International Journal of Global Warming (49 papers in press)
A deterministic carbon footprint modeling across the supply chain of electricity
by Fatemeh Dalir, Majid Shafiepour Motlagh, Khosro Ashrafi
Abstract: Electricity sector is one of the major contributors to climate change and global warming. Hence, decarbonization of electricity which is generated by current technologies is inevitable. For a better policy implementation in energy portfolio, this paper presents a deterministic carbon footprint model for frame F fossil fuel power plant from raw material until the product is delivered to the end user. The model has been designed to cover the effect of investigated parameters. Controlling the investigated parameters can reduce carbon footprint of electricity through its life phases. The distinguished feature of the proposed model is the integration of raw material, operation of the power plant and transmission and distribution phases. The result shows good agreement between statistical data and proposed model.
Keywords: carbon footprint; power plant; electricity transmission and distribution.
The use of response surface methodology (RSM) for modeling of lead (II) removal from industrial waste by pumice and vermiculite
by N. Gamze Turan
Abstract: The main objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of pumice and vermiculite as the sorbents for lead (II) removal from industrial waste using Box-Behnken method. Batch adsorption method was used in order to evaluate the feasibility. Experiments were carried out as per Box-Behnken surface statistical design with three input parameters namely pH (2-5-8), adsorbent concentration (10-50-100 mg L-1), and contact time (5-30-120 min). Regression analysis demonstrated good fit of the experimental data to the linear model with coefficient of determination () values of 91.49% and 98.51% for vermiculite and pumice, respectively. Optimization of pH (2-2), adsorbent concentration (57.81-75 mg L-1), and contact time (89.06-5 min) gave a maximum of 99.99% lead (II) removal for vermiculite and pumice, respectively.
Keywords: Box-Behnken design; ANOVA; vermiculite; pumice; lead (II) removal.
Linear-fractional model for global warming
by Nizar Jaoua
Abstract: A unique linear-fractional model is designed to describe the global warming in terms of the ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to the pre-industrial level. As an application, doubled CO2 concentration is expected to raise surface temperatures by about 2°C in average (above pre-industrial records). Prior to that, an algebraic greenhouse function is provided to correlate the global average temperature to the atmospheric emissivity, for which a parameterised collection of linear-fractional models involving CO2 ratio is proposed using a practical characterisation of such models.
Keywords: atmospheric carbon dioxide; CO2; atmospheric emissivity; equilibrium global average temperature; EGAT; global warming; greenhouse function; linear-fractional model.
Optimization of cropping pattern considering stomatal response to elevated CO2 emission and climate change
by Mohammad Valipour, Mahmoud Raeini–Sarjaz, Mohammad Ali Gholami Sefidkouhi
Abstract: The current article seeks to explore the function of elevated CO2 emission on the variations of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) for optimizing cropping pattern in 18 Iranian regions. Accordingly, meteorological data and agricultural information were collected since 1961 to 2010 and 2002 to 2013, respectively. A trendfree prewhitening (TFPW) approach was applied to modify Mann-Kendall test to determine the ET0 trend based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO)-Penman-Monteith (FPM) method. Then, the function of stomatal response was investigated as an assimilation coefficient to adjust the ET0 since 2050 to 2100. In the next step, the anomalies of the ET0 were calculated in both monthly and annual scales with respect to the significant trends of the meteorological parameters and stomatal response via three different schemes. Finally, to optimize cropping pattern, two indicators namely total virtual water (TVW) and unit blue water value (UBWV) were employed. The results indicate that both stomatal and surface resistances can be increased in the future specially for the moderate to high elevated CO2 emission scenarios (A1B & A2). In some of the regions under study, although meteorological variables (particularly temperature) were superior factors to increase the ET0 in the warm seasons (May to October), their role was adjusted by the stomatal response in the cold seasons (November to April). All of the anomalies will be intensified in 2100 for both low to moderate and moderate to high scenarios. The considerable decreasing rate of the ETo for all regions introduces stomatal response as the main factor to control the ETo variations in 2100 with respect to the moderate to high elevated CO2 emission scenarios (A1B & A2). In 50% of the regions, field maize has the maximum value of the UBWV, and is recommended as the dominant culture in cropping pattern. Then tomato and grape benefit from the high values of the UBWV by an amount of 17% and 11%, respectively. According to the results, water resource allocation should be done with the highest accuracy for Mashhad and Jiroft because of high increasing rate of the TVW to deal with water crisis issues in the future. In contrast, Urmia and Qazvin are the best choices to achieve the maximum save in water resources and to meet sustainable agriculture in Iran since 2050 to 2100, respectively.
Keywords: adaptation; crop water requirement; effective rainfall; greenhouse gases; global warming; Iran.
A Methodology to evaluate the disclosure practices of organizations related to climate change risks: A case study of international airports
by Ioannis Nikolaou, Thomas Tsalis, Valina Botsaropoulou
Abstract: Today, climate change poses unprecedented challenges to the business community. Different stakeholders have recently requested that companies reveal comprehensive information about their performance concerning climate change issues. Despite the growing level of environmental information disclosed (including climate change information) by environmental and sustainability reports, there is no consistency regarding the reporting practices adopted by companies and as a result the assessment of disclosed information is a very difficult task. The lack of standard, formal and mandatory accounting principles for climate change accounting makes the introduction of climate change risks into stakeholders decisions difficult. This paper aims to develop a scoring technique in order to investigate the disclosure habits of organizations regarding climate change risks. It is applied in various international airports which are considered, as an essential part of tourism sector, vulnerable to climate change. The findings indicate that although the sustainability reports published by airport have increased, they do not provide comprehensive information about climate related risks. Also, the majority of the sampled airports provide useful information about climate change regulatory risks, but limited information which would help to strengthen the dialogue between airports and stakeholders regarding climate change risk issues.
Keywords: climate change accounting; scoring systems; corporate sustainability; sustainability reports; airports.
FUTURE TEMPERATURE PROJECTIONS FOR HUNGARY BASED ON REGCM4.3 SIMULATIONS USING NEW REPRESENTATIVE CONCENTRATION PATHWAYS SCENARIOS
by Ildiko Pieczka, Rita Pongracz, Judit Bartholy, Karolina Szabone Andre
Abstract: In order to satisfy the continuous urging demands for updated and relevant information from various impact researchers, end-users, and decision makers, the RegCM4.3 model is used taking into account the new RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 radiative forcing scenarios to provide climate projection for Hungary with 10 km horizontal resolution. Overall, the results suggest significant warming in Hungary. The greatest temperature increase is likely to occur in summer, that is why the projected changes in warm extremes are also analysed in this study.
Keywords: climate projection; RCP4.5; RCP8.5; regional climate model; warming trend; extreme temperature indices; daily maximum temperature; daily minimum temperature; temperature distribution.
