International Journal of Public Sector Performance Management (80 papers in press)
The Implementation of eGovernment and the Trust of Citizens in Public-Sector Performance: The Mediating Role of Service Quality
by Sahem Nawafleh
Abstract: ICT and eGovernment are known to have a number of different effects on the service quality provided across the public-sector, as well as on the perspectives and attitudes of citizens, although the effects have remained under much discussion by political observers when considering that citizens trust in the performance of the government has witnessed decline. This work analysed the perspectives of the service recipients within the public-sector in Jordan. The work carried out an analysis centred on citizen trust towards public-sector performance through the role of eGovernment adoption. An integrated model underwent development, emphasising the link recognised between the application of eGovernment and the effects of public-sector on citizen trust, with public-sector effects mediated through the quality of services provided. The study sample encompassed 622 service recipients, with Structural Equation Modelling applying to determine the link through examining the respondent assessment chosen through a random technique. The research results show a clear link between eGovernment and Citizen trust. The work considers the effects of the results and accordingly makes recommendations in regards possible practical uses.
Keywords: e-Government program; Performance; Public sector; Service quality; SERVQUAL; Citizen trust; SEM; Jordan.
Making collaborative governance effective: a case study on the pathway to successful public-private interactions
by Andrea Tomo, Gianluigi Mangia, Alessandro Hinna, Massimiliano Matteo Pellegrini
Abstract: This study aims to understand the processes that guide effective policies of collaborative governance where both public and private actors are involved. By adopting the theoretical framework developed by Ansell and Gash (2007), this study seeks to analyze the antecedents and subsequent effects of a successful case of collaborative governance in the port city of Naples. Increasing pressure from stakeholders evoked a collaboration between public institutions and other private actors, in which discussion tables were utilized to develop ideas for the regeneration of San Vincenzos Pier. The collaborative approach adopted by public institutions and citizens associations allowed the bureaucratic hurdles that hindered the recovery and the re-opening of the Pier to be overcome. The analyzed case contributes toward existing literature on collaborative governance by suggesting an additional step within the framework initially developed by Ansell and Gash. Furthermore, the study provides interesting and practical implications for public managers and policy makers.
Keywords: collaborative governance; policy network; co-creation value.
The determinants and efficiency of auditing in the Republic of Kosovo
by Besnik Fetai, Gresa Majku
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the auditors efficiency and its determinants in public and the private sector in the Republic of Kosovo. We used primary data due to the lack of data by the State Agency of Statistics and other relevant institutions. The dataset covers the entire region of auditors in the Republic of Kosovo. An Ordered Probit model and its marginal effect are applied in order to measure auditors efficiency in the public and private sector. The results show that employees with high level of education, experienced ones, those in good relationship with the personnel and clients, increase the performance of auditing. Moreover, the results show that training/courses have positive impact on auditors efficiency. The paper provides empirical evidence about the audits efficiency and the results are at most recommended to the Government and policymakers in transition economies as a course of action to take institutional improvement and increase the audits efficiency both in public and private sector. These will in turn lead to lower corruption in these countries. The study is original in nature and makes effort to promote auditors efficiency in the countries in transition. The findings of this study will be of value to Government and other policymakers.
Keywords: audit; management; efficiency; transition economies; ordered probit.
Antecedents of Character Merit and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Augmenting Public Life Performance in India
by A. DHIRAJ, MANOJ JOSHI, ASHOK KUMAR, ANVITI GUPTA
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore and study the antecedents of Character Merit and dimensions of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and their influence on volunteers in a non-profit organisation. The study also examines the performance outcome of Character Merits inculcated to enhance OCB of trained members of the organisation. Inductive and deductive research methodologies were adapted to interpret the data, which was collected by visiting 18 states, spread across North-East-West-South geographies of India. Stratified random sampling technique was administered to collate data from 1084 samples. The findings reveal that Character building through training may lead to development of OCB, which would further enhance the performance outcome of individuals in public life. The findings indicate that character could be built by continuity in training. The results of the present study require further empirical research across different geographies and organisations around the globe to substantiate the conclusions. The Shakha model of training methodology illustrated in this study may be adapted in public organisations for improving performance. This paper attempts to explore the factors that instigate individual habits and restructure behavioural aspects. The outcome is a set of Character Merits, which when inculcated in practicing managers would point a way further towards building leader managers for the future.
Keywords: Character building; Character Merits; Human resource development; Organisational Citizenship Behaviour; OCB; Performance; Public life; Training.
Behavioral courage and its effect on innovative work behavior of public sector employees: The role of managerial position and gender
by Annam Bibi
Abstract: To be creative, employees need to take risks and to take risks, courage plays an important role. This study examined the relationship between behavioral courage and innovative work behavior and also explored the possible effects of managerial level and gender on this relationship. Data were collected from 273 employees working at different managerial levels in public sector organizations of Pakistan. The results showed that behavioral courage was positively associated with innovative work behavior. We found that managerial level moderated the effects of behavioral courage on innovative work behavior. Our results also revealed moderating effect of gender on the association between behavioral courage and innovative work behavior. Implications of these findings and future directions are discussed.
Keywords: Courage; innovative work behavior; gender; managerial position.
Vocational Skill Development of Self-Employed Workers to Promote Their Participation in Education and Training in South Korea: A Public Policy Perspective
by Jung-Yeon Lim, Youngmin Lee, Sunny Sun-A Kim
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the status of the participation of the self-employed in Korea in vocational training and identify their demand for participation. The study deduces the implications for strengthening survival capacity and competitiveness. Information on the status of participants vocational skill development was obtained through surveys and interviews, and the results were analysed. The results of the analysis are as follows. First, less than 1% of all self-employed individuals participated in vocational skills development. Second, many self-employed individuals lacked systematic startup preparation such as startup-related education. Third, a large number of self-employed individuals chose to start their businesses as an alternative to reemployment after retirement. Thus, startups have served as an alternative to jobs. Fourth, 20% of the self-employed individuals who participated in vocational skills development faced changes in their situations such as reemployment and re-startup. Based on the results of this study, methods to activate and strengthen the vocational skills development policy for the self-employed in Korea are recommended.
Keywords: self-employed; vocational skills development; social safety net; vocational education/training; employment insurance.
MOBILE MARKETING AND STRATEGY BY ENERGY COMPANIES
by Felicetta Iovino, Guido Migliaccio
Abstract: The paper highlights the transformation of the relationships between energy firms and customers by the web. In fact, it aims to demonstrate that mobile marketing and strategy may raise the switching rates and hence the competi-tion among energy companies. That is the goal of the liberalization process-es of public services. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to demonstrate how mobile marketing and strategy are central tools in the liberalization and privatization processes. To this, end secondary data from different sources have been used.
Keywords: mobile marketing; mobile commerce; energy marketing; energy trading; market of energy; customers; public services.
DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVE INDUSTRIES POLICY IN BANDUNG CITY, INDONESIA
by Samun Jaja Raharja, Heru Nurasa
Abstract: Bandung is one of the few cities in Indonesia that is dominated by the creative industry. This study aims to analyse the different aspects of the policy for developing creative industries at the industry, corporate and company levels by applying qualitative approaches and conducting a descriptive analysis. The data are collected through observations, interviews and a literature review. The results indicate that the policy has been implemented at three levels. This policy aims to strengthen business functions and business centres at the micro and institutional levels, respectively. Meanwhile, some regulations have been set up at the macro level to facilitate the creation of a supportive business climate. Several recommendations can be derived from the findings. Firstly, the establishment of creative industries can be facilitated by providing technical guidance, training and capital assistance and by creating business networks. Secondly, a conducive business climate can be created by implementing the appropriate government policies and developing an information technology infrastructure for maximising the activities of companies.
Keywords: policy; creative industry; level analysis; development; Bandung City.
Factors Affecting Job Performance: The Case of Jordanian Hotels Kitchen Staff
by Ashraf Deeb, Omar Alananzeh, Ali Tarhini, Ra'ed Masa'deh
Abstract: The importance of providing suitable work environment is critical for the success of food promises. This paper aims at investigating the effects of work pressure, duties and responsibilities, career advancement opportunities, and the physical work environment on job performance of the hotels' kitchen staff. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the employees working in five-star hotels in Jordan. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the research hypotheses. Results of the current study revealed that there is a significant impact of work pressure and career advancement opportunities on job performance, whereas duties and responsibilities, and the physical work environment have not significant impact on it. Results of T-test and ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in the impact of job performance that can be attributed to gender, age, educational level, personal income, marital status, job position, and position experience. The findings of this study will contribute a better understanding of the best work environment that could enhance the performance of the staff and increase guests' satisfactions. This study is considered the first case study that targeted directly the heart of the hospitality industry which is the staff of kitchen and links their performance with the proper management of the hotel and its outlets.
Keywords: work pressure; public sector; job performance; Hotel management; Aqaba.
How Do Ethics and Transparency Practices work in Thailands Local Governments?
by Thanabhatra Jaiyen, Sukanya Aimim-Tham, Achmad Nurmandi
Abstract: Maintaining good governance practices regarding ethics and transparency in Thailands local governments is very challenging. The lack of ethics and transparency are due to the abuse of power and misconduct by local politicians and officials, and loopholes in the rules and regulation. This mixed-method study was conducted in the northeastern municipalities of Thailand. The research found that the factors of accountability, persons, and structure were significantly associated with good governance practices of ethics and transparency with correlation levels of 0.88, 0.88, and 0.81 respectively. In-deph interview results indicated that good governance practices in local governments were not improved, although the military had seized power in May 2014. During this time, the abuse of power, misconduct and allegations of fraud committed by local politicians and officials continued.
Keywords: Good Governance; Ethics; Transparency; Practices; Implementation.
Residential Camping for Building Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: A Case on a Non-profit Organisation from India
by A. DHIRAJ, ASHOK KUMAR, MANOJ JOSHI
Abstract: This research case elucidates the methodology for building Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) with an exploratory study undertaken in a seven-day training camp conducted by Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a non-profit, voluntary organisation in India. The authors explored eighteen distinct states of India spread across NEWS and randomly picked up a camp in the southern state. At this camp, the character molding process was observed. The data was collated through participant observation followed by a series of interviews. It was revealed that, the sportive and intellectual activities for engagement inculcated a subset of character merits focused towards OCB. The implications derived is the impact of specific environment and training, which opens a new dimension to Human Resource (HR) practices, for building of explicit patterns of OCB. Case writers accept the methodological challenges in interpreting the changes in real-life consequences in the absence of a grounded theory, which may be a limitation.
Keywords: Character building; Character Merits; Engagement; Human Resource practices; HR; Organisational citizenship behaviour; OCB; Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; RSS; Training.
