International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets (8 papers in press)
AN ANALYSIS OF THE PREFERENCES OF THE ELDERLY IN RELATION TO RETAIL STORES.
by Evandro Luiz Lopes, Eduardo Garcia
Abstract: The world population is aging and this phenomenon is a reality in Brazil as well. Nevertheless, there is a gap in the academic studies on consumer preference in the elderly. Thus, this paper examined what attributes are most important for retailers to have to maintain the loyalty of this group of consumers. Through two focus groups we generated a list of 44 attributes relevant to retailers. We then surveyed 615 consumers over 60 years of age and found that the dimensions Service and Assortment Management (comprised of management prices and products) could explain 47% of the sample Loyalty. Alternatively, attributes related to internal and external structure of the store were not significant in the model that was analyzed by means of structural equation modeling.
Keywords: Elderly; Retail; Loyalty; Attributes; Consumer.
The Competitive Uncertainty, Marketing and Nonmarket Roots of Capability Deployment and Organizational Performance in Turkey
by John Parnell, Gaye Acikdilli, James Doyle
Abstract: This paper assesses how competitive uncertainty shapes strategic emphasis, capability development, and organizational performance in an emerging economy. Nonmarket strategy (NMS) is introduced as a strategic orientation focused on strategic liaison, corporate political activity, and environmental management. Data collection occurred in Turkey, an emerging economy known historically as a regional center of commerce, but increasingly defined by political and economic uncertainty. Analyses demonstrated that competitive uncertainty impacts emphasis on NMS, marketing strategy, and marketing capabilities, but an unexpected, positive link between NMS and marketing capabilities was also observed. Although no direct NMS-performance link was found, evidence points to NMS as a necessary, but insufficient ingredient for success in an emerging economy environment.
Keywords: Marketing strategy; influence strategies; marketing capabilities; nonmarket strategy; NMS; performance; Turkey.
Relationships between Sales Managers and Sales Ethical Behavior: Emerging Market Perspective
by Kamel Fantazy, Alaa- Aldin Abdul Rahim A.Alathamy
Abstract: Sales managers behavior may be particularly interest due to the influence these managers can have on the ethical climate of their sales organizations. There are diverse factors that contribute to the development of sales managers ethical behavior. The current paper examines the relationships of particular factors (sales managers behavior, information sharing & communication, and organizational culture), staff standard ethics, and the level of ethical behavior in the context of emerging market. We focus on a rapidly emerging country, UAE, whose economic environment is similar to that of the most Western nations but with a significantly different background and cultural values. Data were collected from 515 sales managers in the UAE. Using Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, the results provide support for the proposed hypotheses. In emerging countries context, organizations are more likely to employ behavior base- management (BEH_BM), communication & information sharing (COM_ISH), and organizational culture (OR_CULT) for achieving the level of ethical behavior (LEVE_EB). However, relatively less emphasis is placed on linking out-come base management (OUT_BM) and job insecurity (JOB_INS) to the level of ethical behavior. UAE organizations need to integrate out-come base management and job insecurity into their business ethic strategies. It is concluded that organizations in UAE though have some degree of involvement in staff ethical standards (STAF_ES), but still face some challenges. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Ethics; behavior; sales managers; communication; culture.
Innovation in VUCA world: evidence from Tunisian firms in a post-revolution context
by Dora Abidi, Koichi Nakagawa
Abstract: Researchers have examined the positive impact of organisational entrepreneurial orientation (OEO) and managerial cognition about environmental changes (MGC) on innovation. However, volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA) in today's business environment has affected firms and their innovation-decision. Thus, factors which help innovation to thrive may eventually hamper its performance in such an environment. Assessing 67 Tunisian enterprises following the Jasmine revolution, we examine the VUCA context and the joint impact of organisational and managerial factors on innovation. Our results indicate that OEO and MGC both positively influence innovation performance, but their joint impact is negative. Thus, innovation will be less successful if managers and organisations are either highly or slightly innovation oriented. Consequently, a moderate level of innovativeness leads to higher organisational success in a VUCA environment. Such orientation refers to the first follower strategy, where the firm learns from a first mover's experience, then responds to the environmental changes.