Factor analysis of urban residential CO2 emissions in Tianjin:1995-2014
by Caocao Cui, Tao Zhao, Yue Wang
Abstract: Carbon emissions caused by urban residential sector have attracted increasing attention due to the rapid urbanization. Choosing Tianjin as a typical example, this paper analyzed the factors causing carbon emissions in urban residential sector. Based on the extended Kaya identity, a multivariate generalized Fisher index(GFI) decomposition model was built to measure the impacts of energy structure, energy intensity, per capita disposable income, household size and number of households on urban residential carbon emissions from 1995 to 2014 in Tianjin. The results show that sustained growth of per capita disposable income was the leading factor of the urban residential carbon emissions in Tianjin, with cumulative contributions of 639.1% in 2014 compared to that in 1995. Number of households had a stimulating effect on the growth of carbon emissions in the same period. The continuous optimization of the energy structure over the past 20 years had no obvious inhibitory effect on carbon emissions. Energy intensity was the primary factor restraining carbon emissions with the cumulative contributions of 0.318%. To a certain extent, household size reduced carbon emissions but only with a slight effect.
Keywords: Carbon emissions; Urban residential sector; Tianjin; Generalized Fisher index; Factor decomposition.
Soil Organic Carbon Change Relating to the Prevention and Control of Rocky Desertification in Guizhou Province, SW China
by Xianfei Huang, Shijie Wang, Yunchao Zhou
Abstract: This article reports on the relationship between the prevention and control of rocky desertification and potential change to soil organic carbon storage (SOC) in Guizhou Province, in southwestern China. Three strategic measures including the return of cultivated land to forestlands (RCLF), construction of artificial pasture (CAP), and artificial afforestation (AA) will be employed, and more than approximately 20,923.22 km2 lands will be improved in Guizhou Province. The SOC density of these areas will change significantly at different calculated depths. At calculated depths of 0.00-0.10 m, 0.00-0.20 m, 0.00-0.0.30 m and 0.00-1.00 m, the total SOC sequestration will reach up to 1.99
Keywords: Rocky desertification; soil organic carbon; carbon sequestration; land use; global warming; soil thickness; environmental policy; karst mountainous area; Guizhou Province; China.
A review of light duty passenger car weight reduction impact on CO2 emission
by Ilyas Kacar, Ismail Durgun, Fahrettin Ozturk, Rodney J. Simmons
Abstract: Over the last few decades, we have witnessed a significant increase in average temperatures all over the globe. Global warming has been now recognized as one of the major problems facing our world. In addition to natural processes, urbanization, industrialization, fossil fuel consumption, deforestation, and other human activities have also contributed to excessive levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, resulting in drastic climate change. This study investigates the relation between vehicle weight and CO2 emission for light-duty passenger cars. This study also analyzes the fuel consumption in different cases. The evaluation of emissions is based on the CO2 composition of the total emission. Results show the relationship among weight, fuel consumption, and CO2 emission. Under this circumstances, the most important way of reducing fuel consumption is to make the mass of the vehicle as small as possible when vehicle speed is constant. Various industry-wide technology adoption on manufacturing methodologies to make vehicles bodywork lighter are reviewed.
Keywords: Weight reduction; CO2 emission; CO2 pollution; greenhouse gases; lightweight vehicles; transportation; fuel consumption.
A comparative life cycle assessment based evaluation of greenhouse gas emission and social study: natural fibre versus glass fibre reinforced plastic automotive parts.
by Masoud Akhshik, Suhara Panthapulakkal, Mohini Sain, Jimi Tjong
Abstract: Current atmospheric CO2 concentration in our atmosphere is already over 400 ppm, which is 50 ppm beyond our planetary boundary. Every single step towards reducing our carbon emission is important. Fuel saving due to the light weighting of the automotive materials will reduce greenhouse gas emission in the transportation sector, if the light weighting roots from a by-product natural fibre, such as sawdust or agricultural waste, the emission reduction would be more effective. The current study is a comparative life cycle assessment based evaluation of greenhouse gas emission of the current plastic engine beauty cover, and natural fibre reinforced counterpart. This study also analyses the questionnaire results gotten from 600 new car owners (or leaser) as a small sample of a buyer society.
Keywords: LCA; GHG; natural fibre; automotive parts; survey study.
The most advantageous partners for Australia to bilaterally link its emissions trading scheme
by Duy Nong, Mahinda Siriwardana
Abstract: The theory of marginal abatement cost (MAC) indicates that if a country has a high MAC, it should link its domestic emissions trading scheme (ETS) with a foreign country, which has either low MAC or low emissions reduction target. This strategy will maximise its economic benefits from the linkage compared to its domestic ETS. On the other hand, if a country has a low MAC, it would seek a partner, which has either a high MAC or a high emissions reduction target. Using a computable general equilibrium model, namely the extended GTAP-E model, we found that Australia could yield the greatest economic benefits by linking its ETS with India. China is the second best alternative for Australia to link its ETS, while the European Union is the most expensive option for Australia. Overall, the results support the contention that any bilateral linkage is always better for Australia than operating its own domestic ETS alone.
Keywords: Australia; emissions trading scheme; linkage; marginal abatement cost; CGE model.
Observed Temperature Extremes in Greece and their Relation with North Atlantic Oscillation
by Stavros Kolios, Georgia Antonatou, Efthimios Zervas
Abstract: This work studies the extreme high/low values (EHT/ELT, respectively) of air temperature in Greece using over 40year time series of data for six stations. Furthermore, the possible relation of temperature extremes in Greece with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is examined, in order to depict if/how this large scale atmospheric circulation pattern can affect the behavior of temperature extremes. The majority of EHT cases is found during July and August, while those of ELT during January and February. In the majority of the stations examined, positive trends of EHT and ELT frequency of occurrence (statistically significant or not) are found, pronouncing an environment exposed more and more to extreme air temperatures. It is also found a negative relation of NAO monthly index values with EHT and ELT frequency of occurrence, which reveals the way the NAO affect the frequency of occurrence of temperature extremes in Greece.
Keywords: Temperature extremes; Greece; North Atlantic Oscillation; Frequency of occurrence.
Characteristics of a double-swirl combustor for the thermal destruction of waste HFC refrigerants
by Tae-In Ohm, Jong-Seong Chae, Sin-Young Kim, Soo-Yeon Kim, Seung-Hyun Moon
Abstract: The use of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons has been banned since the Montreal Protocol. Hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) series refrigerants were developed as an alternative, but HFC-134a has been found to have a high global warming potential. Thus, an eco-friendly, economical, and stable technology for removing waste HFCs is required. Existing methods involving pyrolysis for destruction of waste HFC include incineration, catalytic oxidation, and plasma pyrolysis. In this study, an economical and eco-friendly combustor that consumes little auxiliary fuel and easily neutralising hydrofluoric acid gas was developed to destroy waste HFC-134a. The conceptual design of a double-swirl combustor was developed based on numerical simulations and used to manufacture a prototype, which was used in a combustion experiment. When the auxiliary fuel LPG was used at a flow rate of 1.0 kg/h with an air ratio of 1.1, the average temperature at the vertical section in the combustion chamber was 1300 K, which is sufficient to destroy waste HFCs. In the waste refrigerant destruction test, the destruction ratio of waste HFCs was 100% when waste HFCs were injected at a flow rate of 2.8 kg/h or less and 99.37% at a flow rate of 2.9 kg/h.
