Int. J. of Learning Technology   »   2014 Vol.9, No.3

 

 

Title: Example-based feedback provision using structured solution spaces

 

Authors: Sebastian Gross; Bassam Mokbel; Benjamin Paassen; Barbara Hammer; Niels Pinkwart

 

Addresses:
Department of Informatics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany
CITEC Cognitive Interaction Technology Center of Excellence, Bielefeld University, Inspiration 1 (Zehlendorfer Damm 199), 33594 Bielefeld, Germany
CITEC Cognitive Interaction Technology Center of Excellence, Bielefeld University, Inspiration 1 (Zehlendorfer Damm 199), 33594 Bielefeld, Germany
CITEC Cognitive Interaction Technology Center of Excellence, Bielefeld University, Inspiration 1 (Zehlendorfer Damm 199), 33594 Bielefeld, Germany
Department of Informatics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany

 

Abstract: Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) typically rely on a formalised model of the underlying domain knowledge in order to provide feedback to learners adaptively to their needs. This approach implies two general drawbacks: the formalisation of a domain-specific model usually requires a huge effort, and in some domains it is not possible at all. In this paper, we propose feedback provision strategies in absence of a formalised domain model, motivated by example-based learning approaches. We demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of these strategies in several studies with experts and students. We discuss how, in a set of solutions, appropriate examples can be automatically identified and assigned to given student solutions via machine learning techniques in conjunction with an underlying dissimilarity metric. The plausibility of such an automatic selection is evaluated in an expert survey, while possible choices for domain-agnostic dissimilarity measures are tested in the context of real solution sets of Java programs. The quantitative evidence suggests that the proposed feedback strategies and automatic example assignment are viable in principle, further user studies in large-scale learning environments being the subject of future research.

 

Keywords: example-based feedback; machine learning; intelligent tutoring systems; ITS; prototype-based clustering; feedback provision; structured solution spaces; example-based learning; Java programs; automatic example assignment; learner feedback.

 

DOI: 10.1504/IJLT.2014.065752

 

Int. J. of Learning Technology, 2014 Vol.9, No.3, pp.248 - 280

 

Available online: 14 Nov 2014

 

 

Editors Full text accessAccess for SubscribersPurchase this articleComment on this article