Keywords: organisational innovation; first follower; strategy; managerial cognition of environmental changes; entrepreneurial orientation; VUCA; Tunisia.
Task, relationship and work overload stress orientations of Russian and Dutch working adults: does gender make a difference?
by Lam D. Nguyen, Natalia Ermasova
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the task, relationship and work overload stress orientations of working adults in the high-context cultures of Russia and in the low-context cultures of the Netherlands based on gender. Totally, 438 respondents including 230 Russians and 208 Dutch participants completed Northouse's (2007) style questionnaire and the overload stress inventory survey. Two-way ANOVA methodology is used for hypotheses testing in this research. Gender is a significant factor on the relationship-oriented style but not on the task-oriented style as well as work overload stress perceptions of these respondents. Russian working adults perceived more work overload stress than their Dutch counterparts. The national culture and demographic differences impose constraints on the work overload stress perception of working adults in the Netherlands and Russia. Researchers and scholars can benefit from this study as it provides more empirical results in understanding the impact of gender and cultural factors.
Keywords: gender; leadership; relationships; Russian; stress perception; tasks; the Netherlands; work life balance; cross-culture management.
Banks and public capital markets in European emerging economies
by Victoria Geyfman
Abstract: A critical aspect of integration of emerging markets (EM) of Eastern Europe into the global financial system is the continuing financial liberalisation process and the development of effective domestic capital markets. While these countries have made considerable progress in this area since the early stages of economic transformation in the 1990s, the level of financial development and market capitalisation remains weak by the developed world's standards. This study examines the development of capital markets and the effect of macroeconomic, bank-level, and regulatory fundamentals on the banks' decision to participate in public capital markets. The study also examines the predominance of foreign-owned banks in EM and assesses their effect on the development of financial markets.
Keywords: emerging market economies; Eastern Europe; capital market development; foreign-owned banks; financial crisis.
Application of Z"-score model to non-financial sector of Pakistan
by Muhammad Tahir, Sidra Hanif
Abstract: The article applies Z"-score model to predict the financial distress-level of 131 firms of five industries from non-financial sector of Pakistan, including automobile, food, chemical, engineering and cement industry. First, Z"-score was calculated for all the firms within the five industries. Afterwards, the skewed nature of the dataset leads to the application of Kruskal-Wallis test to reach through the conclusion. The results rank the financial health of the automobile industry at first place in contrast to that of the cement industry at last place. Hence, the cement industry has weaker financial health among all others in the sample. Thus, the study recommends to employ Z"-score model to be aware of financial health of the firms, so that some immediate measures could be adopted to avoid severe future consequences. Moreover, the results of the study are useful for the stakeholders of the firms. For example, investors can use this information to assess the financial health of the firms before investing their money.
Keywords: financial health; Altman Z-score; emerging market score; EMS; financial leverage; liquidity; distress-level; Pakistan.
Exclusivity in online targeted promotions: cross-cultural preferences of consumers
by Peter Broeder, Rendal Derksen
Abstract: The ease of adapting and customising content leads targeted promotions to be one of the most important strategies in online marketing. Online marketers use different strategies to attract consumers to their webshop, such as scarcity effects. A specific type of scarcity is exclusivity, in which only a selected group of people receives a promotion. This study examines the effectiveness of the use of online targeted promotions across cultures. 140 Dutch and 123 Mexicans between 18 and 35 years old filled out an online questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they received either an exclusive or a non-exclusive offer on either Facebook or Gmail. The results indicated that Mexicans are more prone to exclusive offers than non-exclusive offers, while for Dutch consumers an opposite trend was found. Mexicans report a more favourable attitude and higher visiting intention for online advertisements in general, although the found effect was especially strong for exclusive offers. This study shows that the use of exclusivity can be effective in emerging online markets such as Mexico. However, new ways of online advertising are needed to persuade the experienced online consumer.
Keywords: online advertising; exclusivity; targeted offers; consumer behaviour; cultural localisation; Mexican; Dutch.