A comparison of economic and non-economic efficiency of private and public hospitals in the Czech Republic
by Šárka Papadaki, Pavla Staňková
Abstract: These days, hospitals in Czech Republic spend approximately half of all costs allocated to the healthcare sector. Due to the fact that hospital expenditures have a tendency to increase, it is obvious that hospital effectiveness is one of the most important pillars of the effectiveness of the entire health care system. This article found the answer to the question whether the ownership is a factor influencing hospital effectiveness. One of the goals of the research was to compare the efficiency of private hospitals and public hospitals, i.e. hospitals owned by the county, town or municipality, by the Ministry of Health, Defense or of Justice and by the Church. The research was focused on all the 188 hospitals in the Czech Republic, i.e. university hospitals, acute health care hospitals and hospitals of subsequent care. There was a comparison of economic efficiency indicator (economic outcome) and comparison of non-economic efficiency indicators (bed usage in days and average duration of stay). The actual situation in terms of owners of the hospitals in the Czech Republic is that 66% of all the hospitals in the Czech Republic are owned by the public sector and 34% of hospitals are owned privately. Regarding the public sector, 51% of the all hospitals in the Czech Republic are owned by the region, city or municipal administration, 10% remain the property of the Ministry of Health, 2% are owned by the Church and 3% by the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Justice. For comparison of effectiveness of public and private hospitals, the Two-sample t-Test for equal means om statistical program SPSS was used. Research conducted at the university showed the following results. Since the P-values are greater than the significance level (0.05), we cannot reject the null hypothesis for the following factors of effectiveness: economic outcome and bed usage in days. According to the research results, we can confirm that there are differences in effectiveness measured by indicator bed usage in days between public and private hospitals.
Keywords: health care; hospital; effectiveness; public sector; private sector.
Social Innovation in Public Sector Services
by Veland Ramadani, Grisna Anggadwita, Dianne H.B. Welsh, Anggraeni Permatasari
Abstract: This paper proposes a new conceptual model of social innovation in public sector services. The study uses qualitative analysis to understand the contributions of innovation in social development by examining the smart city concept using the example of the Bandung Government in Indonesia. The Bandung government has been successfully developing innovative solutions towards service quality in public sector management. This study develops new perspectives of social innovation that can be applied to improve the public-sector reforms in developing countries.
Keywords: social innovation; smart city; virtual entrepreneurship; public sector services.
Project management in a public transformation change process
by Parinaz Farid, Jan Terje Karlsen, Tim Torvatn
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of project management as a tool and framework for managing a public transformation change process. The studied case concerns a large public merger project occurring between Trondheim and Klæbu municipalities in Norway. The results demonstrate that the Trondheim-Klæbu case effectively applied project management successfully as a tool for managing the change process. We found that basic project management practices from various knowledge areas were vital and employed in a systematic and integrated manner. We especially identify the importance of a fixed goal, a milestone and progress plan, and good communication with stakeholders.
Keywords: public organization; project management; change; merger; case study.
Board Composition and Voluntary Internet Financial Reporting Evidence from Bangladesh
by Rashedul Hasan, Niaz Mohammad, Ardi Gunardi
Abstract: Internet financial reporting (IFR) can provide a low-cost mechanism for the listed company to reach a wider audience that might result in the reduction of agency cost through improved information asymmetry. This paper not only investigates the extent of internet financial reporting among the listed companies in Bangladesh but also establishes several factors that are influencing IFR among selected firms. A total number of 151 companies listed in both Dhaka Stock Exchange and Chittagong Stock Exchange is chosen for the statistical analysis. The extent of IFR is determined using a disclosure index through content analysis. Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the determinants of the internet financial reporting. It was found that overall IFR disclosure score is very low (17.77%) while low technology industries have disclosed more information on the internet that high technology companies. Regression results found profitability to the most significant predictor of IFR. The proportion of independent directors on board have a significant negative influence of IFR. Meanwhile, board size and CEO duality were not considered as significant predictors of IFR. The study incorporated the impact of internal governance mechanism on IFR while external governance mechanisms are not considered in the research model. The research has important contributions toward informing stakeholders regarding the drivers of corporate internet reporting in Bangladesh. Further research can be initiated on determining the cost and benefits of using internet financial reporting and its ability to become a substitute for printed annual reports as a green initiative. To the best of knowledge, there have not yet been any study that has linked board composition with IFR in the context of Bangladesh.
Keywords: Internet Financial Reporting; Governance; Profitability.
Improving the Route Effectiveness of the Intercity Bus Operators by Co-optation: A Data Envelopment Analysis
by Moovendhan Vellasamy, Githa Heggde, Shatakshi Agarwal, Moyukh Mukherjee
Abstract: Indian private bus operators suffer from cyclical demand in weekly bookings. During the slack days, entire passenger transport industry operates with loss or low margin. This research proposes a co-optation model to overcome the lose arise from the cyclical demand. This paper research the comparative efficiency of Pre and Post co-optation scenarios among the Indian private bus operators. We assume reverse aggregation of less under booking schedules of operators of the same sector can be assigned to a single bus operator who has relatively higher booking than other operators. The co-optation model of reverse aggregation could enhance the efficiency of the industry. Though numerous studies have been done to measure the efficiency of operators, we focused our research on how the operators co-optation could improve the efficiency of the Industry. For this purpose, we analysed the daily trips data of Bangalore-Goa route of Indian private public transport for a month. The comparative efficiency is measured using the DEA method.
Keywords: Data Envelope Analysis; Intercity Bus Transport efficiency; Co-optation; Route Efficiency.
Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Indias Service Sector
by Aarti Sharma, Saina Baby
Abstract: In the financial year 2016-17 India attracted an all-time high Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) inflow of US$60.08 billion. A sectoral break up of FDI inflows clearly identifies service sector as the top most FDI destination in the country with a share of 18% in the total FDI inflows during the period 2000 to 2017. The service sector FDI increased from US$ 4443 in 2014-15 to US$ 8684 in 2016-17 registering a growth rate of 95% (Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion(DIPP,2017). The objective of this paper is to identify the major determinants of FDI inflows into Indias service sector. Multiple regression analysis has been used to identify the significant determinants of FDI inflows. This study identifies trade openness, Real Gross Domestic Product, infrastructure, real interest rate, tertiary education and FDI Stock as the significant determinants of FDI into the service sector in India.
Keywords: FDI; India;service sector; determinants ; multiple regression; GDP; Trade Openness ;inflation; interest rate; exchange rate; collinearity;.
Is performance information used under performance budgeting? A systematic review
by Juan Pablo Martinez Guzman
Abstract: Scholars argue that performance budgeting reforms should move away from congressional budgetary approval and towards multiple decision-making processes within the executive branch. The arguments for that shift are often based on evidence from individual case studies and not from systematic analysis of multiple experiences. This study fills that gap by presenting a systematic review of more than 60 studies that cover reforms in over 20 countries. Our findings show that performance information is often used as an input for decision making; that officials throughout the executive branch (line ministries, executive cabinets, and executive budget offices) are much more likely to use performance information than legislators; and that performance information is as often used for strategic planning and program management as for resource allocation. This study also analyses the factors that explain the use of performance information and builds a framework for future research.
Keywords: performance budgeting; performance-informed budgeting; performance budget management; performance information; public budgeting; systematic review; budget execution; budget formulation; budget approval; performance management.
Youth Preferences for Fast Food Industry: A Conjoint Approach
by Noopur Saxena, Mayur Taneja
Abstract: The demand for restaurants has increased especially among the youth because of changes in their lifestyle and dietary habits. The choice to visit a restaurant is not only influenced by a single factor but numerous factors make a combined impact on the decision. Conjoint analysis has been applied to describe the utility values of factors influencing selection of a restaurant and also relative importance of each attribute. 204 youth customers in the age group of 16-25 years, who had recently in the past three months have dined at fast food restaurant were surveyed for their preferences towards different restaurant attributes. This paper specifically investigate the factors namely, food attributes, atmosphere, service attributes and price in influencing the youth satisfaction and loyalty in fast food restaurants in Delhi/NCR regions. Price of the food was found to be the most important factor with highest utility, while the youth is least influenced by the food attributes. The findings suggest that fast food restaurants should not only compete on the basis of food quality but also on other variables identified by the study and will also help the restaurateurs to design strategies in order to improve customer satisfaction resulting in revisits by them.
Keywords: Conjoint analysis; restaurant attributes; youth customers; fast food.
Civil servants work performance in the context of less effective appraisal systems: an exploratory study for Greece
by Irene Fafaliou, Panos Chountalas, Ioannis Manousakis
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether human resources schemes comprised of factors such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and public service motivation can lead to increased levels of work performance, especially when performance appraisal systems do not contribute to this direction, as it is the case with Greece. To attain this goal, a questionnaire survey was conducted, addressed to a sample of 130 Greek civil servants. In the absence of an effective performance appraisal system, research results indicate that only the civil servants with a high degree of self-motivation and an in-depth sense of civic duty have the reasons to be better at their work and enhance their performance. Finally, contrary to the expectations of a number of public administration scholars and stakeholders, factors such as organizational commitment and job satisfaction are not proved to have a significant impact on work performance.
Keywords: performance appraisal systems; work performance; public service motivation; civic duty; organizational commitment; job satisfaction; public sector; civil servants; exploratory study; Greece.
An Analytical Study of the Service Gap vis-
by Monica Kapuria, Sunita Balani, Masood Siddiqui
Abstract: Crime of different nature against women in India has gained momentum and thereby drawing the attention of policy makers, law enforcement agencies, NGOs and researchers. This study aims to analyze and interpret the service gap and anticipated role of police officials in the purview of expectations and perception of women. The data has been drawn and inferred from the available literature on performance deliverables of police officers and citizens satisfaction level. Cross sectional research design was applied to study the expectations of women from police officers and measures taken to handle atrocities against them. A sample of 300 respondents (women) was selected employing judgemental and quota sampling techniques. Here, 265 questionnaires were found to be complete in all respect (with a response proportion of 88.33%) and thus included in the study. The findings reveal that satisfaction level of women with the police officers, thereby listing their expectations from the law enforcement agencies in terms of controlling crime situations. It was also discovered that performance management system of the police department lacks the performance deliverables expected by the women in the state of Uttar Pradesh (India).
Keywords: Law enforcement agencies; Police organizations; performance; crime; women; expectations,.