Keywords: Waste hydrofluorocarbon; double-swirl; combustor; global warming potential; non-CO2 .
Greenhouse gas emissions of livestock raised in a harsh environment
by FLAVIO FORABOSCO, Federico Antonio Canu, Roberto Mantovani
Abstract: Domestic animals are large emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG), and developing countries raise a large number of those animals. Livestock can be divided into local and improved animals. Local animals are usually not well characterized and seldom subject to structured breeding programs but well adapted to local environmental conditions while improved animals are characterized by high productions but limited capacity to adapt to extreme conditions. Analysis conducted with the use of Ex-Ante Carbon-balance Tool software indicated that the use of local livestock reduces the GHG emissions. Local dairy cattle emitted 1.54 kg CO2-eq/kg of milk and improved dairy cattle emitted 2.63 kg CO2-eq/kg of milk. Local livestock in extreme climate conditions can perform better than improved livestock and, because of their lower GHG emissions, they can contribute to mitigating climate. Overall, the findings support the existing literature on preserving local genetic resources due to their important role for future generations.
Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions; mitigation; local livestock; improved livestock; cattle; small ruminants; pigs; chicken; climate change; biodiversity conservation; Armenia; Asia.
The impact of climate-related extremely low river levels on zooplankton in two oxbow lakes of a temperate river (the lower Vistula, Poland).
by Paweł Napiórkowski, Teresa Napiórkowska
Abstract: Oxbow lakes are important elements of river valleys. Regardless of whether they are natural or artificial (e.g. oxbow lakes of the Lower Vistula), they play a key role in water retention and biodiversity maintenance. To function properly, they need to be regularly flooded by rivers. Unfortunately, due to accelerated climate change, water levels in rivers and oxbow lakes have dropped dramatically. Climate change is responsible for temperature rise (which increases evaporation) and decreased precipitation. The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of climate change on the environmental conditions and zooplankton population in two different oxbow lakes. Decreased water levels lead to higher water fertility and dominance of eurytopic organisms, mainly rotifers in the zooplankton. Rotifer species thrive because they are able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. In addition, low water levels affect biodiversity in oxbow lakes and threaten the proper functioning of these water bodies.
Keywords: Old river bed; zooplankton; rotifers; diversity; water level; nutrient load.
DETERMINANTS OF CARBON ACCOUNTING DISCLOSURE: AN ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES
by Isabel Gallego-Álvarez, Beatriz Cuadrado-Ballesteros, Jennifer Martínez-Ferrero
Abstract: This paper aims to examine two closely related issues based on social awareness of greenhouse gas emissions. The first aim is to find whether firms choose to include carbon accounting in their financial and accounting statements. The second aim is to find what the explanatory factors are behind the decisions managers take to reflect them. A sample of 119 firms from different developed and developing countries and industries for 2011 was employed. We then formulated a dependence model in which the dependent variable was whether or not the company included carbon accounting in its annual reports. By using two logit regression models, our findings show that not all the firms analysed publish such information in their annual accounts and that only the variables related to emission trading schemes and no Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators on climate change positively affect the firm
Keywords: Environmental disclosure; Carbon accounting reporting; Greenhouse gas emissions; Global Reporting Initiative; KPMG.
Effect of Supercritical CO2 on Various Rank Coals: Implications for CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seams with Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery
by Zhicong Wei
Abstract: Sequestration of CO2 in coal seams with enhanced coalbed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM) can mitigate CO2 emissions. In this work, the effects of the supercritical CO2 fluid on the physicochemical property of coals were elucidated. The results show that CO2 interaction can mobilize the volatile hydrocarbons in the coal matrix and subsequently result in the decrease of volatile matter content. The volatile matter contents of coals decrease with temperature, pressure and injection rate of CO2 interaction. The extracted volatile matters are of biological toxicity, thus CO2-ECBM process should be operated at the optimum temperature, pressure and CO2 injection rate. The moisture contents of Zhangji coal and Liulin coal after CO2 interaction increase which implies that the pore morphology of the above two coals grows up. For low rank Bulianta coal and high rank Qinshui coal, the swelling effect induced by CO2 is dominant. Thus, the moisture content after CO2 interaction decreases in comparison with the raw state.
Keywords: CO2 Sequestration; Coal; Supercritical Fluid Extraction; Swelling.
Discovering meaningful patterns for tropical climate change in Malaysia
by Ghassan ALDharhani
Abstract: This paper investigated patterns of climate change in Malaysia and proposed a fuzzy based symbolic data representation known as a Shapelet Patterns Algorithm (SPA). The Shapelet Pattern visualize climate change patterns in the form of coloured shapes to indicate annual changes in temperature patterns. The experiment used climate change data collected from four stations in Malaysia, thus Petaling-jaya, Subang, KLIA-Sepang and University Malaya, to produced three types of results. The results revealed various climate change patterns that can be used by climate change experts to further analyse the effects of climate change and for better decision making.
Keywords: time series; symbolic data representation; climate shapelet patterns; fuzzy logic; climate change.
A practice to mitigate greenhouse gases from a wheat-grown soil by the phosphogypsum waste
by Hong-sheng Wu, Ji Zhou, Ji Li, Su-yun Chen, Zhi-qiu Gao, Li-dong Shen, Dong-liang Yiao, Yue Zhao, Kai-kai Chen
Abstract: A large amount of industrial phosphogypsum (Pg) waste pollutes the environment. The reuse of these waste resources in agriculture not only amended the soil and stimulated crop growth but also decreased soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A continuous two-year-field-experiment of phosphogypsum application in winter wheat was conducted to investigate whether and how phosphogypsum affects soil N2O and CO2 emissions. A two-month lab incubation was also performed to explore the possible mechanism of Pg reducing GHGs. The results indicated that soil CO2 and N2O was mitigated by phosphogypsum. Compared to the control (Pg0), soil N2O emissions in the treatment phosphogypsum decreased by 5.8-29.9% and CO2 emissions decreased by 2.5-6.6% in the winter wheat growing season of 2013-2014, while N2O emissions decreased by 20.6-30.4% and CO2 emissions decreased by 6.2-9.6% in 2014-2015. N2O emissions declined by 18.9-28.5% and CO2 emissions declined by 33.5-50.1% in the lab incubation. The unit weight grain/biomass CO2 and N2O emission equivalents were reduced by phosphogypsum. The soil proteinase and urease activity increased by 20% and 50%, respectively, and sucrase increased by 40%. However, soil cellulase was inhibited, which suggested that the decreased soil N2O and CO2 emissions were ascribed to the changed soil enzyme activity as a result of phosphogypsum. This result suggested that mitigating agricultural GHGs, stimulating crop growth and protecting the environment could be achieved simultaneously by phosphogypsum.
