Just like in other fields, the possibilities of tourism entertainment and education are shaped by the progress in ICT, and ICT is, at the same time, becoming an essential component of both industries. The purpose of this paper is to influence proper child development even when they are on vacation. The paper focuses on strategic usage of ICT. The goal is to introduce an application for the wearable device for children that would motivate them to be more physically active. As contradictory as it may seem, it is ICT that will help them do so. The paper offers a close view of an application called Sunny, Happy Growing. The applications objective is to encourage physical activity in children through games and information and communication technology that can be easily applied in entertainment programs of hotels during vacations.
Keywords: ICT; tourism entertainment; education; children; physical activity.
Technostress Among Teachers: A Confirmation of Its Stressors and Antecedent
by Tri Effiyanti, Gaffar Hafiz Sagala
Abstract: This study aims to investigate computer anxiety, as a belief, that is thought to be an important antecedent of stressors on the use of IT in teaching activities. The data was collected through survey method on teachers of Vocational High School of Business and Management (SMK-BM) in Karanganyar District, Central Java, Indonesia. With the purposive sampling technique, the researchers got a hundred fifty-two (152) respondents. Furthermore, the data were analyzed with SEM-PLS. The result shows that computer anxiety, through the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, significantly affects the overload work. Meanwhile, work overload is a stressor that can stimulate technostress. Moreover, computer anxiety can explain the perception of Job Insecurity that was experienced by teachersas this behavior also can stimulate technostress among teacher. This study has expanded the limits of the research of educational organizations to pursue the rapid development of science, research, and practice in the public sector. This study recommends the improvement of ICT competency amongst teachers; this improvement will bring a major impact on performance and productivity of teachers and push down the technostress experience among teachers. Additionally, stakeholders should take a strategic action to increasing ICT competency among teachers.
Keywords: computer anxiety; TAM; stressors; technostress; teacher.
The impact of Internet access at home and/or school on students academic performance in urban areas in Brazil
by Narine Badasyan, Simone Silva
Abstract: Using the propensity scores matching methodology the paper assesses the impact of Internet access at school and/or at home on standardized Portuguese and mathematics tests of 9th graders in urban public schools in Brazil for years 2007 and 2009. The results suggest that Internet access at home considerably improves Portuguese and mathematics test scores for both years. While Internet access at school does not improve the academic performance of students in 2007, it has a positive effect in 2009, although of smaller magnitude when compared to the effect of Internet at home. The sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of the results. The results along with previous research suggest that the efforts to increase Internet access at schools can result in much higher magnitude of improvement of students academic performance if they are combined with policy initiatives to increase home Internet access and incorporate Internet based educational tools at schools
Keywords: Internet access; academic performance; propensity score matching.
Investigating the determinants of human capital development in emerging markets
by Kunofiwa Tsaurai
Abstract: This study focused on exploring the determinants of human capital development in emerging markets using panel data analysis framework with ranging from 1994 to 2014. The impact of human capital development on economic growth has been widely researched and is now a settled matter in economics and finance yet studies on the determinants of human capital development are still very scant. The question which arises and which the current study addressed is how can governments be able to use human capital to enhance economic growth if they are unaware of what determines human capital development? In summary, the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed and random effects showed that economic growth, FDI, financial development, trade openness and infrastructural development had a significant positive influence or positive but non-significant impact on human capital development in emerging markets. In addition, the study revealed that human capital development is improved or accelerated if there is an interaction between FDI and financial development in the emerging markets. The policy implications of the study are twofold: (1) In order to improve human capital development, emerging markets need to implement programmes aimed at enhancing infrastructural development, financial development, trade openness and FDI inflows and (2) simultaneously implement FDI inflow acceleration and financial development policies as the current study has shown that financial development is a channel through FDI affects human capital development. Subject to data availability, further studies can include more variables and also focus on the Africa, a continent whose economic growth level to a large extent still depends on human capital development.
Keywords: Human Capital Development; Emerging Markets; Determinants.
Special Issue on: SMICBES 2017 Financial Education and Economic Inclusion in Emerging Markets
Financial Literacy Determinants Among West Java Athletes
by Sylviana Maya Damayanti
Abstract: Every country needs to be ready to face the global financial crisis. The important is that everyone has the same responsibility for securing his or her financial management. In this regard, financial literacy has a fundamental role to help managing individual finance. This study measures the financial literacy index among Indonesian athletes specifically in West Java. In Indonesia, specifically for West Java athletes, the professional athletes are also having the same experience of struggling in managing their money after their retired in sports. On the other hand, when they are retired and not facilitated anymore, they are actually not financially independent. In other words, they cannot manage their money or investment properly. For example, there are several retired athletes who are bankrupt after years. This may indicate that they have a low financial literacy and knowledge.rnrnTo collect the primary data, this research conducts to distribute 183 questionnaires for West Java athletes by using the convenience sampling. The questionnaire includes basic and advanced financial literacy concept. The gathered data is analyzed by using One-Way ANOVA Analysis. Then using the Tukey Kramers analysis to find the impact of demographic profiles to the financial literacy.rnrnThe result shows that the financial literacy index among West Java Athletes is low, both the basic and advanced financial literacy. So, the respondents need to be targeted as a group of people who need strategies to increase their financial literacy awareness. This research also shows the impact of demographic profile to its financial literacy. Therefore, strategies to elevate the level of financial literacy among West Java Athletes have been identified in this research.rn
Keywords: Financial Literacy; Athletes; West Java.
Special Issue on: Financial Education and Economic Inclusion in Emerging Markets
Performance of Shadow Teachers in Inclusive Schools in Indonesia viewed from Working Understanding, Appreciation of Work, and Career Guidance
by Munawir Yusuf, Erma Kumala Sari, Mahardika Supratiwi, Arsy Anggrellanggi
Abstract: The present research belongs to a correlational quantitative study that aims to ascertain the relationship between working understanding, appreciation of work, and career guidance and the performance of shadow teachers (Guru Pembimbing KhususGPK) in inclusive schools in Indonesia. Shadow teachers are special education teachers who guide children with special needs to help them to follow the learning process in inclusive schools. Data were collected randomly from 168 shadow teachers of inclusive schools in Indonesia. The instrument used was a 4-point Likert scale, consisting of working understanding, appreciation of work, career guidance, and performance of shadow teachers. The content was validated, and the reliability was examined using Cronbach's alpha. Data was collected through an online questionnaire. A multiple regression analysis was run to detect the relationship between independent and dependent factors. The research results show a significant positive relationship between performance of shadow teachers and working understanding, appreciation of work, and career guidance in inclusive schools in Indonesia (R = 0.491; R 2 = 0.481), with effective contribution of 48.1%. Meanwhile, each separate variable also has a positive relationship between performance of shadow teachers and the effective contribution to working understanding (28.82%), to appreciation of work (18.70%), and to career guidance (0.59%). Therefore, working understanding, appreciation of work, and career guidance simultaneously contribute to performance of shadow teachers in inclusive schools in Indonesia.
Keywords: shadow teachers; inclusive education; performance; working understanding; appreciation of work; career guidance.