To Leave or to Stay? The differential factors that determine Turnover and Retention of Massachusetts Social Workers\"
by Evalina Lawson, Diya Das
Abstract: The turnover rate of social welfare workers across the United States is incredibly high. The Administration for Children and Families report that some jurisdictions experience turnover rates of up to 90%. This has been an ongoing challenge faced by agencies across the United States since the 1960s (Grotzman, Kollar, Trinkle, 2010). In this study, the attempt was to answer three main questions: 1) What are some of the factors that lead to social workers leaving their jobs?; 2) What are some of the factors that determine why some social workers stay?; And 3) are the recent reforms made at the Massachusetts Department of Children and Families effective? While social worker turnover has been widely studied, literature on the causes of social worker retention, i.e., why do some social workers continue in their jobs, is relatively scarce. Therefore, the in depth interviews provided understudied insights on the causes of social worker retention. Findings show that the factors that make people leave this profession are different from those that make people want to stay. Based on these findings, the study provides several recommendations that can help increase retention in the field.
Keywords: Social work; employee turnover; employee retention; qualitative methods.
The Paradox of Grateful Slaves Revisited: How About Female Public Managers?
by Yongbeom Hur
Abstract: Female employees generally show a higher level of job satisfaction than their male counterparts, although working conditions and rewards for female employees are usually inferior, and this is called a paradox of grateful slaves. This study verified whether or not this paradox occurs among female public managers. With 790 public managers (female managers: 44%) in the U.S., gender effects were examined on job satisfaction and work orientations among public managers. According to the results, female public managers showed a similar level of job satisfaction, but they had different work orientations, compared to their male counterparts.
Keywords: gender effect; job satisfaction; work orientations; female public manager.
Will The Indian Herbal Tooth Paste Marketers Survive Against Multinational FMCG Companies?
by Sathish Kumar, Moovendhan Vellasamy, Sangappa Angadi, Devsom Dass
Abstract: This paper focuses on the challenges that FMCG MNCs are facing from the Indian herbal product FMCG companies in the context of toothpaste market. This study employed a case analysis method. The main objective of the research is to compare the STP and Marketing Mix strategies that MNCs and Indian herbal product FMCGs with toothpaste in their product portfolio. The study reveals that Multinationals FMCG companies countering Indian herbal tooth paste marketers with their own version. The study also reveals that Indian tooth paste marketers first mover advantage may not last long. The strong distribution network of MNCs is placing them in advantageous position is another key observation.
Keywords: Toothpaste Brands; Marketing Mix; STP; Marketing Strategies,.
HIGH PERFORMANCE ORGANIZATION: THE ONLY WAY TO SUSTAIN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS
by MohD Anuar Arshad, Kalimullah Khan, Shahid Khan Qazi
Abstract: This conceptual paper is an endeavor to create high performance value in Public Sector organizations (PSO) of developing countries in general while particularly in Pakistan. Public sector organizations of developing countries come across with an important and challenging question of How public sector organizations could be transformed into high performance public organizations? At the same time, this article proposes research investigations to explore high performance strategies in the context of Pakistan and also in other developing countries. Therefore, this paper proposed application of High Performance Organization (HPO) framework survey tool to diagnose the performance status of the organizations. This study also proposed explanatory sequential design of mix methodology to explore performance status of public organizations, identifying the weaknesses and strengths of the organizations, developing strategies to transform the organizations into sustainable high performance public organizations to provide quality services to the public.
Keywords: High performance; public organizations; HPO framework; Pakistan; developing countries.
Inter-agency implementation relations, trust and reforms in public administration in Kenya
by Gedion Onyango
Abstract: Governments often respond to accruing implementation blind-spots by further re-structuration of public bureaucracies. This mostly come with increased agencification and coordination primarily to enhance organizational efficacies and to produce trust for legitimation purposes. Accountability reforms, in particular, rarely address the related but intricate non-formal implementation processes, which also come with these efforts, mainly, organizational trust (or inter-institutional trust). This is despite mounting evidences on centrality of organizational trust in collaborative implementation processes of policy-reforms. Basing on qualitative data from Kenya, this paper explores production of organizational trust and its influence on the implementation environments for accountability reforms between oversight and governmental institutions. Data indicate that common difficulties in collaborative-implementation framework like fragile horizontal accountability-relations, misinterpretations of authority, obsession with control and autonomy, poor organizational-communication mechanisms, public trust deficits, poor internationalization and institutionalization, etc. also correspond to problematic of organizational trust. So, it is suggested that besides building public and inter-personnel trust, a policy-design should device steps that strengthen internal-accountability systems, enhance inter-organizational communication and justice systems. This should improve inter-agency trust and ease cultural-instrumental tensions typical in collaborative implementation relations.
Keywords: organizational culture; organizational communication; anti-corruption reforms; collaborative public management; organizational trust.
An empirical evaluation of stress and its impact on the engineering colleges faculty members in Tamil Nadu
by Senthil Kumar Arumugam, Seranmadevi R
Abstract: The present study examined the specific causes, levels and effects of stress experienced by faculty members who worked in Unaided Private Engineering and Technology (UPET) colleges in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Factor analysis and structural model were used to evaluate the relationship between the causes, subsequent effects at different level of stress and the appropriate personal and organisational stress coping strategies. Primary data were collected from 560 faculty members by employing convenience sampling method during the academic year 2017-18. The study revealed that, causes of stress influencing considerably the level of stress and the level of stress explained the high influence on the effect of stress variables. Both effects of stress and causes of stress were negatively influencing the stress coping strategies of personal as well as organizational level strategies.
Keywords: causes of stress; effects of stress; level of stress; coping strategies; UPET.
The Effect of Innovation Components on Organizational Performance: Case of the governorate of Golestan province
by Mehdi Tajpour, Elahe Hosseini, Aidin Salamzadeh
Abstract: Innovation is a combination of the overall success of an organization because of its efforts to modernize, improve, and apply various aspects of innovation in the organization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of innovation components on organizational performance in the Golestan province. This is an applied research, which is descriptive-correlative in terms of data collection. Thus, a 32-item structured questionnaire was adapted from the literature for hypotheses testing. The statistical population of the research consists of the management and staff members of the Golestan provincial government. According to Cochran's formula, the research questionnaire was randomly distributed among 94 individuals in the research population. The data were then analyzed with the SmartPLS 3 software using the structural equation modeling technique. Based on research findings, service innovation, administrative process innovation, and technological process innovation have a significant impact on organizational performance.
Keywords: Innovation; Service Innovation; Administrative Process Innovation; Technological Process Innovation; Organizational Performance.
Market Reaction to Stock Name Change Announcement in India
by Timcy Sachdeva
Abstract: Increasing global contest possesses managed firms en-path for higher demand for distinctiveness. Variables that are most eligible to uphold competitive supremacy, lead to emergence of companys image. Companies adopt stock name change strategy with a view to achieve corporate image. Name change signals variety of information that impacts the capital market. The present paper investigates stock name change impact on the shareholders wealth of Indian listed companies during 2008-2015. Using event study methodology, the results of the study suggests that on the announcement day abnormal returns were found and around the announcement with insignificant negative abnormal return indicating disapproval of name change. In addition, the type of industry in which the company lies does not create any value to the shareholders due to corporate name change. Further, it is analysed stock name change has no impact on shareholders wealth.
Keywords: Stock Name Change; Shareholders Wealth; Abnormal Return; Event Study; Signaling Mechanism.
Does Interaction with Customers on Social Networking Sites Matter to Building Brand Attachment? Embedding Brand Warmth & Brand Competence to the relationship
by VIKAS ARYA, Rajbir Singh Sethi, Hemraj Verma, Deepa Sethi, Anshuman Sharma
Abstract: The present research argues that customers interaction with brands on social networking sites can have underappreciated benefits to increase customers brand attachment behavior. The mediating effect of brand warmth and brand competence is further added to broaden the study. An empirical investigation was carried out from Indian customers. Formal analyses confirmed that brand attachment is improving when customers are having positive interaction with the brands on social networking sites, and brand warmth and brand competence acts as a mediator for both these outcomes. Furthermore, this helps to position the customers topical partaking which can help organizations to run digital campaigns on social networking sites for monitoring and decision-making, which is hedonic in the duel.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites; Brand’ interaction on SNSs; Brand Attachment; Consumer Behavior; Brand Warmth; Brand; Brand Competence; Online Community Building.
The Role of Commitment on the Effect of Public Workers OCBO on In-Role Performance
by Setyabudi Indartono
Abstract: Public workers have requirement and characteristics of public jobs are differed from the private ones. It is likely to be more related to political issues. They have to adjust their work orientations in different regimes obligations. They will play different behaviours and attitudes on their jobs. Hence it is important to investigate the effect of their behaviour on their attitudes. The services theory could make a more academic alternative to solve the problems of the complex service of public workes. OCBO is suggested to be represented to the service theory. However, the stronger worker-institution attachment is able to achieve higher work performance. Accordingly, this study is aimed to explore the various roles of commitment on the effect of Organizational citizenship behaviour-organization (OCBO) on Public Workers in-role performance. The commitment of public workers is investigated as the mediation of the effect of Organizational citizenship behaviour-organization (OCBO) on Public Workers in-role performance. University staffs are employed to this research. The findings show that OCBO significantly has an effect on their performance. The Affective, normative and continuance commitment have different roles on the effect of OCBO on in-role performance. The emotional attachment plays a significant role on OCBO rather than a feeling of obligation to create the stronger effect of OCBO on in-role performance. Public workers are likely to show their emotional attachment at work rather than their feeling of obligation. The high political issues are more regarded as an investment orientation rather the feeling obligation to the regime. The feeling of obligation is accepted when investment orientation and emotional attachment is reached. The implications and future research are discussed.
Keywords: OCBO; Commitment; In-role Performance.
Supervisory support and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: The role of Self-efficacy as mediator
by Meor Rashydan, Sabitha Marican
Abstract: Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) is important in the organisational behavioural research among scholars since it significantly contributes to the success of an organisation. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between supervisory support as the predictor OCB and the role of self-efficacy as the mediating variable. Data were collected from 270 public administrators at two government organisations in Putrajaya. Data analyses were conducted using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to test the research model hypotheses. The study highlights a significant positive relationship between supervisory support and self-efficacy as well as OCB. Self-efficacy is proven to be a complementary mediation variable in the relationship between supervisory support and OCB. The results suggest that organisation should be aware of individual characteristics to foster participation and engagement in OCB. The findings of this study contribute to the literature and open new avenues for future research.
Keywords: Supervisory support; Self-efficacy; Organisational citizenship behaviour; mediation; SmartPLS; Public sector.