Keywords: Phosphogypsum (Pg); wheat; CO2; N2O; soil enzyme.
Heavy metal removal with pure and biochar rice husks: modeling and optimization using Box-Behnken design
by Fulya AYDIN TEMEL, Nurdan Gamze Turan, Okan Ozgonenel, Yüksel Ardalı
Abstract: In this work, the most common heavy metals such as Cu(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) removal from aqueous leachate of industrial waste were investigated using pure and biochar rice husks. The influence of such parameters as pH, adsorbent dose (g L-1), and contact time (min) on the biosorption of rice and biochar rice was examined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken surface statistical design at a leaching solution, Ci = 32.69 g L-1 as a fixed input parameter. The results show that both linear and squared terms of process variables are found significant on the response variable. The optimum conditions depending on both combinations and individual of all responses for the removal of Zn (II), Cu (II), and Pb (II) ions were determined using the optimizing algorithm. To sum up, the use of biochar rice husk is found better than the use of pure rice husk according to statistical analysis. This study strongly indicated that pure and biochar rice husks are an influential alternative adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions by sorption.
Keywords: heavy metal removal; response surface modeling (RSM); Box-Behnken design (BBD); rice husk; biochar rice husk; optimization.
ASSESMENT OF CO2 REDUCTION TECHNIQUES OF CEMENT PRODUCTION IN TURKEY
by Kumru Rende, Özgen Ercan, Pinar Ergenekon, Hasan SADIKOĞLU
Abstract: The reduction of CO2 emissions in cement industry especially for the countries with growing demand for cement, is crucial. The objective of this study is to reveal the importance of CO2 emission reduction in cement industry for the countries with strong demand. As a case study we worked on the opportunities of reducing CO2 emissions in cement industry in Turkey. There are only dry process kilns in 2017 in Turkey. Improving the technology, the average specific energy consumption in 2012 decreased to 3416 MJ/ton clinker as it was 3541 MJ/ton clinker in 2005. Moreover, in 2012, the average specific electric consumption was 100.1 kWh/ton cement compared to 104.9 kWh/ton in 2007. These consumption levels are in the range of the best available consumption levels that are referred in Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document. Process based CO2 emissions followed a slight decrease due to changes in the utilized fuel and raw material blend from 0.50 ton CO2/ton cement in 2001 to 0.45 ton CO2/ton cement in 2015. Reducing of CO2 can be achieved mainly by effective waste heat recovery (WHR) systems and the increasing use of alternative fuel. It is estimated that, 0.5 1.5 million tons of CO2eq reduction would be achieved theoretically for 72.8 million tons of cement production for the year 2015 in Turkey. Besides, alternative fuel utilization in Turkey has been increasing in recent years. If the percentage of alternative fuel usage reaches to 30.5%, approximately 1.4 million tonnes of CO2eq reduction will be achieved.
Keywords: Climate change; CO2 emissions; reduction techniques; cement industry; Turkey.
An Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Annual Streamflow in Rivers in Western Turkey
by Olcay HISAR
Abstract: Global warming and its impacts are known to cause serious problems in sustainability of natural resources. In this study, change-point analysis and trend analysis were applied to climatic (temperature, precipitation, evaporation) and streamflow data for Tuzla, Gediz and B
Keywords: Climate change; Streamflow; Trend analysis; Change-point analysis; Turkey.
Standard aerosol optical depth index (SAODI) and application in the Middle East countries
by Zekâi Şen
Abstract: Middle East is one of the most aerosol subjected region of the world. The records of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from 2003 to 2016 inclusive are investigated through some innovative methodologies and also suggestion of standard AOD index (SAODI) procedure that provides visual, verbal and numerical interpretations about the AOD records at different locations, which include Syria-Iraq northern, west Iraq, Iraq marshes, Iran Ahwaz and Ilam regions in addition to Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. It is shown that AOD records at different countries have different probability distribution functions (PDF), and therefore, the criteria of the average AOD plus 1, 2, 3 and 4 times the standard deviation of AOD record methodology as available in the literature does not provide a common footing for AOD assessment. Hence, a standard methodology is suggested as SAODI, which depends on the standard normal (Gaussian) PDF universally. The application of innovative trend analysis of the aerosol records indicated that although trends have rather small slopes, but in the Marshes, Ahwaz and Ilam locations there are decreasing trends, whereas in other locations the trends have increasing tendency. It is recommended that the unauthorized groundwater abstractions must be systematized with a systematic management program, reforestation and mulching.
Keywords: Aerosol; classification; index; innovative; Middle East; optical depth; probability; SAODI.
EFFECT OF RICE STRAW INCORPORATION ON METHANE EMISSION AND RICE YIELDS FROM RICE CROPPING SYSTEM BY DNDC-RICE MODEL
by Kruamas Smakgahn, Tamon Fumoto, Kazuyuki Yagi
Abstract: This study applied the DNDC-Rice model and simulated against field observation in Thailand. Simulated CH4 emission data shown acceptable results compared to field observation recorded. Rice straw incorporation into field play important role on CH4 emission by continuous increase soil organic carbon as well as soil iron contents, consequently to low soil Eh which is suitable for CH4 production. Higher amount of rice straw applied induces higher CH4 emission vice versa. Therefore, reduction of rice straw amount incorporation into soil, is possible practical mitigation options for CH4 production.
Keywords: DNDC-Rice model; global warming; methane emission; mitigation option; rice cropping system.
Risk analysis of the European Union 2030 greenhouse gas emission target compliance
by Marko Ćirović
Abstract: As the central objective of the Europe 2030 strategy, member countries of the European Union (EU) are striving to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 40% compared to 1990 levels. This paper examines the ability of EU countries to reach this goal in the mentioned timeframe. Although the EU 2020 target of 20% reduction has already been achieved by EU28 in total (GHG emissions are 19.8% lower than 1990 level, they have not been achieved by all the member states individually, but rather by the higher achievements than targeted by the leading countries in this field. The paper examines each of the member states capabilities of reaching EU2030 targets individually. Risk analysis has been done in order to evaluate and rank countries by their current and projected progress towards targeted outcomes. The approach that was used is integrated Fuzzy AHP and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FAHP FMEA). FAHP FMEA method is used in risk evaluation and it is an inductive modelling approach used to evaluate potential failure modes and their causes. Each countrys potential inability to fulfil marked greenhouse gas emissions was considered as a FMEA failure effect. The main goal was to prioritize and rank specific countries and the risk they pose to unfulfillment of the marked EU 2030 targets. As a result, the countries have been ranked by risk priority numbers.
