Int. J. of Environment and Pollution   »   2014 Vol.54, No.2/3/4

 

 

Title: Comparison of hazard area and casualty predictions of a small-scale chemical attack using various toxic load toxicity models

 

Authors: Jeffry T. Urban; Keith J. Galvin; Nathan Platt; Paul E. Bieringer; George Bieberbach; Andrew J. Annunzio

 

Addresses:
Institute for Defense Analyses, 4850 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria, VA 22311-1882, USA
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0975, USA
Institute for Defense Analyses, 4850 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria, VA 22311-1882, USA
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Applications Laboratory, 3450 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301, USA
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Applications Laboratory, 3450 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301, USA
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Applications Laboratory, 3450 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301, USA

 

Abstract: It has been observed that the toxic load model can better account for toxic effects from chemical exposures than Haber's law. However, the toxic load model has been experimentally validated only for steady exposures. We compare four proposed extensions of the toxic load model to the case of time-varying exposures. We conclude that the choice of the toxic load model can be important in consequence assessment studies that use realistic time-varying toxic exposures.

 

Keywords: casualty assessment; consequence assessment; Haber's law; toxic load modelling; ensemble averaged plume; hazard areas; casualties; small-scale chemical attack; toxicity models; chemical exposure; time-varying exposures.

 

DOI: 10.1504/IJEP.2014.065123

 

Int. J. of Environment and Pollution, 2014 Vol.54, No.2/3/4, pp.222 - 232

 

Available online: 13 Oct 2014

 

 

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