Exploring Policy Governance Factors Using Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis: A Case Study of Solid Waste Management Policy in Malaysia
by Muhamad Azahar Abas, Seow Ta Wee
Abstract: This study was designed to explore the perception of stakeholders on solid waste policy governance in Malaysia. A total of 500 respondents were selected through random stratified sampling. The data of this study were collected via questionnaire distribution and were analysed by applying descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation and percentage) and inferential statistical analysis (t-test, correlation and stepwise multiple regression). The results of the study show that the perception of respondents on governance factors was varied, depending on the socio-demographic attributes of the respondents. Bivariate analysis reveals that all the policy governance factors are strong and positively connected to good governance elements practiced in solid waste policy implementation. However, multi regression model shows only three (3) policy governance factors, namely resources management, policy implementation system and staffs competency significantly influence good governance practice of the stakeholders.
Keywords: policy governance; solid waste management; stakeholder; good governance.
Construction and Validation of Public HealthCare Service Quality (PubHCServQual) model An empirical study of Indian Public Healthcare facilities in Digital era
by Rupal Khambhati, Hiren Patel, Satendra Kumar
Abstract: Measuring service quality is an effort that had been kept by several researchers in past for various services. The present research measures and addresses the service quality gap that exists among the services provided by the Hospital Industry. The major focus of any hospital is the patients and well-being of patients is the fundamental objective of any hospital. In this digital era, consumers are educated and smart and command satisfaction in all services. The present study is not limited to measure the service gap and identify the modified factors affecting the service quality but also confirm the same through confirmatory factor analysis for Indian Public Hospitals. Also, the study is extended to have separate confirmatory models for rural and urban public hospitals located in Surat, Gujarat, India. The study concludes and confirms Medical Services, Service Responsiveness, Discharge, Admission, Hygiene, and Visual Facility as modified factors for measuring service quality.
Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis; Empirical study; Public healthcare; Service quality.
Financial Inclusion: Impact of Accessibility, Availability, and Usage of Financial Services- a Study on Household Workers in Madhya Pradesh, India
by Bhuvanesh Kumar Sharma, Pooja Jain
Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the impact of the availability of finance, the source of finance and usage of finance on financial inclusion in the different demography of people. This study had made an attempt to throw a light on availability, accessibility, and usage of financial services to the household worker in the selected study area i.e. Gwalior city. Exploratory factor analysis is used to uncover several factors which need to be considered for the purpose of financial inclusion. The study was empirical in nature, therefore, primary data has been used and collected through standardized questionnaires distributed and it has been converted into the Hindi language in the Gwalior region only. The secondary data have been collected through journals, books & internet etc. The population was including all the household workers or domestic help of Gwalior region. 200 respondents selected as sample size by using nonprobability sampling technique. The re-standardized questionnaire used on the basis of Likert type scale for evaluating the accessibility, availability, and usage of financial services. The data was analyzed through statistical techniques; reliability analysis, T-test, Analysis of variance and linear regression, with the help of SPSS software. It can be concluded from the study that the demographic variables have significantly differ in accessibility, availability, and source of financial services.
Keywords: Accessibility of finance; Source of finance; Availability of finance; Demographic variables.
Efficiency and productivity of health insurance business of public and private general insurance companies in India: A DEA approach
by Pooja Kansra, Harinder Singh Gill
Abstract: The objective of the present paper was to examine the efficiency and productivity of health insurance business of public and private general insurance companies in India. The present study was based on the secondary data obtained from the annual reports of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and public and private general insurance companies of India. The analysis of the data was made with the help of Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist productivity index. It was observed that the mean of technical efficiency of the public sector companies was higher than of private sector companies. The total factor productivity change (TFPC) had decreased for all of the public general insurance companies from 2006-07 to 2013-14. If the trend continues then the public general insurance companies would not find health insurance business lucrative enough. Therefore, need is to raise the productivity of the health insurance business of public general insurers. While, the other private general insurance companies had shown tremendous increase in productivity from 2006-07 to 2013-14. This could be due to the fact that private companies had taken the advantage of technological change, efficiency change, pure technical efficiency change and scale efficiency change as compared to the public companies which had shown the reverse trends for the change in productivity. The mean of technical efficiency of public general insurance companies was 0.416 in 2006-07 and increased to 0.822 in 2013-14. The analysis of the data revealed that public general insurance companies had gradually improved their performance with regard to health insurance business in India. But at the same time there was an intensive competition from the private sector general insurance companies. On the basis of the analysis, it was suggested that the public general insurance companies should expand their activities and outreach in the competitive environment.
Keywords: Health insurance; DEA; Public insurers; technical efficiency; Pure technical efficiency; Scale efficiency; premium; commission; Malmquist productivity index; Total factor productivity change.
The Role of Chinese Electronics Products to Sway Middle-Class Buyer
by Parihar Dahake, Saket Bansod
Abstract: The boom in Indian electronics market has received its fair amount of adrenaline dose from Chinese electronics industry. The customary mass production system of China has revolutionized the electronic product and its market is perceived by other countries. The Chinese electronics products being produced item at large scale and having a competitive advantage when it boils down to pricing the product. China has always targeted the countries with large population with high purchasing capacity with cheap imports rates. These cheap imports generally attract the price conscious middle-class segment with its modern technology being available at very affordable rates. This study targets to investigate and analyze socioeconomic factors and buying behavior of consumer towards Chinese electronic products. The huge market potential has attracted Chinese products in plenty the study aims to find out the relevant factors like brand personality of these products, price, other attractive features of the product which has given them a dedicated and numerous customer bases. The study also wants to analyze the socioeconomic impact of these products in middle class purchasing decision making process.
Keywords: socioeconomic impact; Chinese; electronic product; middle class; buying behavior & decision making.
Justice in performance appraisal.
by Frøydis Vasset
Abstract: Background: Performance appraisal serve different functions within a university. It helps to identify and evaluate the performance of individual faculty members. The purpose is to explore justices; that is satisfaction with, professional learning from and work motivation generated by performance appraisals.Method: A quantitative research study with a survey in four universities in the west of Norway, 103 employees answered the questionnaire. Findings: Employees in universities are satisfied with and experience fair performance appraisal. They experience professional learning from fair performance appraisal, but not work motivation by fair performance appraisal. We found a weak correlation in the group of professors/researchers and administrative staff. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between procedural justice and satisfaction with the performance appraisal system, and between procedural justice and professional learning. There isn
Keywords: Performance appraisal; academia; university; justice; employees.
Influence Aspects of Audited Financial Statements, Administration Aspects, and Company Operational Aspects to Company Health Level
by Islahuzaman Islahuzaman
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence aspects of audited financial statements, administration aspects, and company operational aspects to company health level and the test results partially indicate that both financial aspects, operational aspects, and administrative aspects have a positive impact on corporate health. This research discusses how the company's health was reflected from financial aspects: return on equity (ROE), return on investment (ROI), cash ratio, current ratio, collection period, inventory turn-over, total asset turn over (TATO), and Total SE to assets. Results if the financial and administration aspects increase, then the health of the company will increase. The operational aspects have a positive and significant influence on the health of the company.
Keywords: administrative aspects; audited financial statements; company health; financial aspects; operational aspects.
IMPACT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AT MAHIKENG LOCAL MUNICIPALITY
by David Mello
Abstract: All employees need to be motivated to perform at their optimal level. There is a variety of ways in which employees can be motivated. The effective design and implementation of a performance management and development system (PMDS) is one of the ways in which employees can be motivated. The study on which this article is based sought to explore the impact of PMDS on employee motivation. The focus of this study is the Mahikeng Local Municipality (MLM) situated in the North West Province of the Republic of South Africa. The study mainly used the quantitative research method. The study used a questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. The Municipality has 801 employees. A sample of 100 employees was selected for participation. This sample constitutes 10% of the overall population. A major finding of the study is that PMDS does not contribute to employee motivation at the MLM.
Keywords: Performance; management; appraisal; motivation; South Africa; local government; Mahikeng; municipality.
THE IMPACT OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT TAXES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH FROM THE REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO
by Donat Rexha, Abdylmenaf Bexheti, Hajdin Berisha
Abstract: The effects of direct and indirect taxes on economic growth in transitional countries have created a strong debate regarding their contradictory results. Since taxes represent a vital factor of countries growth, the core objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of direct and indirect taxes on economic growth of Kosovo, as a relatively newly-independent country with a transitional economy. The study covers a ten-year period with a monthly time series from 2006m1 to 2016m9. The time series have been tested for unit root through the employment of Augmented Dickey Fuller test, to determine if time series data are stationary or possess unit root. Through the utilization of Johansen test for co-integration, the study analyses if models contain at least one co-integrating vector, thus indicating significant long-term relationship among direct, indirect taxes and economic growth in the country. Finally, to find the impact of direct and indirect taxes on economic growth, Vector autoregressive model unrestricted VAR has been employed. Results suggest a positive and significant effect of indirect taxes on real GDP in Kosovo. Having into consideration such results and due to the positive effects of indirect taxes contributed by the high dominance level of consumption taxes in comparison with direct taxes, further recommendations for Kosovo tax policymakers have been suggested.
Keywords: direct taxes; indirect taxes; growth; Kosovo.
Does fiscal policy accelerate economic growth in transition economies: The case of Republic of North Macedonia?
by Besnik Fetai , Abdylmenaf Bexheti, Liza Alili-Sulejmani, Veland Ramadani
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate empirically the relationships and the causal link between fiscal policy and economic growth in the Republic of Macedonia during the period 1990-2015. The study employs the quarterly data set of public finance, which are classified according to Barro and Sala-i-Martin model in a small open economy. For this purpose, we employ Vector Error Correction Model (VECM- henceforth) in order to examine the relationships and causal link between fiscal policy and economic growth. The results of cointegration vector show that productive expenditure and non- distortionary revenues have long run coefficients of 0.86 and 0.84 respectively, indicating positive effect on real GDP, while distortionary revenues have long run coefficient of -1.14, indicating negative effect on real GDP in the long-run. However, unproductive expenditures are excluded from the long-run equilibrium, thus they do not have any effect on economic growth in the long -run. The Granger Causality test shows that productive expenditures and non-distortionary revenues in the Granger sense cause real GDP.
Keywords: Cointegration analysis; Granger Causality test; fiscal policy; economic growth; North Macedonia.
SME Informal Export Model in Cibaduyut SME Cluster in Indonesia
by Wawan Dhewanto, Sri Herliana, Donald Crestofel Lantu, Nur Lawiyah
Abstract: SME cluster is an appropriate environment for SMEs with international ambitions. The model of their business activitiesformally and informally in the context of exportis very interesting to be studied deeper. The role of SMEs in the context of exports in clusters occurs in various countries around the world. There are some studies discussing export activities in SME clusters in developed countries, while there is a lack of discussion for the developing countries. This study aims to analyze the export model activities undertaken by SMEs in one of the clusters. This study is supported by primary data obtained from a case study research of Cibaduyut SME cluster, which is a footwear SME cluster in Indonesia that has the potential and experience in the activities of foreign markets; with qualitative data collected from results of in-depth interviews of 10 SMEs in the cluster. The research obtains an informal export activity model that is carried out in Cibaduyut SME cluster.
