International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets (5 papers in press)
AN ANALYSIS OF THE PREFERENCES OF THE ELDERLY IN RELATION TO RETAIL STORES.
by Evandro Luiz Lopes, Eduardo Garcia
Abstract: The world population is aging and this phenomenon is a reality in Brazil as well. Nevertheless, there is a gap in the academic studies on consumer preference in the elderly. Thus, this paper examined what attributes are most important for retailers to have to maintain the loyalty of this group of consumers. Through two focus groups we generated a list of 44 attributes relevant to retailers. We then surveyed 615 consumers over 60 years of age and found that the dimensions Service and Assortment Management (comprised of management prices and products) could explain 47% of the sample Loyalty. Alternatively, attributes related to internal and external structure of the store were not significant in the model that was analyzed by means of structural equation modeling.
Keywords: Elderly; Retail; Loyalty; Attributes; Consumer.
The Competitive Uncertainty, Marketing and Nonmarket Roots of Capability Deployment and Organizational Performance in Turkey
by John Parnell, Gaye Acikdilli, James Doyle
Abstract: This paper assesses how competitive uncertainty shapes strategic emphasis, capability development, and organizational performance in an emerging economy. Nonmarket strategy (NMS) is introduced as a strategic orientation focused on strategic liaison, corporate political activity, and environmental management. Data collection occurred in Turkey, an emerging economy known historically as a regional center of commerce, but increasingly defined by political and economic uncertainty. Analyses demonstrated that competitive uncertainty impacts emphasis on NMS, marketing strategy, and marketing capabilities, but an unexpected, positive link between NMS and marketing capabilities was also observed. Although no direct NMS-performance link was found, evidence points to NMS as a necessary, but insufficient ingredient for success in an emerging economy environment.
Keywords: Marketing strategy; influence strategies; marketing capabilities; nonmarket strategy; NMS; performance; Turkey.
Relationships between Sales Managers and Sales Ethical Behavior: Emerging Market Perspective
by Kamel Fantazy, Alaa- Aldin Abdul Rahim A.Alathamy
Abstract: Sales managers behavior may be particularly interest due to the influence these managers can have on the ethical climate of their sales organizations. There are diverse factors that contribute to the development of sales managers ethical behavior. The current paper examines the relationships of particular factors (sales managers behavior, information sharing & communication, and organizational culture), staff standard ethics, and the level of ethical behavior in the context of emerging market. We focus on a rapidly emerging country, UAE, whose economic environment is similar to that of the most Western nations but with a significantly different background and cultural values. Data were collected from 515 sales managers in the UAE. Using Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, the results provide support for the proposed hypotheses. In emerging countries context, organizations are more likely to employ behavior base- management (BEH_BM), communication & information sharing (COM_ISH), and organizational culture (OR_CULT) for achieving the level of ethical behavior (LEVE_EB). However, relatively less emphasis is placed on linking out-come base management (OUT_BM) and job insecurity (JOB_INS) to the level of ethical behavior. UAE organizations need to integrate out-come base management and job insecurity into their business ethic strategies. It is concluded that organizations in UAE though have some degree of involvement in staff ethical standards (STAF_ES), but still face some challenges. Managerial implications and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Ethics; behavior; sales managers; communication; culture.
Differences in horizontally individualist and vertically collectivist consumers environmental behavior: A regulatory focus perspective
by Saleem Ur Rahman
Abstract: Building on horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism (HV I-C) typology and regulatory focus theory (RFT), this study aims to examine cross-cultural environmental behaviour differences between HI-Finnish and VC-Pakistani consumers. In regards to consumers attitude towards environmentally friendly products, the results demonstrated predominantly HI-promotion-focused regulatory fit effect in Finland and VC-prevention-focused regulatory fit effect in Pakistan. Consequently, consumers environmentally friendly products attitude positively affect their purchase intentions. This study contributes to the sustainability literature by examining the overlooked appropriateness of RFT and HV I-C in cross-cultural environmental behaviour. Managers can use the insights of this study to market their environmentally friendly products more effectively across different cultures.
Keywords: Environmentally friendly behavior; Consumers; Regulatory focus; Horizontal individualism; Vertical collectivism.
Macroeconomic and Institutional Determinants of Firms Choices of Capital Structure in Nigeria: A System-GMM Approach.
by Olumuyiwa Apanisile, John Olayiwola
Abstract: The study investigates whether external environment in which firms operate plays any role in the choice of corporate capital structure decision in Nigeria. A panel data of 66 listed companies, comprising firms leverage, macroeconomic variables and institutional quality, are used. Data are collected from World Development Indicator, OPEC annual oil price statistics, annual reports and accounts of selected listed companies, fact books published by Nigerian stock exchange and International Country Risk Guide between 1999 and 2015. The study employs Pooled OLS, Random effect and System-GMM for the analysis. Results show that external environment plays important role in the choice of firms capital structure as macroeconomic variables and institutional quality variable have significant results. Macroeconomic variables such as inflation, oil price, GDP and lagged value of the dependent variable, have positive and significant results on leverage. Other variables, such as exchange rate, corruption and investment have negative effects on leverage.
Keywords: Leverage; Macroeconomic variables; Institutional qualities; Generalized Method of Moments; Oil Price.