Keywords: environmental risk assessment; EU 2030; risk analysis; Fuzzy; FAHP; FMEA.
Vulnerability to climate change and residents adaptations in coastal areas of Soc Trang Province, Vietnam
by Makoto Tamura, Kazuya Yasuhara, Kiyotake Ajima, Van Trinh, Pham Song
Abstract: Many climate-sensitive areas and communities are insufficiently prepared for climate change induced natural disasters due to a mismatch of perceptions and the risks and economic limitations associated with these disasters. The Mekong Delta of Vietnam, which is home to a growing population that currently stands at 17.2 million people, has been experiencing more frequent and severe flooding, especially in Soc Trang Province. Historical and present-day images obtained using an uncrewed aerial vehicle and satellites showed rapid erosion of coastal areas and damage to infrastructure for flood control. A perception survey on more than a thousand residents conducted in 2014 showed that the adaptations pursued at the community level were limited by economic factors and education level. Finally, multiple strategies harmonized with local ecosystems and livelihoods were proposed to protect the area against climate change induced events.
Keywords: adaptations; climate induced events; erosion; Mekong Delta; natural disasters;perceptions; Soc Trang Province; vulnerability; Vietnam.
Techno-Economics of Off-grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Power Systems for Electrification of Residential Buildings of Yanbu - A Potential Industrial Location of Saudi Arabia
by S.M. Shaahid
Abstract: The study analyses wind-speed data of Yanbu (West-Coast, Kingdom of Saudia, K.S.A.) to assess the feasibility of hybrid wind-diesel power systems to meet the electrical load of hundred typical residential buildings (with annual demand of 3512 MWh). The wind speeds range from 3.9-4.8 m/s. The systems simulated consist of 600 kW wind machines supplemented with diesel generators. NREL's HOMER software is employed for techno-economic analysis. The results indicate that for a hybrid system comprising of 600 kW wind capacity with 1.0 MW diesel system (two 500 kW units), the wind penetration (at 50 m hub-height, with 0% annual capacity shortage) is 27%. The cost of generating energy (COE, $/kWh) from this system is 0.070 $/kWh (assuming diesel fuel price of 0.1 $/liter) and the reduction in carbon emissions is 147 tons/year. The study exhibits that the operational hours of diesel gensets decrease with increase in wind farm capacity.
Keywords: Hybrid wind-diesel systems; Residential loads; Diesel generators; Carbon emissions.
Projected changes in heat wave characteristics in the Carpathian Basin comparing different definitions
by Júlia Göndöcs, Hajnalka Breuer, Rita Pongrácz, Judit Bartholy
Abstract: Heat waves (HWs) associated with climate change and increased near-surface air temperature can be considered as a climatic hazard for people and the environment. This study evaluates six HW detecting methods and the estimated HW characteristics (duration, frequency and intensity) from observational (CarpatClim database) and modelled (RegCM simulations with the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5) datasets. The RegCM model results show a considerable future increase (by 20162045; 20612090) in HW days compared to the reference period (19712000). In case of RCP4.5, HW days become 3-6 times more frequent, while the increase is 5-9 fold for RCP8.5 by the end of the century (2061-2090). As a consequence of climate change, HW durations are also projected to become 12 (34) days longer on average for RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) in the Carpathian Basin.
Keywords: Heat wave definition; climate change; regional climate model; temperature; cloudiness; bias correction.
Climate change modeling for nuclear industry in the aspect of energy consumption using system dynamics method
by T.A.E. H.O. WOO
Abstract: The climate change is investigated in the aspect of the priority of nuclear energy consumptions due to the environmentally defects of conventional energies. Some causes of the climate changes are discussed. Regarding of the carbon productions, nuclear energy is compared with other energy sources. The causes of climate change are studied as quantities using relevant mathematical formulas. The simulation modeling is performed using system dynamics (SD) where the simple and easy calculations are done. The designed value for nuclear priority by climate change factor increases by 3.5 % as with human factor comparing to without human factor in 2050. The graph for annual anomaly weighted by nuclear priority with climate change factor from 2011 to 2050 is shown in which the values increase in the minus values. So, the nuclear energy increasing rate with the climate change factor affects to the temperature change which can show the environmental protection as well as energy supply.
Keywords: Climate change; Carbon; Global warming; System dynamics (SD); Nuclear power plants (NPPs).
Coupled nutrient removal from the wastewater and CO2 biofixation from the flue gas of iron and steel manufacturing
by Direnis Cayli, Sibel ULUDAG-DEMIRER, Goksel N. Demirer
Abstract: CO2 mitigation through photosynthesis has attracted attention as an alternative strategy over chemical methods because it is less costly and energy-consuming. When the microalgae are fed with wastewaters containing high nitrogen and phosphorus, they remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater. Moreover, the harvested biomass from microalgal reactors constitutes a raw material for the production of different high-value chemicals and biofuels.
This study investigated the coupled removal of CO2 from the flue gas and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the wastewater originating from the coking unit of an iron-steel industry by using microalgal photobioreactors. The results indicated that the flue gas from coking unit of a typical Iron and Steel Factory and the wastewater from the same process supported the microalgal growth. Photobioreactors achieved CO2 fixation rates of 11.45-13.52 mg/L.day. Notable nutrient (up to 77% Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) and 61 % PO4) and heavy metal (72% Cr, 63% Fe, 22% Cu and over 90% Cd) removals were observed in the coking process wastewater which was used to grow microalgal cultures.
Keywords: Microalge; CO2 biofixation; flue gas; coking unit; wastewater; iron-steel industry.
Carbon emissions, energy consumption, trade openness, and economic growth in 12 Asia-Pacific economies: Evidence from panel cointegration results
by Wen-Cheng Lu
Abstract: This article analyses the relationships among carbon emissions, energy consumption, trade, and economic growth in 12 Asia-Pacific economies. The results indicate the existence of four long-run equilibrium relationships among carbon emissions, energy consumption, trade, and economic growth. These four variables are causally related to each other. The inverted-U environment Kuznets hypothesis is supported. The long-run elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to trade and energy consumption were 0.21 and 1.13, respectively. Furthermore, the empirical evidence from a dynamic panel error-correction model revealed two short-run unidirectional causalities: from trade to energy consumption and from energy consumption to GDP growth. The short-run results also showed two bidirectional causal relationships between energy consumption and carbon emissions and between economic growth and carbon emissions. These results suggest that Asia-Pacific economies undertake energy policy to reduce carbon emissions by increasing the energy efficiency and substantially increasing the share of renewable energy in the overall energy usage.