Keywords: SME cluster; informal export model; SME internationalization.
THE ROLE OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN IMPROVING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES IN ENUGU STATE NIGERIA
by Charity Ezenwakwelu, Chineze Etukokwu
Abstract: The study investigated the role of performance management system in improving employee performance, using federal public sector employees in Enugu State Nigeria as a case study. The objectives of the study were to identify the nature of relationship between performance management system (PMS) and employee performance (EP) and the effect of the various phases of PMS (planning and developing performance, monitoring and reviewing performance and rewarding performance) on key employee performance indicators (output quality, presentism/punctuality and service delivery timeliness). A quantitative research design was adopted using a questionnaire as the tool to gather data from a random selection of two hundred (200) Federal public sector workers in four federal ministries departments and agencies (MDAs) in Enugu state. The data were analysed using the SPSS v20 software. Results from the analyses showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between performance management system and employee performance, meaning that an effective PMS will play a significant role in improving the performance of employees. However, responses of the respondents revealed that although there is a PMS available in their MDAs its effectiveness was not felt. The findings also further revealed that all PMS phases had a significant and positive effect on the EP indicators used. The phase of rewarding performance, however, had the most effect as 83% of the variation in service delivery timeliness in the MDAs was explained by the reward phase. The study concluded that for an efficient federal public sector in Enugu State Nigeria there is the need for an effective PMS to manage the performance of public servants. It was recommended among others that the Federal Government of Nigeria and management of MDAs should give performance management system the importance it deserves by finding ways of enhancing its effectiveness.
Keywords: Employee Performance; Performance Management System; Public Sector; Rewarding Performance; Ministries Departments and Agencies (MDAs).
Does Government Debt promote Economic Growth? New Empirical Evidence from Ghana
by SAMUEL TAWIAH BAIDOO, Emmanuel Duodu, Evans Kwarteng, Grace Boatemaa, Linda Opoku, Alex Antwi, Raphael Akomea Appiah
Abstract: The importance of infrastructural projects by governments cannot be overemphasised as far as economic growth and development are concerned. Though these projects could be financed by generated revenues, this has often not been the case in most developing countries due to lower revenue which in turn leads to huge spending gaps. As a result, governments of developing economies have resorted to both internal and external borrowing to finance such projects. However, this approach to financing these projects is expected to have influence on economies. This study therefore revisits past studies and provides new empirical evidence regarding government debt and economic growth nexus. Using annual time series data from 1980 to 2017 on Ghana, the study employs the autoregressive distributed lag model for analysis. The results show among others that government debt exerts negative influence on economic growth. Based on the findings, vital policy implications have been provided.
Keywords: Government debt; economic growth; infrastructure; developing countries; spending gap; Ghana.
Punctuated Equilibrium Theory and Enhancement of Local Government Investment Pool Innovation
by Julius Nukpezah
Abstract: This article draws on the punctuated equilibrium theory for a theoretical backdrop to examine the causes of incremental and revolutionary changes in LGIP innovations using secondary sources of information. The study finds that the adoption of LGIP innovations that are state-sponsored, local government-sponsored, and risk-averse occurred during focusing events. The second major finding is that incremental changes occurred across states over a period of time to make the LGIPs more effective and comply with unique state investment policy preferences. The study contributes to understanding how governments adapt innovations to their unique environments to reflect their preferences and how they respond to focusing events through enhancements of innovations.
Keywords: Local Government Investment Pools; Cash management; Treasury management; Financial management innovation; Interlocal agreement; Collaboration; Competition; Risk management; Innovation; Performance; Punctuated equilibrium theory.
Special Issue on: Synergising Digital-based Technology, Accounting and Management in Developing Business Sustainability and Economic Growth in Emerging Markets
Technology Acceptance Model of the Indonesian Government Financial Reporting Information Systems
by Wahyu Agus Winarno, Hendrawan Santosa Putra
Abstract: This study applies the Technology Acceptance Model to explore the Government Financial Reporting Information Systems (GFRIS) in Indonesia. The model empirically tested using data gathered from 73 respondents of Chief Finance Administration Officer, revenue treasurer, and expenditure treasurer in Surabaya city government of Indonesia. Sampling technique used in this research is clustered sampling. The research model was tested by using the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach.
The results showed that all constructs in the TAM model were statistically significant. The findings suggest that experience has a positive impact on ease of use and usefulness. Conversely, Gender as external variables has no effect on the ease of use and the usefulness of GFRIS. Findings from this study contribute to the literature on user acceptance of information systems, and provide insights to assess the user acceptance by focusing on user experience in the government and financial context.
Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model; GFRIS; Experience; Gender.
Exploring the Relation between Interest Rate and Stock Market Indices An ARDL Approach
by Jitendra Dixit, Sanjeev Gupta
Abstract: The relation between interest rate and stock market is always a matter to be explored as outcome ranges between positive and negative even few studies supported no relation. These variations in results motivate the researchers to re-investigate the relation between both the variables.
For the analysis, same daily data of interest rate and stock market indices (Sensex) is converted in to weekly, monthly and quarterly from April 2011 to March 2016.Database of interest rate and stock market indices is collected from the web portal of Reserve Bank of India and Bombay Stock Exchange. This paper uses unit root test followed by ARDL bound test to characterize the dynamics of stock market indices to interest rate shocks. Results support the negative relation between both the variables for daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly data during long-run and short-run expect quarterly data where a short-run positive relation exists.
Keywords: VAR;interest rate;inflation;Sensex.
Special Issue on: ICAF 2018 Improving Public Sector Performance in Developing Countries Issues, Trends and Challenges
GOVERNMENT POLICY AND CIGARETTE INDUSTRY PERFORMANCE IN INDONESIA
by Rediyanto Putra, Oryza Ardhiarisca
Abstract: This objective of this study is to examine the level of performance differences of cigarette industry companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) before and after the implementation of government policy that called PP. 109 in 2012. The financial performance of this study is measured by the potential level of bankruptcy, liquidity, profitability, and solvency. This research uses purposive sampling method to determine the research sample. The research period used in this research is for eight years from 2009 until 2016. The research was conducted by using paired t-test. The results showed that there were significant differences in the level of bankruptcy and profitability potential before and after the application of PP. 109 of 2012. The results of the study failed to find any significant differences in the level of liquidity and solvency before and after the application of PP. 109 of 2012. The implications of this study based on the conclusions of the research results indicate that the application of PP no. 109 of 2012 needs to be reviewed again and need other solutions that can be done to maintain the operational sustainability of tobacco companies. This research is only able to use three of four companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange. Thus, further research is expected to maximize the number of companies used by combining secondary data and the company's primary data.
Keywords: Bankruptcy; Government policy; Liquidity; Profitability; Solvability.
The Intersection of National and International Quality Assurance Procedures in Higher Education in Jordan: a deduced guide for academic programs and curricula at Yarmouk University
by Ali Rawabdeh, Dr. Rami M. Tbaishat
Abstract: Purpose: The main aim of this article is to explore the quality assurance procedures in the higher education institutions in Jordan considering national and international accredited agencies.
Design/methodology/approach: The researchers conducted a filed visit to four major public universities and conducted a few on-site interviews with key officers to see at the standard quality assurance and enhancement; and, utilized a few uncovered materials over quality assurance endeavors.
Findings: The quality assurance in higher education institution in Jordan is seen by most of the universities in premises helpful and duty-bound obliged to just accept because of external pressure for demonstrating quality assurance and certification.
For Joran to reach quality assurance in higher education, enthusiastic support of the highest management within the university to decide the proposed structure in this article with clear definition to specification and descriptions to quality units, committees, working groups, over program and course development and delivery collaborated and benchmarked to local and worldwide authorizes organizations.
Originality/value: This valuable contribution can work as a guide for the development of inner quality profile inside the development and delivery of course and program portfolios, in expansion as keep up property quality management and enhancement programs.
Keywords: Quality Assurance; Procedures; Higher education; and Certification.
Special Issue on: SIMSARC 2017 Government Initiatives and Policies in India
Urban Transport Policy in India: A Review
by Aanchal Airy, Jyoti Chandiramani
Abstract: Indias total population has added 181 million dwellers in a decade of 2001-2011 and stood at 1210.19 million (Census of India, 2011). Of this total population, urban population accounts for 31.2% and home to 5 megacities with a population of more than 10 million and projected to add an additional two megacities by 2030 (United Nation, 2016). The cities are likely to generate 70% of the GDP by 2030 from the 58% in 2008 (McKinsey Global Institute, 2010) which will place pressure on the municipal bodies, which are required to meet the needs of basic infrastructure and services to ensure a decent quality of life to the urban citizens. Transport being an integral and important part of urban services is required to be reliable, safe, efficient, accessible, sustainable and affordable for the citizens and considering this vision, transport policies and guidelines have been accordingly drafted. However, the current state of urban transport system in India is found to be deficient, when compared with the best global standards of sustainability. The paper is an attempt by the researchers, to explore the various policies dedicated to urban transport sector, identifying the issues and gaps in the implementation process and finally putting forward some short to long term solution to make the cities livable.
Keywords: Sustainable Urban Transport; Transport Issues; Urbanization; Urban Mobility and Urban Transport Policy.
Product Conspicuousness & Reference group Influence among women: An Empirical Analysis
by Semila Fernandes, Rajesh Panda
Abstract: Abstract: The main aim of this study is to investigate reference group influence among women towards purchases of PRN (private necessity), PRL (private luxury), PUN (public necessity) and PUL (public luxury) product categories. During product and service purchases, women are more influenced by reference group influence compared to men as they are more socially connected compared to their male counterparts. The sample size for the study consisted of 1044 women respondents from Bengaluru area. The scale used for studying reference group influence was developed by Park and Lessig which was partially modified and product conspicuousness paradigm was adopted by Bearden & Etzel. The results of reference group influence across product categories indicated that informational reference group (IRG) was the most universal form of influence for all types of product categories. Utilitarian reference group (URG) was the most relevant towards PRL purchases while Value-expressive reference group (VERG) showed significant results towards PUL product category. Similarly, reference group influence within product categories revealed that respondents rated PRL higher for IRG and URG influences. Additionally, respondents rated PUL higher for IRG and VERG influences. Results through post-hoc analysis showed a pattern or a relationship between groups in data which were significantly different from each other. This brings to emphasis that women segments are important audiences which marketers shouldnt ignore in their advertisements. The study also puts forth implications for marketers and scope for future research.
