Title: Investment and operating costs of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China
Author: Hongbin Chen, Martin Wagner
National Engineering Research Centre for Urban Pollution Control, Environmental Science and Engineering School, Tongji University, No. 588 Miyun Road, Shanghai 200092, China.
Institut WAR, Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 13, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Abstract: The municipal wastewater treatment will continue to be intensified in China due to the economic development and the poor water quality. Within four years, the number of wastewater treatment plants has doubled. Before 2000, mostly plants without nitrogen and phosphorous removal were built. Since Chinese laws require strict effluent qualities, many plants were built with nitrification/denitrification and phosphorous removal. Regarding the investment costs, no significant change occurred during 1994-2000, if the different treatment technologies are taken into account separately. The operating costs of WWTP are highly dominated by energy costs, which can be reduced by optimising the operating procedures.
Keywords: investment costs; operating costs; wastewater treatment plants; China; wastewater fees; activated sludge; water quality; energy costs.
Int. J. of Environment and Waste Management, 2010 Vol.5, No.3/4, pp.316 - 325
Available online: 04 Mar 2010