Keywords: Carbon emissions; Trade; Environmental Kuznets curve; Economic growth; Energy efficiency.
An assessment to evaluate potential passive cooling patterns for climate change adaptation in a residential neighborhood of a Mediterranean coastal city (Athens, Greece)
by Ioannis Tsiros, Milo Hoffman, Areti Tseliou, Vasiliki Christopoulou, Spyridon Lykoudis
Abstract: This study investigates the potential for passive cooling patterns inside the urban fabric in the Mediterranean climate city of Athens (Greece), especially with regard to quantify air temperature reduction and thermal comfort amelioration at the neighborhood scale. Using both field measurements and an urban microclimate simulation model, we assessed cooling and warming patterns in various sites of an Athens residential neighborhood. Results show that, under Mediterranean climate conditions, urban design elements such as wooded courtyards and appropriately oriented urban design elements such as galleries have a considerable cooling effect and can be used as cool places inside the neighborhood for occupants comfort amelioration and also as passive cooling tools for buildings to reduce summer energy consumption. They may then function as passive design strategies to adapt the urban site form to different climate change scenarios.
Keywords: urban microclimate; urban heat island; heat mitigation; vegetation; trees and shade; shading strategies; passive design strategies; sustainable urban design; courtyard; outdoor thermal environment.
Multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis of atmospheric CO2 concentration and land-surface temperature anomalies
by SUCHARITA CHATTERJEE, DIPAK GHOSH, SRIMONTI DUTTA
Abstract: This paper studies the cross correlation between the time series of atmospheric CO2 concentration and the temperature anomalies data using Multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis (MF-DXA) methodology. The data sets for both the series are obtained over a period from 1994 to 2009. In our previous paper we have studied the multifractal nature of the time series of atmospheric CO2 concentration using Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). In this paper we attempted to explore the correlation between the increasing CO2 concentration and increasing values of temperature anomalies. The present study reveals the fact that the individual series are autocorrelated and there exists cross correlation between the two mentioned time series.
Keywords: Non-stationary time series; multifractals; degree of multifractality; cross correlation; long-range correlation.
Decomposition of Regional and Sectoral Economic Impacts of Climate Change under New Scenarios
by Shin Sakaue, Koichi Yamaura, Toyoaki Washida
Abstract: This study decomposes the heterogeneous regional and sectoral impacts of climate change using Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. We separate value-added under the various scenario combinations into direct climate change damage costs, mitigation costs and other (indirect) value-added using a dynamic version of the Evaluation Model for Environmental Damage and Adaption (EMEDA). In the decomposed EMEDA results, we find that 1) each region has different rates of change in its direct climate change costs and mitigation costs. For example, Asia, the former Soviet Union, and the Middle East and Africa incur greater costs than the OECD and Latin America; 2) other value-added is largest in primary and tertiary industries, while mitigation costs are largest in the secondary sector; and 3) the highest decomposed costs among the scenario combinations occur under the SSPs-RCP2.6 scenario. It is extremely important that each country know which a SSP-RCP scenario applies when it is setting policy to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement.
Keywords: EMEDA; integrated assessment model; IAMs; CGE models; Shared Socio-economic Pathways; SSPs; Representative Concentration Pathways; RCPs; global warming; climate change; regional impacts; sectoral impacts; Paris Agreement.
Economic Implications for Australia and other Major Emitters of Trading Greenhouse Gas Emissions Internationally
by Mahinda Siriwardana, Duy Ngoc Nong
Abstract: We employ the GTAP-E model to analyse the short run effects of two emissions trading scheme (ETS) scenarios under the cap-and-trade system at global level, building on pledges for abatement made by governments after the 2009 Copenhagen Accord. These pledges are used to allocate emissions targets for all the countries in 2020. In the first scenario, an ETS is formulated among Annex 1 countries only. In the second scenario, the ETS is expanded by adding three leading non-Annex 1 emitters China, India and South Korea. The study shows that the cost of meeting emissions reduction commitments of Australia and other countries can be reduced by engaging in block-level emissions trading. According to the results, a permit price (US$ per tonne of greenhouse gas emissions) of US$10.56 emerges with the ETS among Annex 1 countries. This price is reduced to US$6.32 when China, India and South Korea also joined the global ETS. Australias real GDP declines by 1.03 and 0.59 per cent respectively in two ETS scenarios. Contrary to the widely held view, projections from the GTAP-E model suggest that the ETS has a modest overall economic impact on the Australian economy and globally. Our results confirm that selling permits to the world is not welfare enhancing; rather countries who buy permits improve their welfare.
Keywords: Emissions trading; GTAP-E model; Australia; Carbon price; Permits.
Nonlinear modeling for greenhouse effect related global warming incorporated with the nuclear industry using neural networking theory
by T.A.E. H.O. WOO, Hyo Sung Cho
Abstract: The greenhouse effect related global warming is studied by the artificial intelligence (AI) based neural networking modeling. The stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology (STIRPAT) model is applied to the carbon dioxide gas based greenhouse effect. It is shown of the Energy factor where four sources as Oil, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewable are connected in which the values are cumulative for comparisons with nuclear energy. The values are higher in the case of Without Nuclear. The highest values are 1,808.78 and 6,609.68 respectively which are dimensionless and means for the global warming effectiveness. It is also described as the Global Warming factor for comparisons with nuclear power in which the values show higher in the later time. The study shows the dynamical transients of the negative effects in the case of the nuclear energy portion missing. Therefore, the effect of the nuclear part should be considered as one of major energy sources of a nation.
Keywords: Greenhouse; Global warming; Nuclear; Power; Neural networking.
The Role of Personal Experience and Media Exposure on Personal and Impersonal Risk Perceptions and Policy Support: The Case of Global Warming
by Xiao Wang
Abstract: The impersonal impact hypothesis states that media exposure and personal experience influence the publics impersonal and personal risk perceptions, respectively. Our investigation examined the relationships among U.S. participants (N = 572) media exposure, personal experience, risk perceptions, and policy support in the context of global warming. This investigation provided mixed support for the impersonal impact hypothesis such that news and climate/science media exposure did not predict impersonal impact. Personal experience predicted both impersonal and personal risk perceptions. We further examined how knowledge and trust in scientists mediated the relationships between media exposure, personal experience, and risk perceptions. It revealed that impersonal impact, but not personal impact, supported policy to alleviate global warming. Both theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Keywords: climate change; personal experience; media exposure; risk perceptions; policy.