Keywords: consumer behavior; reference group influence; women buying behavior; product conspicuousness; informational reference group influence; utilitarian reference group influence; value expressive reference group influence.
Antecedents of Green Consumer Behavior; a study of consumers in a developing country like India
by Aradhana Gandhi, Pratima Sheorey
Abstract: This paper aims to explore the parameters that affect the purchase behaviour of green consumers in a developing country like India. An empirical study was conducted in which data were collected through an e-survey. 437 people aged 18-55 and belonging to seven cities across India participated in the survey. The study suggests that marketers and regulators should educate citizens about environmental concerns, thereby generating awareness towards buying green products. Social Influence has been identified as an important determinant of green consumer behavior, therefore, marketers should use social media extensively to encourage people to share their experiences related to green purchases, products and behavior; doing so would influence others and help promote similar behavior. Ethics has been identified as another important determinant of green consumer behavior. Keeping this in mind, marketers can identify people who are already a part of some sustainability drive as their target segment for selling green products. Findings of the study would help organizations better understand Indian consumers behavior and attitude towards green products. Such understanding may help increase sales and also promote environmentally friendly behavior among consumers of a developing country like India.
Keywords: India; Green marketing; Green consumer behavior; Social influence; Ethics; Environmental concern.
Analysis of effect of perceived cybercrime risk on mobile app payments
by Abhishek Behl, Abhinav Pal, Chandan Tiwari
Abstract: The evolution of e-commerce has reformed the way in which business is done. However, security issues pertaining to online transactions have posed limitations to its expansion. Internet services, particularly those of a financial nature continue to make users anxious in its usage. The present study uses technology acceptance models coupled with cyber criminology to expose the factors responsible for deviation of risk-averse customers from having frequent access to online transactions. Data is collected for Tier-1 cities in India owing to higher rate of diffusion of mobile application based payments. Structural equation modeling is used to test the hypothesis. The perceived risk of cybercrime is adjusted for the users confidence online to assess its effects. Primary variables like trust, perception of users, societal influence and awareness are also taken into consideration. It is found that perceived risk of cybercrime adversely affects the usage of apps for transacting online. Cybercrime risk inversely impacts the confidence of users, and thus their tendency of using mobile apps for payments. Strong correlation is also found between victims of cybercrime and their frequency of usage before and after the crime. There is thus a need to address these issues to enable online merchants to retain their customers, and for e-commerce to flourish fully.
Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model; Cyber Crime; Mobile Apps; Tier-1 cities; India; Consumer Behaviour.
GENDER EQUALITY BASED TALENT ACQUISITION AND RETENTION PRACTICES: A STUDY OF EMPLOYEES IN DELHI-NCR REGION
by Latika Malhotra, JAGDEEP SINGH
Abstract: Gender equality is a very complex and diversified issue due to its relevance in every sphere of the existence. India ranks 130th amongst 188 countries in Human Development Index and 127th among 146 countries in Gender Inequality Index of UNDPs Human Development Report 2015. Whether it is about earning bread or about raising the family, there has always been an inequality around distribution of roles and responsibilities between males and females in India. This inequality and equality has been a matter of concern for the researchers all around the world. This paper tries to examine the existence of Gender equality at workplace. To keep abreast of the latest strategies in emerging markets and also as a part of their Corporate Social Responsibility, organizations these days are contributing positively towards making the position of women workers better at their workplace. The study focuses on gender based talent acquisition and retention practices prevalent in organizations based in Delhi NCR region. For this purpose, a plethora of researches have been studied. The research shows an optimistic future in the light of gender sensitive patterns of talent acquisition and retention practices in the organizations.
Keywords: Gender Equality; Gender Inequality; Gender Diversity; Talent Acquisition; Talent Retention; Corporate Social Responsibility.
A study on the impact of various dimensions of conflict in channel relationship and performance.
by Ameer Hussain, Biranchi Narayan Swar, Rumna Bhattacharyya
Abstract: Purpose-The purpose of the paper is to give overall dimensions of Conflict including Type of conflict, Internal environment of Conflict and Magnitude of Conflict which determines whether a particular conflict is a functional conflict or Dysfunctional conflict by analyzing its impact on channel Work relationship and Channel performance with respect to Indian pump Manufacturer and Distributor.
Design/methodology/approach-Telephonic and Email Survey was conducted among 210 Industrial Pump Distributors across the country to measure different variables. Based on Structural Educational Modeling (SEM) a thorough analysis was done to find the inter relationship between various dimensions of conflict and it effect on the channel output.
Findings- The outcome of the study concludes that among all the dimensions of conflict, Cognitive Conflict i.e. Objective specific conflict is having the highest positive impact on the work relationship satisfaction, followed by Magnitude of conflict which is also having a significant impact on the work relationship satisfaction. There is a significant relationship between Work relationship and Channel Performance.
Research limitations/implications- The findings of the study on conflict management related to Industrial pump Manufacturers and Distributors cannot be generalised to other forms of relationship like the relationship that is between boss and subordinates or between employer and employee.
Practical implications we recommend to the senior managers of both the manufacturer and distributor to have cognitive conflict with less magnitude so that it can be functional conflict resulting in healthier channel relationship and better channel performance.
Originality/value In this paper, we have discussed various dimensions of conflict to categories a particular conflict as functional conflict/Dysfunctional conflict with respect to the Indian context.
Keywords: Channel Management; Conflict Management; Work Relationship; Channel Performance.
Determinants of Inward Foreign Direct Investment in India- A Factor Analysis Approach
by Sharmiladevi JekkaChandrasekaran
Abstract: Foreign direct investment (FDI) is now widely perceived as an important resource for expediting the industrial development of developing countries in view of the fact that it flows as a bundle of capital, technology, skills and sometimes even market access. Most of the developing countries, therefore, offer a welcoming attitude to multinational enterprises (MNEs) that are usually associated with FDI. India's case is a typical in this context. As the domestic base of 'created' assets, viz, technology, skills, entrepreneurship was limited, the attitude towards FDI was increasingly receptive. FDI was sought on mutually advantageous terms though the majority local ownership was preferred (Kumar, 2005). FDI is a predominant and vital factor in influencing the contemporary process of global economic development. The shift of the power center from the Western developed countries to the Asian sub-continent is an important reason to take up this study. Many factors play a significant role in influencing the amount of FDI which India receives. The study seeks to answer the following questions: What are the significant determinants of FDI inflow. The variables that significantly determines FDI inflow into India keeps changing over time, which needs a thorough study. From the existing literature reviews the researcher come to understand that the inflow of FDI is influenced by many macroeconomic determinants. Among the given variables, it is necessary to find out those set of macroeconomic variables that significantly influences. It is because the determinants keep on changing with time. So, the objective of this study is to analyze the various factors which influence and determine the FDI inflows into India and to spot out those determinants which are significant in determining FDI inflow. Annual data of inflow of FDI from the year 1990 to 2010 has been taken for examining the determinants of FDI inflow. The present study is based on secondary data, which has been collected from published documents like World Investment Report, Economic Survey, SIA Newsletter and Handbook of Statistics of Indian Economy. Variables Examined includes, Net FDI inflow, Labour cost proxied by workers remittances and receipts, Urbanization measured by population in large cities, Inflation measured from GDP deflator, Human capital measured through gross enrolment in secondary schools, Trade, Official exchange rate, Gross domestic product expressed as a percentage of FDI. Factor Analysis is used 2 for identifying and grouping the set of variables which significantly influence and determine FDI inflow. Based on Principal Component Analysis (Extraction Method) and Varimax with Kaiser Normalization (Rotation Method), two common factors identified. A regression analysis is carried to identify the power of the two variables in influencing inward FDI. Results of the regression analysis indicate that internal economic conditions and external economic conditions together explains 91.80 percentage of inward FDI.
Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment; determinants; factor analysis and regression analysis.
Identification of enablers for CSR implementation using ISM technique
by Naval Lawande
Abstract: The article intends to understand the crucial drivers (enablers) of CSR implementation in companies. The study was carried out using the ISM (Interpretive Structural Modeling) technique to critically analyze different enablers of CSR (Corporate social responsibility) implementation in companies in the Indian context. The present study identifies 12 CSR implementation drivers or enablers based on review of literature and followed by the opinion from the people in authority. The paper cites that community participation in the CSR initiatives of the firm is major enabler in CSR implementation and the importance of employee involvement in CSR implementation. The implications thereof are applicable to all executives handling CSR projects. The contemporary study shall be useful to both academicians and practitioners. This ISM based approach of CSR implementation will help practitioners to concentrate on important drivers to have better implementation of CSR activities in their companies showcase profitability.
Keywords: CSR; ISM; CSR implementation.
A Study of the Effect of Vipassana Meditation Practices on Employees Satisfaction with Life
by Seema Pradhan, Ajithkumar Vadakki Veetil
Abstract: Life satisfaction is an individuals perception about how well their life is progressing. It is an accepted fact that spirituality makes us better human beings. In this empirical study an attempt has been made to study the effect of Vipassana meditation, an ancient meditation technique on the life satisfaction of employees. We have used Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) developed by Diener et al. (1985) to collect data. In total 240 samples were collected from each group of employees namely non-meditator and meditators. Detailed statistical analysis was done using SPSS Ver. 20.0. Group differences were tested by t-Test and univariate analysis. Results indicate that satisfaction with life scores are higher in case of meditator employees and the scores are independent of demographic factors. Also, the effect of meditation variables on SWLS scores is discussed. The results validate use of Vipassana meditation as an intervention in an organizational setup.
Keywords: Demographic factors; Employees; Life satisfaction; Meditation practices; Vipassana meditation.
SIGNALLING ROLE OF 2G SCAM INVESTIGATION ON STOCK MARKET RETURNS OF SELECT TELECOM COMPANIES IN INDIA
by Pooja Gupta, Nainika Jain
Abstract: India is one of the biggest markets in telecommunication. It is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. The growth in the sector is also fuelled by one of the lowest call rates in the world. The growth in technology in the telecom sector and the growing affordability of the technology led to adoption of 2G technology in the Indian markets. The adoption of technology led to the Government of India holding an auction for spectrum for the telecom service providers. The irregularities in allocation of spectrum for 2G technology has resulted in one of the biggest scams perpetrated ever in India. The scam was believed to be all pervasive involving various government officials, politicians and telecom service providing companies. rnAs the scam unfolded over 2009 to 2011, there was a lot of upheaval in the share prices of all the telecom companies listed in India. This study identifies the signaling effect of disclosures in 2G scam investigation by using event study methodology. The study finds that news regarding the scam during the time period does not affect the returns from the shares of telecom companies significantly. rn
Keywords: event study; telecom; stock markets; scam; expected returns; signaling; behavioral finance.