Full factorial experimental design of Ni(II) removal from industrial wastewater by adsorption
by Fulya AYDIN TEMEL, Esin Avcı, Nurdan Gamze Turan
Abstract: The removal of Ni(II) from industrial wastewater was investigated using adsorption process by gyttja. Full factorial experimental design containing two levels and four factors (24) was performed to improve Ni(II) removal by reducing the number of experiments and to optimize the experimental conditions for Ni(II) adsorption process. Ni(II) adsorption performance of gyttja was examined as a function of pH, contact time, temperature, and adsorbent concentration. The maximum Ni(II) removal was found as 36% at pH 3, with 25 g L-1adsorbent concentration, for 60 min contact time at 50
Keywords: Adsorption; gyttja; optimization; factorial design; Ni(II); industrial wastewater.
Inclusive Reporting of Feedstock Energy and Stored Carbon: Asphalt Case Study
by Liv Haselbach, Sila Temizel-Sekeryan
Abstract: Environmental product declarations (EPDs) are reports of resource use and potential environmental impacts based on environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) methods. They tend to be related to a specific gate such as prior to use or construction. Asphalt paving and some other industries have some features that might not readily be captured in EPDs if the impacts are only included to the gate. These include stored energy (feedstock energy), stored carbon, recycled content and its high recyclability. The feedstock energy and stored carbon might be valuable assets for future considerations. This research proposes the use of optional reporting modules in EPDs based on international standards to capture the stored energy and carbon, and recyclability aspects. These proposed schemes for expanding EPDs with these benefits and loads beyond the system boundary information modules, should allow decision makers and life cycle analysts to have more comprehensive information for future decisions, research and analyses.
Keywords: Carbon accounting; asphalt; concrete; wood; Environmental Product Declarations; EPDs; recyclability; Life Cycle Assessment; LCA.
Noah and Joseph effects: Floods and droughts under global warming
by Zekai Sen
Abstract: Nature knows no deterministic laws and occasionally breaks records. Recently, there are many extreme weather events that end up with human effective harmful consequences with the increasing global warming, climate change and variability effects. This brings into the mind whether the nature replays from time to time Noah flood and Joseph seven-year drought effects in different manner in different regions. Although science provides objective solutions to reduce the extreme event dangers, but initial and boundary conditions can also be supported human ethical behaviors and friendly environmental treatments on culture and belief. Due to anthropogenic impacts on the environment, there is an increasing trend in the global warming leading to present day climate change, and consequently, unprecedented changes in the extreme events frequency, intensity, magnitude and areal extension. For the quantitative explanation of Noah and Joseph effects probability distribution function and innovative trend analysis methods are used in this paper. The objective trend towards the increase of extreme event dangers are exemplified through more than 100 years (1895-2010) data from New Jersey, USA. It is shown that at this location recently there is about 7.4% increase in the flood (Noah) event, but no significant drought (Joseph) effect. It is suggested that extravagant human ambitions trigger undesirable initial and boundary conditions for extreme events such as floods and droughts. The basic question is whether the scientific researches are sufficient and effective in the reduction of extreme hydrological events or should the humans also abide by the ethical, cultural and religious commends so as to minimize water related dangers for the benefit of living creatures?
Keywords: Climate; drought; effect; flood; Joseph; Noah; probability; trend.
Characterizing households vulnerability to climate change in Pyapon district in the delta region of Myanmar
by Tun Oo Aung, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Stijn Speelman
Abstract: In the delta areas of Myanmar, the rising sea level causes saltwater intrusion and flooding. The resulting reduction in cultivated area and reduced crop productivity threatens livelihoods that are dependent on agriculture. A households vulnerability to these phenomena is determined by demographic factors and the social and economic characteristics of farm households. In order to understand vulnerability, it is relevant to study the effects of these factors. This paper has two main objectives: firstly to evaluate the factors determining farm households vulnerability to climate change-induced natural hazards and saltwater intrusion and, secondly, to study the correlation statistics between these factors. A total of 178 respondents from 20 villages in Pyapon district in Myanmar were interviewed. The study found that smallholder households (owning less than 2.428 ha) were most vulnerable to natural hazards, with an average household vulnerability score of 0.608, compared to households with larger landholdings which have a score of 0.589. Moreover, the Spearman correlation test explains that 14 out of the 23 selected variables were significantly correlated with the household vulnerability index. It was found that adequate provision of seeds, accessible markets, private and public extension services, enhancement of climate change adaptation measurements by farm households, and other infrastructure are necessary to reduce the vulnerability of farm households in the Pyapon district of Myanmar.
Keywords: Saltwater intrusion; Climate Change Adaptation; Principal Component Analysis (PCA); Vulnerability Index.
Assessment of CMIP5 climate models over South Asia and climate change projections over Pakistan under representative concentration pathways
by Nadia Rehman, Muhammad Adnan, Shaukat Ali
Abstract: Future climate change projections from global climate models (GCMs) are the primary drivers of regional downscaling and impacts research. Climate projections are also in increased demand from disaster management agencies, policymakers, and other stakeholders. A set of 36 global climate models from the coupled model inter-comparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) is assessed for their performance over South Asia region for making future climate projection with a focus on Pakistan and its sub-regions. A suite of statistics was calculated to assess the credibility of GCMs with the observed statistics. The results show that GCMs have the ability to approximately capture the spatial patterns of temperature; however, the accuracy of precipitation simulation is relatively low. The future projection generated by the GCMs shows that temperature in Pakistan will increase in the 21st century by around 6.7°C under the RCP 8.5 scenarios and with increasing latitude, this warming is getting accelerated.
Keywords: CMIP5; global climate models; GCMs; representative concentration pathways; RCPs; temperature; precipitation; climate change projections; Pakistan; global warming.
Predicting the Different Engine Parameters of a Rubber Seed Oil-Ethanol Dual Fuel engine using Artificial Neural Networks
by Femilda Josephin, V. Edwin Geo, Ankit Sonthalia, BHARATIRAJA CHOKALINGHAM, Fethi ALOUI
Abstract: The present study investigates the potential of artificial neural network for predicting the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine. A number of experiments are performed using diesel, rubber seed oil (RSO) and rubber seed oil methyl ester (RSOME) as the primary fuel, injected into the cylinder, and ethanol as the secondary fuel injected into the intake port in a compression ignition dual fuel engine. The experimental data obtained is used for training and testing the neural network. From the total data, 70% of the data is randomly selected for training the network, 15% data for cross-validation and the remaining 15% data for testing the networks performance. The predictions are performed using feed forward back propagation training algorithm. Engine load and ethanol energy share data is used as input to the network, and it predicts brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC), NOx, HC, CO, and smoke. The prediction performance of the network is measured by comparing it with experimental data. The coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) are used for measuring the performance of the network. After training and testing R2values are in the range of 0.99309 0.99996 and MAPE values are in the range of 0.00364.3227 for both training and testing data along with small mean square errors. The measurement of statistical error shows that ANN can predict BTE, BSEC, NOx, HC, CO and smoke for a dual fuel engine with high accuracy.