The lead-lag relationship between Futures and Options Market: A Study on the Financial Services Sector of NSE Nifty
by Vaishali Jain
Abstract: The present study is aimed at investigating the lead-lag relation between the futures and options contracts traded in NSE with reference to the financial services sector. The study uses 15-minute interval prices for the near month futures and options contracts to examine this relationship. The authors have used Unit Root Tests, Co-integration Test, VECM and the Granger Causality test in order to establish the contemporaneous relationship between futures and options markets in India. The inferences from this study will prove to be helpful for the investors because there are very few papers that have attempted investigating the lead-lag relation in the Indian Stock market represented by National Stock Exchange. Apart from this, the present study is different and better than the previous studies regarding the methodology and scope. Therefore, in view of the improvements, it may also contribute to the literature and help investors take better positions in the market.
Keywords: Price discovery; Cointegration; VECM; Granger Causality.
An Empirical analysis of Money supply, Inflation and Output: The Case of India
by Asha Nadig, Viswanathan T
Abstract: The theory of money is described by different economists in different ways. While the Classical and Keynesian economists have explained the concept of Money Neutrality, these two theories contradict their approach towards money neutrality. The Classical theory states that any change in the money supply can change the price level but not the output. Keynesian theory of economics supports the argument that a change in money supply affects the economic output in the short run and equilibrium is maintained in the long run.
The contradictory views of classical and Keynesian economists towards the theory of money is the trigger for this research. The researchers have undertaken the present study to examine the relationship amongst money supply, GDP and Inflation.
The Keynesian theory has relevance to the developed and developing economies, more so after the 2008-09 financial crisis. The various tests performed show that money supply and inflation have positive and negative effects on GDP. Money supply and inflation have no impact during the short term. The Keynesian economic theory of money is therefore applicable in the context of Indian economy.
The research findings facilitate the economic policy decision makers. The fiscal and monetary policies can be designed to stimulate growth by an increase in government spending, reduction in taxes and a drop in interest rates.
Keywords: GDP; Money Supply; Inflation; Causality; Cointegration.
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND ONLINE SHOPPING: THE STUDY OF ONLINE SHOPPING ADOPTION (WITH REFERENCE TO LUCKNOW CITY)
by VAIBHAV MISRA, ANUBHA VASHISHT
Abstract: Considering the rapid growth of online shoppers and their interests in shopping online we planned our study. Our study identifies the factors that influence the behaviour of consumers to shop online and the intensity of the factors to which it is considered as a deciding variable. Data was collected from 384 respondents from Lucknow city using structured questionnaire. Convenience sampling was used for collecting the data. We used linear regression to develop our model. The result of linear regression showed that information search and electronic word of mouth were the most important factors and had influence on online shopping adoption. We used Spearman's correlation to quantify the intensity of these factors on consumers' online shopping behaviour.
Keywords: Online Shopping; Online Shopping Behavior; Information Search; Electronic Word of Mouth (e-WOM); factors of online shopping adoption.
The Role of Government Campaign commercials in Shaping Government Brand Equity
by Shubhanshu Naik, Mallika Srivastava, Poornima Tapas
Abstract: The Government, for the progress and upliftment of the standard of living of citizens, simultaneously runs various campaigns. These campaigns not only exhibit the conducts of the government but also act as Goodwill ambassador! In order to disseminate information and create awareness, government extensively advertises such campaigns. In addition, these 'Campaign commercials' help in establishing Brand image of the government. Present study is an attempt to explore the impact of Government Campaign commercials on Governments Brand Equity. This study not only reveals the perception of the public to the government but also establishes the relevance of campaign advertisements by government. Foundation of the present study is based on extensive review of existing literature by authors. In the present study, to collect public responses towards impact of Government Campaign commercials in influencing Governments Brand Equity, self-administered questionnaire was used. This study proposes relevance of campaign advertisements for government branding in India. Findings of this study can further be used by professional agencies involved in designing effective campaign commercials for the government. The study provides a new dimension to understand the relevance of campaign commercials for forming the brand image of the Government in India. In this space, it is one of the initial attempts.
Keywords: Brand Image; Campaign Commercials; Government Brand Awareness; Government Brand Association; Government Brand Loyalty; Government Brand Equity; Political Branding; Political Brand Equity.
A Study on the impact of FDI policy and the foreign exchange management in India
by Venkataraman R, Thilak Venkatesan
Abstract: The management of the foreign exchange rate is crucial for all developing countries like India. In the case of China, the exchange rate is fixed, but a floating exchange is more dynamic to manage as it would have an unembellished effect on the importers or exporters. The various initiatives by the fiscal & monetary authorities must complement to have a prolific impact. Prior Studies indicate that FDI has a significant impact on the exchange rate and the same is evident from government initiatives of opening or initiating higher FDI into India. On the other hand, the sectors opened also should provide adequate returns justifying the investment for the Investor. In this regard, the paper attempts to study the FDI flows into the various sectors, their profitability, and the impact of FDI flows on the Exchange rate. Various theories augment the fact that a higher inflow of foreign capital would aid in appreciating the Rupee. The data was collected through secondary sources and seemingly unrelated regression was used to analyze sector specific flows and multiple regression to assess the impact of FDI flows to currency appreciation. The Automobiles sector observed a significant effect on the exchange and the study observed 21 sectors that affect the Dollar/Rupee exchange for better policy action.
Keywords: Fiscal & Monetary Policy; Foreign exchange; panel data; econometric model,seemingly unrelated regression model.
LOCUS OF CONTROL AND ITS IMPACT ON STRESS AT WORK AND JOB SATISFACTION
by Vinita Sinha, Sonali Bhattacharya, Pooja Sharma
Abstract: Purpose: Current paper investigates the relationship between job stress, locus of control and job satisfaction.rnDesign/ Methodology: Data was collected from the working professional from India, respondents who completed the questionnaire were taken into study.rnFindings: The findings indicate higher the internal locus of control, lower will be the level of job stress and higher will be the job satisfaction. Though strong positive relationship exist between internal locus of control and job satisfaction, job stress may play partially mediating role. External locus of control (both Others and Chance) does not impact job satisfaction, but impact positively job stress. In a nutshell individuals or organizations should aim to develop strategies to reinforce internal locus of control in the employees so as to ensure stress free and satisfied work force.rnOriginality: This is an original piece of work, studying the impact of LOC on job attitudes namely job stress and job satisfaction in a non- Western setting. rn
Keywords: Locus of Control; Job Stress;Work; Job Satisfaction.
Special Issue on: ICFBE 2018 Performance Management of Family Businesses for Sustainable Growth in Asia-Pacific Countries
Determining an appropriate product-service system management to encourage firms sustainability: a conceptual framework (Case for Indonesian industrial estate firms)
by Christina Wirawan, Gatot Yudoko, Yuliani Dwi Lestari
Abstract: The Product-Service System (PSS) is a concept that helps firms to protect the environment. It can create the opportunity for a new business model as well as develop social community by diminishes tangible products consumption and replace it with a bundle of products and services innovatively. If determine appropriately, PSS can bring competitive advantage as well as sustainability to firms. To determine the suitable bundle of products and services, firms need to study their resources, capabilities and core competencies. In this article, we built a conceptual framework for industrial estate firms that have limited products to sell but play important role in national development and to determine the suitable PSS to gain sustainability, specifically for the case of Indonesian industrial estate firms by means of an in-depth literature review and secondary data supporting.
Keywords: capabilities; core competence; Indonesian industrial estate firm; product-service system; resource; sustainability.
Tourism Development using Family Business Entrepreneurs: A New Paradigm
by Ajay A. Chauhan, Ketwadee Madden
Abstract: Destinations have destination image as products have brand image. So if products do have product life cycle, the destination could have destination life cycle. The purpose of this research is to draw parallels to devise a strategic approach to the tourism development with specific focus of destinations development and discuss how family business small enterprises can be used in taking a destination to the maturity stage. This research is qualitative based on the analysis of case studies of a few destinations where family business enterprises have played a major role. The theory that emerges is that family business enterprises could be effectively utilized in the development stage to minimize the overall cost of development and in growth and maturity stage to create competitive advantage for a destination. There are not enough studies using concepts of strategic management for tourism development, though there are plenty of studies in destination marketing.
Keywords: Destination Life Cycle; Tourism Development Strategy; Family Business; Small Enterprises; Tourism Value Chain.
Special Issue on: MSBFC 2018 Financial Innovations, Financial Regulations and Structural Changes in Financial Sector
Social and Financial Performance of Indian Banking Sector
by Sukhpreet Kaur
Abstract: Banking sector of any country plays dual role, in achieving the social goals on the one hand and improving the financial strength on the other. The study analyzes the role of Indian Banking Sector in discharging social obligations as per recent guidelines and impact of the same in improving financial returns. Significant negative relationship is found between the social and financial performance of Indian Banking Sector. Although social responsibility is taken as an important tool for improving the financial performance of corporate sector but Indian Banking Sector is not able to get this benefit may be due to lack of awareness among people regarding the social initiatives undertaken by banks or the cost involved in undertaking these social initiatives is much more than the benefit Indian banks are able to get in the form of financial returns. The study gives an idea about how Indian Banking Sector is discharging social obligations but this information does not reach the society at large to reap the benefits of financial returns.
Keywords: Social Performance; Financial Performance; Indian Banking Sector; Social Initiatives; Indian Companies Act; 2013.
Foreign Institutional Investment Flows in Indian Economy: An Empirical Study
by Suresh Kumar Kashyap, Shakshi Thakur
Abstract: The command of LPG (liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation) has been one of the major decisions taken by the Indian government in the aftermath of the deteriorating condition of Indian economy. When India opened its doors, as expected, foreign investment flew in with great amount. Amongst various forms of foreign investment, FII flows have been the major components. FII since their entry in 1992 till date have been showing great existence in terms of their numbers registered with SEBI and the amount of investment in Indian equity and debt market. Their number from 3 in 1993-94 has gone up to 1755 in 2014-15. USA along with other countries like Mauritius, France, UK, Denmark, Switzerland, and German has emerged as the major investors. Some of the major FIIs include Euro Pacific Growth Fund, Oppenheimer Developing Market Fund, Govt. of Singapore and Aberdeen Global Indian Equity (Mauritius) Fund with their huge investment in the country. As per this research, it has been also found that the major FII flows have made their presence in the Indian stock market though with some exemptions in few years. In addition to this, it has also been observed that amongst various components of FPI like FIIs, ADRs/GDRs and offshore funds, FIIs have constituted the major proportion like FII share amongst other components of FPI stood at 66 % in 2000-01 which got increase to 95 % in the year 2014-15.
Keywords: FIIs; FPI; Equity and Debt; Offshore fund; SEBI.
IMPACT OF IFRS CONVERGENCE ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO IT SECTOR
by Gagandeep Singh, Sukhpreet Kaur, Rahul Sharma
Abstract: The convergence of Ind AS with IFRS in phased manner has led Indian companies to make suitable changes in the financial statements. This is done to ensure high quality information, transparency and comparability of financial figures. The present study assesses the impact of Ind AS on the reported net income and equity of sample companies by taking into account seven major key impact areas. The Grays index of conservatism is also used on the reported equity to quantify the level of conservatism between previous IGAAP with new Ind AS. Based on the financial results shown by ten sample IT companies, the study finds that there is steep rise and fall in their net income and equity during Ind AS transition process. It also finds that both Ind AS and IGAAP are equally conservative in the reporting of equity.
Keywords: Ind - AS; net income; equity; conservatism.
Special Issue on: Shifting Goal Posts Transformations in Emerging Markets
Sustainable Development- Goals and Challenges Ahead in Developing Countries
by Sarah Ahtesham
Abstract: Sustainable development is an idea to use current resources judiciously and replace the same for future generations as well. It is a practice of maintaining processes of productivity indefinitely, by replacing resources used with the same of equal or greater value without degrading natural biotic systems. This research paper is an attempt to analyse the concept of sustainability from its origin along with in depth understanding of its relevance especially in developing countries like India. The inclusive process of intergovernmental negotiations at global level have defined a set of sustainable development goals as per United Nations Sustainable development summit, which has a major agenda of achieving sustainable development by all means across the world. This research attempts to anticipate the position and situations under which these goals would be fulfilled by India. Moreover the various challenges associated with sustainability have been discussed herewith, mostly involving people residing in rural areas of developing countries. The onus of sustainability begins from rural areas, where as the ground reality says that these people are bound to immediate surroundings for short term survival and are assumed to be the mist exposed to resource degradation. Hence the challenge of unsustainablity and rural poverty are interrelated. The research analyses the means through which these challenges can be faced, strategies such as better opportunities, enabling empowerment and increasing security to decelerate poverty and achieve sustainable development are discussed.
Keywords: Challenges and Strategies; Developmental Goals; Environment; Natural Resources; Sustainability; Rural sector.
AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE CULTURE ON SINGAPORE BASED COMPANIES WHEN IMPLEMENTING INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRATEGY: A SINGAPOREAN PERSPECTIVE
by Kee Lee KOH
Abstract: The aim of this research project is to discover the impact of this soft element identified, called corporate culture, on the implementation of international business strategies by Singapore-based companies going regional under the incentive schemes of IE Singapore. Although it is a government-backed incentive schemes, commercial and business organisations must be able to recognise the benefits that can be derived and gained from these incentive schemes.
Keywords: Key Words: National Culture; Corporate Culture; International Business Strategy.
THE MINDFUL MANAGERS
by Audrey Tang
Abstract: The term Mindfulness has become so mainstream it has lost meaning (Note to Self Podcast, 2018). The truth is, certainly in the applied sense mindfulness has never been given real meaning even the pioneers (e.g. Jon Kabat-Zinn , Thich Nhat Hanh or Daniel J Siegel) have not clear explanation of how it is framed, nor how it works. However, it does work; and, in a fast paced world which expects s to be in 5 places at once through technological innovation, anything that improves our quality of performance is worth considering. While companies have introduced mindfulness sessions into their workplaces with varying results it is arguable that, because of the vagueness and lack of codification of the term, it is being done wrong! This paper presents a brief literature review of Mindfulness with view to bringing some clarity to its remit; it addresses the scepticism surrounding incorporation of mindful techniques into the day; and it reviews a 10 session Mindfulness programme run at Brunel University London with Business Management students demonstrating that mindful practice has benefits both personally and professionally for the leader. This paper will conclude with some exercises from this programme that managers can easily incorporate into their schedule with view to improving performance.
Keywords: Mindfulness; Management; Self-Care; Experiential learning; Peak Performance.
Gujarats Developmental Trajectory A comparative HDI study of Ahmedabad, Junagadh and Surat
by Vatsal Sahani
Abstract: The paper seeks to examine the correlation between economic and human development in Gujarat. Despite witnessing massive rates of economic growth over decades, the parameters of human development in Gujarat has been laggard. This disparity in development is reflected in regional variations as well as in lack of access to basic facilities, particularly health and education across the state. Based on primary data analysis of the State Human Development and the District Human Development Reports, the paper conducts an empirical and comparative study of three districts- Ahmedabad, Surat and Junagadh, and tries to discern the reason(s) for regional variations and disparities. Through Amartya Sens capability approach to development, the study reaches the conclusion that the growth trajectory in Gujarat needs to be more people-oriented and inclusive.
Keywords: Human development; inclusive; capability approach; district human development report.
Addressing Climate Change Making the case for Big Data based Decision Making Framework
by Prateek Mangal, Anupama Rajesh
Abstract: Climate change is a certainty staring us in the face, and time to prevent and limit the damage it has caused, is steadily running out. The race for development by rapid industrialization, though for our benefit but it is making us pay a steep price. The byproducts of industrialization (Greenhouse effect - rising temperatures, melting ice-caps, rising water levels, falling groundwater levels, deforestation etc.) are leading to climate change; not only on a local level but on a global level. Global climate change and its impact on human life, is posing one the greatest challenges of modern times. There is an implied urgency in tackling the ill-effects of climate change. To envision the potential effect of large number of different climate scenarios, correspondingly large amount of data (Big Data) needs to be studied; so far there has been little utilization of Big Data Analysis on furthering our understanding of our planet despite the abundance of climate data. Recent studies have been highlighting an inherent need for a reliable Decision Making Framework (DMF) to address Climate Change. However, it is easier said than done due to the large social, economic and geographic diversity among the involved parties coupled with long time horizons and irreversible effects. For Big Data based DMF the focus is on big data, computational capability, and model simulation and data visualization that need to be addressed for big data to fulfill the promise with regard to climate change applications.
Keywords: Climate Change; Big Data; Climate System; Data Science; Decision Making Frameworks; Earth Observation; UNFCCC; Essential Climate Variables (ECV’s).
Do Business Managers in Singapore Consider Sustainability a Sustainable Proposition Construing the Perception to Overcome Challenges?
by EASWARAMOORTHY RANGASWAMY, K.S. RAGHURAM, SHUBHRA SHUKLA
Abstract: Many corporate managers perceive reporting on sustainability as a waste of time and money. An attempt is made to find if such perception has changed ever since Singapore Stock Exchange (SGX) introduced sustainability reporting of environmental, social and governance factors on a "comply or explain" basis in June 2016. It also analyses the challenges faced while adopting sustainability
It is hypothesized that sustainability holds no significance for business executives post Singapore Stock Exchange guidelines on Sustainability Reporting. Secondly, it is hypothesized that there are specific challenges in implementing sustainable business practices. Lastly it is hypothesized that sustainable measures have had a significant impact.
It is found that most organizations and individuals perceive sustainability as an essential requirement for businesses considering the threat that rapid urbanization is posing to the environment and all life forms and it is now an imperative strategy since the unveiling of Singapore Sustainability reporting requirements.
Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainability reporting; Manager Perception; Sustainability challenges.
Sensory Marketing: An Innovative Marketing Strategy to Sustain in Emerging Markets
by Manvi Khandelwal, Ashok Sharma, Vinamra Jain, Vikas Indoria
Abstract: The study aims to explore the characteristics of marketing-mix strategies and its relationship with sensory marketing in the oral-care and hygiene sector. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to data collected through the questionnaire. Mean scores of the explored factors were calculated to know which factor has the greatest influence. An analysis shows that majorly four senses affect the purchase intention of a consumer. Product packaging and promotional strategies directly influence sensory behaviour of Indian consumers. Most of the components of the marketing mix were affected by multi-sensory stimuli that were incorporated in product design and promotional strategies. Amongst the five senses, visual sense has the greatest influence on the decision making of consumers. This paper involves innovative insights on usage of the five senses in marketing mix strategies to help marketers sustain the market capitalization of their products and influence consumer behaviour.
Keywords: sensory marketing; marketing mix; product packaging; television advertising; sensory behavior; sensorial strategies; sensory inputs or tools; innovative marketing; sustainability.
Digital Marketing : The Opportunity and the Imperative
by Nandini Das Ghoshal
Abstract: This paper explores how Marketing, as a discipline has transformed in the last decade due to the disruption of Digital technology. The new landscape is still unfamiliar to many. And yet it offers distinct opportunities in being able to engage with the target audience in a more meaningful way. The emerging themes which offer new opportunity are around Intent, Technology, Communication, Data and Customer Experience. This paper outlines elements of each of these opportunities. It also explores the imperatives of marketing in todays environment. It outlines the knowledge, skills and attitudes that the modern day CMO needs to have to be able to orchestrate this new, complex assemblage. This paper draws from the cumulative experience of industry veterans and practitioners leading this real-time change. Specifically, it tackles the questions of a) What are the elements of this new Marketing opportunity? b) What is the new Marketing imperative? e) Who is the new Marketing leader?
Keywords: Digital technology; marketing.
Special Issue on: Recent Engineering Trends and Applied Sciences
EVALUATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL SUPERVISORY PERFORMANCE IN BENGKULU CITY
by Iswadi Idris
Abstract: The objective of study is to find out the performance of senior high school supervisors in Bengkulu City regency, Bengkulu Province that consists of: (1) composing supervisory planning, (2) carrying out the supervisory planning, (3) evaluating the implementation of the supervisory planning, and (4) guiding and training of professional teachers and school principals. The research was conducted in regencies and cities in central Bengkulu regency, Bengkulu province. The subject of research is senior high school supervisor in Bengkulu City, Bengkulu province (29 persons). The method of research is mixed method. The research design used Provus is Descrepancy Evaluation Models (DEM). The data were collected by using observation, interview, questionnaire and documents. The results of research shows that: (1) the performance of supervisors in composing plannings is very good category, (2) the performance of supervisors in carrying out supervisory planning is good category, (3) the performance of supervisors in evaluating the product of implementation of the supervisory planning is fair category, and (4) the performance of supervisors in guiding and training of professional teachers or school principals in Bengkulu City, Bengkulu province is poor category.
Keywords: performance; planning implementation; evaluation and training.