Keywords: Artificial neural network; Ethanol; Dual fuel engine; Rubber seed oil; Rubber seed oil methyl ester.
Statistically Downscaled Projections of CORDEX South Asia using Quantile Mapping approach over Pakistan Region
by Burhan Ahmad, Ghulam Rasul
Abstract: Apprehending regional scale climate information from global scale climate models brings uncertainties primarily due to insufficient incorporation of climate information at local scale. We implemented the Quantile Mapping (QM) approach based on in‒situ data that removed the systematic biases in the regional scale simulations of the CORDEX South Asia data for maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation that covers the Pakistani domain. Post processed results were modelled into Probability Density Functions (PDFs) to identify climate change shifts in various statistical moments. The PDF based analysis for temperature reported negatively skewed patterns in distributions for projections as compared to baseline which forced shifting of percentiles and means towards extreme magnitude regimes. The PDF based analysis for precipitation displayed lower kurtotic values with fatter and lengthier tails in the projections as compared to baseline which suggested higher frequencies of precipitation extremes to occur in the times to come.
Keywords: Statistical Downscaling; Quantile Mapping; CORDEX South Asia; Climate Projections; Probability Density Functions; Pakistan Region.
Local government climate change mitigation and adaptation ranking assessment
by Anton Kole, Joanna Ellison
Abstract: Climate change awareness in local areas is critical, and this study assessed levels of mitigation and adaptation of local government areas (LGAs), across the rural/ urban State of Tasmania. Fourteen indicators were developed in energy, transport, awareness, and physical carbon sink sectors, and allocated quantitative parameters for ranking. Results were mapped using geographical information systems software. Higher energy results occurred on the two large northern islands both with solar and wind generation facilities, and around some cities with energy efficient street lighting systems. Highest transport scores occurred in the remoter west, and around most cities, but mostly not in agricultural areas. Higher awareness levels and overall scores were found around city areas. Higher physical scores resulted from community tree plantings and carbon sequestering vegetation. This study shows how geographic trend mapping can improve understanding of spatial differences in climate change mitigation and adaptation, to improve prioritised allocation of assistance policy.
Keywords: Mitigation; climate change; local government area; Tasmania; Australia; Ranking.
Methodology for a Techno-Economic Evaluation of Electricity Production and GHG Emissions Estimation in Landfill Sites
by Murat Gokcek
Abstract: Landfills are active digester fields that contain all types of classified waste that decomposes under anaerobic conditions and produces greenhouses gases causing global warming such as methane. In the present study, it was aimed to assess the potential of electricity generation and GHG emissions for a municipal solid waste landfill that is situated in Sivas, Turkey. The USEPA-LandGEM model was employed to determine the landfill gas generation capacity. The internal combustion engines with the rated power sizes in the range of 330 - 1946 kW were selected in order to generate electric energy by using the biogas formed in the landfill. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) method was employed for the purpose of calculating the generation cost of unit electricity. According to the results of the model, the maximum total gas production rate was estimated to be 14.395
Keywords: Landfill gas to energy; Levelized cost of electricity; Municipal solid waste; Electricity generation potential.
Enhancement of Landfill Gas Production and Waste Stabilization by Using Geotextile Filter in a Bioreactor Landfill
by Cevat YAMAN, Yusuf Küçükağa, Burcu Pala, Gülşah Delice, Nafiz Eyüp Korkut, Abdurrahman Akyol, Serdar Kara
Abstract: Optimizing the methane production period is potentially a better way to manage and control the greenhouse gas impact of landfill gas (LFG). The aim of this study is to enhance biodegradation and methane production of municipal solid waste (MSW). In this study, two laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactors are used to evaluate the potential to increase the rate of LFG production and waste stabilization by using a polymeric geotextile filter in the bioreactor. The simulated bioreactor is equipped with a geotextile filter (LBR-GT) and showed a greater performance than the control reactor (LBR-C) in terms of the LFG production rate and the waste stabilization period. Although a negligible amount of LFG is still being produced, a total of 1194 L and 1128 L of LFG were produced from the LBR-GT and the LBR-C respectively. This study showed that the rate of LFG production is enhanced by the geotextile since the LBR-GT produced 85% of its total LFG in only 1 month whereas the LBR-C produced 85% of its total LFG in more than 3 months. To monitor the waste stabilization performance, the total settlements (waste reduction) in the reactors are also determined. The results of this study suggest there is a benefit of using geotextiles to enhance the operation of a landfill as a bioreactor and to control the greenhouse gas impact of LFG.
Keywords: Solid waste; landfill gas; geotextile; landfill bioreactor; greenhouse gas.
How to model a complex national energy system? Developing an integrated energy systems framework for long-term energy and emissions analysis
by Matthew Davis, Mohammad Ahiduzzaman, Amit Kumar
Abstract: In order to manage an energy system responsibly and maintain its benefits indefinitely, science-based decision-making should be valued during energy policy making and energy management. This research presents a framework for developing a scientific tool with the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system for evaluating energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation pathways for a national energy system. The framework developed is applied to create a bottom-up (technology-explicit), data-intensive (over 2 million data points), multi-regional (13 integrated regions) energy model of Canada, one of the worlds most energy and emission intensive nations. Model accuracy was validated with historical data showing emissions varied 0-1.2% proving the framework can provide accurate assessments. The model was used to generate baseline Canadian energy-emissions outlooks to 2050 that do not currently exist in literature. The developed framework provides robust capabilities that are helpful for energy efficiency analysis, energy planning, and GHG mitigation assessment.
Keywords: energy model; GHG emissions; Canada; energy outlook; emission outlook; energy system; bottom-up; integrated; accounting-based; energy analysis; emission analysis; energy policy; energy management; LEAP.
Future realities of climate change impacts: An integrated assessment study of Canada
by Mohammad Khaled Akhtar, Slobodan P. Simonovic, Jacob Wibe, Jim MacGee
Abstract: This paper presents an integrated assessment model for use with climate policy decision making in Canada. The feedback based integrated assessment model ANEMI_CDN represents Canada within the global society-biosphere-climate-economy-energy system. The model uses a system dynamics simulation approach to investigate the impacts of climate change in Canada and policy options for adapting to changing global conditions. The disaggregation techniques allow ANEMI_CDN to show results with various temporal resolutions. Two Canadian policy scenarios are presented as illustrative examples to map policy impacts on key model variables, including population, water-stress, food production, energy consumption, and emissions under changing climate over this century. The main finding is a significant impact of a carbon tax on energy consumption. Two policy scenario simulations provide additional insights to policy makers regarding the choice of adaptation/mitigation options along with their implementation time.
Keywords: system dynamics simulation; climate change; integrated assessment modeling; society-biosphere-climate-economy-energy system; water resources management; disaggregation.